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EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


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Cambribge  ^^atris^tic  ®exte 

General  Editor— A.  J.  MASON,  D.D. 

CANON  OF  CANTERBURY 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


CAMBRIDGE  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 

C.  F.  CLAY,  Manager 

LONDON   :  FETTER  LANE,  E.C.  4 


NEW  YORK  :  THE  MACMILLAN  CO. 

BOMBAY      \ 

CALCUTTA  I  MACMILLAN  AND  CO.,  Ltd. 

MADRAS      ) 

TORONTO   :  THE  MACMILLAN  CO.  OF 

CANADA,  Ltd. 
TOKYO:  MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 


ALL  RIGHTS  RESERVED 


EARLY  LATIN 
HYMNS 

WITH  INTRODUCTION 
AND  NOTES 


BY  THE  LATE 
A.  S.  WALPOLE,  M.A. 


CAMBRIDGE 
AT  THE  UNIVERSITY  PRESS 

1922 


PRINTED  IN  GREAT  BRITAIN 


PREFACE  BY  THE  GENERAL  EDITOR 

MR  A.  S.  WALPOLE  died  February  20,  1920.  A 
few  days  before  his  death  he  sent  me  all  his  notes 
for  the  present  book,  with  the  request  that  I  would  pre- 
pare the  book  for  publication  and  see  it  through  the 
press.  In  some  ways  this  was  not  difficult  for  me  to  do. 
For  more  than  twenty  years  we  had  worked  at  the  hymns 
together.  Again  and  again  I  had  been  allowed  to  go  at 
leisure  through  the  successive  drafts  of  his  commentary, 
criticizing  and  suggesting,  so  that  I  was  fairly  acquainted 
with  his  final  views  on  almost  every  point  of  interpreta- 
tion. A  few  notes  of  my  own  have  been  added  which 
Mr  VValpole  had  not  seen.  They  are  distinguished  by 
being  enclosed  in  square  brackets.  But  for  the  most  part 
the  book  represents  what  Mr  Walpole  himself  had  written 
and  approved,  and  my  editorial  task  has  been  confined 
to  final  arrangements  and  adjustments. 

Nevertheless  it  is  a  matter  for  great  regret  that  Mr 
Walpole  did  not  live  to  see  the  work  through  for  himself. 
He  was  a  scholar  who  had  read  deep  and  wide  in  Latin 
literature.  He  had  taken  immense  pains  over  this  work. 
In  order,  for  instance,  to  judge  of  the  authorship  of  the 
hymns  attributed  to  St  Ambrose,  he  had  read  through 
the  whole  of  that  author's  prose  works,  marking  every 
feature  of  his  thought  and  every  peculiarity  of  his  diction 
and  style.  So  he  did  with  other  authors.  He  was  always 
learning  something  fresh  to  throw  light  upon  the  hymns. 
He  wrote  the  whole  series  out  at  least  half  a  dozen  times 
in  his  clear,  strong  hand.  So  many  volumes  of  his  notes 
remain  that  the  chief  embarrassment  has  been  to  co- 
ordinate them. 


vi    PREFACE  BY  THE  GENERAL  EDITOR 

In  two  things  I  have  departed  from  Mr  Walpole's 
intention.  The  first  is  in  regard  to  textual  criticism. 
I  have  explained  in  the  section  on  the  Text  what  resolu- 
tion he  had  come  to,  and  why  it  seemed  to  me  unsatis- 
factory. The  second  point  concerns  the  contents.  Mr 
Walpole  designed  to  give  in  an  appendix,  without  note 
or  comment,  a  number  of  Latin  hymns  which  did  not 
come  into  the  definition  which  governed  his  choice  of  the 
127  here  presented.  A  good  many  of  them  were  pieces 
of  Prudentius,  like  O  sola  magnarum  urbium  and  Qui- 
cumque  Christum  quaeritis,  which  were  not,  so  far  as  we 
know,  used  as  hymns  in  ancient  days.  Others  were  well- 
known  hymns  like  Exultet  caelmn  laudibus,  and  Alleluia 
dulce  carmen,  about  which  it  seemed  to  be  necessary  to 
explain  why  they  were  not  in  the  body  of  the  book. 
Mr  Walpole  had  not  made  a  final  selection  of  those  hymns. 
There  are  also  many  hymns,  particularly  in  the  Irish  and 
Spanish  books,  which  both  for  antiquity,  and  for  intrinsic 
value,  would  be  equally  entitled  to  a  place  in  such  an 
appendix,  if  not  in  the  main  collection.  It  was  difficult 
to  know  where  and  why  to  stop.  I  determined  therefore 
to  do  without  the  appendix.  Readers  who  wish  for  those 
hymns  can  easily  find  them  elsewhere  ;  and  to  give  the 
bare  text  of  them  apart  from  notes  seemed  to  me  of 
doubtful  utility. 

A.  J.  M. 

Michaelmas  1922. 


CONTENTS 


PAGES 

INTRODUCTION ix— xxi 

LIST  OF  BOOKS  REFERRED  TO    .         .        .  xxii— xxiv 

NOTE  ON  THE  TEXT xxv— xxviii 

THE  ANCIENT  LATIN  HYMNS: 

I.  Hilary i— '5 

II.  Ambrose i6 — 114 

III.  Prudentius 115— 148 

IV.  Sedulius 149—158 

V.  Ennodius 159—163 

VI.  Venantius  Fortunatus       .       .        .  164 — 200 

VII.  Flavius 201 — 204 

VIII.  Anonymous: 

contained  (roughly)  in  the  Old  Hymnal  205 — 260 

contained  (roughly)  in  the  Later  Hymnal  260 — 401 

GRAMMATICAL  NOTES 402—409 

INDEX  OF  FIRST  LINES 411— 412 

INDEX  OF  WORDS 413—445 


INTRODUCTION 

Originally  the  following  Corpus  Hymnorum  was  not 
intended  to  be  a  selection,  but  was  to  include  all  those 
hymns  and  just  those  hymns  that,  to  the  best  of  my 
judgment,  were  not  only  written  but  also  sung  in  church 
before  about  the  year  of  our  Lord  600 ;  this  judgment 
being  based  on  such  ancient  documents  as  have  come 
within  my  ken  in  the  course  of  an  investigation  carried 
on  for  more  than  twenty  years.  The  hymns  must  have 
been  actually  sung:  otherwise  they  would  have  been 
nothing  more  than  sacred  poems.  And  having  been 
written  at  that  early  period  they  could  fairly  be  called 
patristic,  and  so  appear  in  a  series  of  Patristic  Texts. 
This  has  proved  to  be  a  good  working  rule,  but  certain 
considerations  have  made  it  impossible  to  keep  strictly 
to  the  letter  of  it  in  every  case. 

For  in  the  first  place  not  all  hymns  can  by  the  utmost 
stretch  of  charity  be  said  to  be  good  enough  to  claim 
admission  within  a  limited  space.  This  may  be  a  truism, 
but  its  practical  result  is  for  our  purpose  important. 
Thus,  while  it  would  have  been  undesirable  to  leave  out 
Ennodius  altogether,  it  has  been  deemed  sufficient  to 
give,  by  way  of  a  specimen,  only  one  of  his  laboured  and 
unpoetical  hymns,  the  one  given  as  32  below,  lam 
Christus  ascendit  polmn.  In  like  manner  only  Squalent 
arua  soli puluere  miilto  has  been  here  printed  (hymn  127) 
without  its  fellow  Obduxere  polum  nubila  caeli,  although 
both  are  almost  certainly  by  the  same  hymnist,  and 
ancient,  being  indeed  attributed  by  Bede  to  the  father  of 
church  song  himself,  St  Ambrose.  There  is  even  a  third, 
a  war  hymn,  of  Mozarabic  origin  like  these  two,  Saeuus 


X  INTRODUCTION 

■ 

bella  serit  barbarus  horrens,  which  as  being  probably 
written  by  the  same  poet  has  a  like  claim  to  admission. 

In  the  next  place  it  is  by  no  means  always  easy  to 
date,  even  approximately,  a  hymn  of  which  the  writer  is 
no  longer  known  to  us  by  name.  It  would  be  quite 
impossible  to  date  it  exactly.  Authorities  differ  widely 
with  regard  to  these  hymns.  Let  me  illustrate  this  point 
by  a  few  examples.  The  advent  hymn  Christi  caterua 
clamitat  (which  I  would  put  in  the  IXth  century)  was 
assigned  by  Mone  to  the  Vth,  by  Daniel  to  the  XlVth 
century.  It  is  not  included  in  this  collection.  On  the  other 
hand  Grates  tibi  lesu  nouas,  number  12  of  my  collection, 
which  Daniel  rightly  gave  to  its  author  Ambrose,  Mone 
unaccountably  ascribed  to  a  humanist  of  the  XVth  cen- 
tury. Christe  cunctorum  dominator  alme  Daniel  places  in 
the  Xllth  century,  though  it  is  contained  in  more  than 
one  MS  of  the  Xth ;  as  are  also  Aures  ad  nostras  deitatis 
preces;  O  sator  renim,  reparator  aeui;  Signum  crucis 
mirabile ;  Verbi  patris  principium ;  all  which  Daniel 
assigns  to  the  XlVth  century.  In  a  field  where  such 
experienced  hymnologists  have  gone  wrong,  it  is  not 
likely  that  I  should  always  have  gone  right. 

Then  again,  we  may  be  able  to  say  more  or  less 
definitely  when  a  sacred  poem,  by  a  writer  whose  name 
we  know,  was  written,  but  not  when  it  was  sung  in 
church  for  the  first  time  and  so  became  a  hymn.  Thus 
whereas  we  can  without  hesitation  give  within  a  year  or 
two  the  time  at  which  Ambrose  wrote  his  hymns  and 
when  these  were  set  to  music  and  sung,  or  the  date  at 
which  the  Vexitla  regis  prodeunt  of  Fortunatus,  and  his 
other  passion  hymns,  were  composed  and  first  chanted, 
we  are  unfortunately  not  able  to  date  the  incorporation 
of  such  poems  of  Prudentius,  Sedulius  and  others,  as  were 
taken  into  the  service  books  of  the  early  Latin  Church. 


INTRODUCTION  xi 

All  that  in  our  present  state  of  liturgical  knowledge  we 
are  entitled  to  say  is  that  this  or  that  hymn  was  or  was 
not  included  in  'the  later  hymnal' — a  term  to  be  explained 
presently.  But  this  is  not  very  precise,  because  we  do 
not  know  just  when  this  later  hymnal  took  the  place  of 
the  earlier  Benedictine  series.  The  outcome  of  this  is 
that,  whereas  a  line  to  mark  ofif  the  earlier  from  the  later 
hymns  must  be  drawn  at  some  point,  it  is  bound  to  be  a 
wavy  line.  When  we  leave  the  comparatively  safe  ground 
of  documentary  evidence,  and  when  subjective  considera- 
tions come  into  play,  difficulties  are  quite  certain  to 
arise.    For  all  that  however  the  risk  has  to  be  taken. 

[Here  Mr  Walpole  had  a  paragraph  with  regard  to  his 
proposed  Appendix.] 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  hymns  as  arranged  in  this 
book  fall  into  two  wide  classes.  The  first  forty  are  those 
of  which  we  are  able  with  some  confidence  to  name  the 
authors,  the  rest  are  anonymous  or  as  Daniel  calls  them 
ahkairoTOL.  Some  few  of  these  we  have  ventured  doubt- 
fully to  assign  to  some  particular  man,  for  instance 
41  Mediae  noctis  to  Niceta,  63  Node  surgentes  and  70 
Ecce  iam  noctis  to  Alcuin.  But  of  the  great  majority  no 
author  can  be  named  with  any  approach  to  probability. 

But  a  distinction  of  more  far-reaching  import  is  to  be 
drawn  between  the  OLD  HYMNAL,  viz.  that  of  Bene- 
dict and  Caesarius  and  Aurelian  of  Aries,  being  in  general 
use  during  theVIthcentury.and  the  LATER  HYMNAL 
which  superseded  it  and  which  has  ever  since,  it  may  be 
said,  held  the  field.    Of  these  we  must  speak  briefly. 

Benedict  in  the  Rule  which  he  wrote  for  his  com- 
munity of  monks  at  Monte  Cassino  in  A.D.  529  prescribed 
the  singing  of  certain  hymns  at  some  of  the  services. 
The  pity  of  it  is  that  he  does  not  give  the  first  lines 
of  these,  merely  saying  inde  sequatur  ambrosianum  (or 


xii  INTRODUCTION 

hymnus)  eiiisdem  horae,  or  hymni  earundem  horarum ;  so 
that  it  is  difificult  to  say  for  certain  which  these  hymns 
are.  Until  recently,  liturgiologists  agreed  to  think  that 
they  were  to  be  found  in  that  body  of  hymns  that  are 
contained  in  practically  all  MSS  later  than  the  tenth 
century  and  which  still  survive,  most  of  them  doubtless 
in  an  altered  form,  in  the  Roman  breviary.  However 
Clemens  Blume,  S.J.,  in  1908  published  a  valuable  and 
interesting  essay^  in  which  he  gave  good  reasons  for 
thinking  that  this  opinion  is  wrong.  His  theory  is  the 
only  one  that  fits  and  explains  all  the  circumstances, 
and  it  is  now  generally  accepted  by  scholars.  Caesarius, 
who  was  bishop  of  Aries  A.D.  503 — 543,  compiled  two 
Rules,  one  for  monks  about  the  year  503,  another  for 
nuns  in  534.  In  the  former  of  these  he  denotes  no  hymns 
by  name,  probably,  like  Benedict,  presupposing  a  know- 
ledge as  to  which  the  regular  hymns  were.  But  in  his 
Regula  ad  uirgines  he  usually,  although  not  invariably, 
gives  the  first  line.  Thus,  for  instance,  he  writes  :  Ad 
sextant :  psalmi  sex  cu^n  antiphona,  hymnus  Ter  hora 
trina  uoluitur,  lectio  et  capitellum.  And  about  A.D.  550 
Aurelian,  the  successor  of  Caesarius  in  the  see  of  Aries, 
compiled  similar  Rules,  one  for  monks,  the  other  for 
nuns.  In  these  he  also  usually,  but  not  invariably, 
gives  the  first  line  of  the  several  hymns.  We  must 
remember  that  both  these  men  were  contemporaries  of 
Benedict,  who  died  at  Monte  Cassino  in  543. 

[The  hymns  specified  by  Caesarius  are  twelve  in 
number.  They  are  the  following ;  the  numerals  attached 
indicate  the  place  of  the  hymn  in  the  present  collection. 

lam  surgit  hora  tertia  (4). 
lam  sexta  sensim  uoluitur  (55). 

'  Der  Cursus  s.  Benedicti  Nursini  und  die  liturgischen  Hytnnen  des 
6 — i)  Jahrhunderts  {^Hymnologische  Beitrdge,  3er  Bd.)  Leipzig  1908. 


INTRODUCTION  xiii 

Ter  hora  trina  uoluitur  (56). 
Hie  est  dies  uerus  Dei  (10). 
Christe  precamur  adnue  (60). 
Christe  qui  lux  es  et  dies  (61). 
Rex  aeterne  Domine  (42). 
Mediae  noctis  tempus  est  (41). 
Aeterne  rerum  conditor  (2). 
Fulgentis  auctor  aetheris  (47). 
Deus  qui  certis  legibus  (57). 
Deus  creator  omnium  ($). 

Besides  these  twelve  Caesarius  mentions  the  prose  hymns 
Magna  et  mirabilia,  Te  Deunt  laiuiamus,  and  Gloria  in 
excelsis  Deo. 

Aurelian  adds  two  more  : 

Splendor  paternae  gloriae  (3). 
Aeterne  lucis  conditor  (46).] 

We  now  come  to  the  witness  of  MSS.  And  here  we 
must  distinguish  between  MSS  of  Irish  or  English  origin 
and  all  others.  There  are,  so  far  as  is  at  present  known, 
only  five  MSS  extant  containing  a  body  of  hymns  written 
in  or  before  the  IXth  century  not  in  an  Irish  or  English 
hand.  The  oldest  of  these  is  cod.  Vaticanus  Reg.  1 1 
written  at  the  end  of  the  Vlllth  century.  The  other 
four,  written  in  the  IXth  century,  are  Junius  25  in  the 
Bodleian  at  Oxford,  Rheinau  34  in  the  Kantonal  Library 
at  Zurich,  Paris  Bibliotheque  Nationale  528  and  14088*. 
A  comparison  of  the  Rules  of  Caesarius  and  Aurelian 
and  of  these  five  MSS  gives  us  a  body  of  thirty-six 
hymns  [in  all,  including  the  three  prose  hymns.  The 
hymns  not   specified    in    the    Rules   of  Caesarius    and 

*  A  MS  in  the  British  Museum  Vesp.  A  i  written  about  A.D.  700  contains 
three  of  the  hymns  in  another  but  contemporaneous  hand  ;  viz.  3  Splendor 
paternae  gloriae,  6  Deus  creator  omnium,  and  42  Rex  aeterne  Domine.  And 
this  last  is  contained  in  an  Vlllth  century  MS  at  St  Gall.  But  neither  of 
these  Mss  is  a  hymnal. 

w.  b 


xiv  INTRODUCTION 

Aurelian,  but  supplied  by  one  or  other  of  these  MSS,  are 
the  following : 

Tempus  noctis  surgentibus  (43). 

Deus  qui  caeli  lumen  es  (44). 

Deus  aeterni  luminis  (48). 

Christe  caeli  Domine  (49). 

Diei  luce  reddita  (50). 

Post  matutinis  laudibus  (51). 

Certum  tenentes  ordinem  (52). 

Dicamus  laudes  Domino  (53). 

Perfectum  trinum  numerum  (54). 

Deus  qui  claro  lumine  (59). 

Sator  princepsque  temporum  (58). 

Intende  qui  regis  Israel  (6). 

Inluminans  altissimus  (8). 

Dei  fide  qua  uiuimus  (99). 

Meridie  orandum  est  (100). 

Sic  ter  quatemis  trahitur  (103), 

Ad  cenam  Agni  prouidi  (109). 

Aurora  lucis  rutilat  (m). 

Aeterna  Christi  munera  (15).] 

Of  these  thirty-six  hymns  eight  are  the  work  of  St 
Ambrose  (2 — 6,  8,  10,  15).  In  this  body  of  thirty-six 
hymns  we  have  the  old  Benedictine  hymnal. 

[The  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  has  called  my  attention 
to  the  account  of  "Augustine's  Psalter"  given  by  Thomas 
Elmham^  The  book  was  sent  to  Augustine  by  Gregory 
himself  in  601 .  At  the  end  of  the  book  were  hymns,  both 
for  day  and  night.  They  do  not  altogether  agree  with  the 
lists  of  Aries.  "  The  first  hymn,  for  midnight,  is  Mediae 
noctis  tempus  est;  the  second,  at  cock-crow,  Aeterne  reruin 
coiiditor\  aX  rcidXtms,  Splendor  paternae  gloriae \  at  prime, 
Venite  fratres  ocius ;  at  terce,  lam  surgit  hora  tertia ;  at 
sext,  Bis  ternas  horas  explicans  \  at  none,  Ter  hora  trina 
twluitur;  a.t  evensong,  Deus  creator  omnium ;  at  compline, 

^  Historia  Monasterii  S.  Augustini  Cantuariensis  (Rolls  Series)  1858, 
p.  97. 


INTRODUCTION  xv 

Te  deprecamur  Domine\  in  Lent,  Christe  qui  lux  es."  Be- 
sides these  there  was  a  Sunday  hymn,  Rexaeterne  Domine\ 
a  Christmas  hymn,  Intende  qui  regis  Israel;  an  Easter 
hymn,  Hie  est  dies  uerus  Dei;  a  hymn  for  SS.  Peter  and 
Vdiu\,  Apostolorum  passio;  and  one  for  St  ]ohr\,  A  more 
Christi  nobilis.  There  are  fifteen  hymns  in  all.  Among 
them  are  two,  Venite  fratres  and  Te  deprecamur,  which 
are  not  otherwise  known.] 

But  now  we  notice  a  most  extraordinary  phenomenon. 
For  excepting  some  of  those  by  Ambrose,  and  a  few 
others  which  have  survived  in  their  integrity,  or  in  part, 
these  Benedictine  hymns  as  it  were  suddenly  and  entirely 
vanished  from  sight,  and  were  at  once  swept  wholly 
away.  It  is  true  that  the  Mozarabic  and  Ambrosian 
liturgies  retained  some  few  of  them.  But  speaking 
generally  in  all  MSS  of  the  Xth  century  and  onwards  an 
entirely  different  set  of  hymns  took  their  place ;  and  this 
other  set  of  hymns  is  found  in  the  MSS  of  Irish  and 
English  origin  dating  from  the  century  before.  The  new- 
comers, we  may  say  with  a  rough  approach  to  accuracy, 
are  those  which  in  the  present  book  are  printed  as  62  and 
onwards,  but  several  of  the  preceding  numbers,  such  as 
20,  21,  are  included  among  them. 

In  order  not  to  beg  the  question,  by  presuming  that  the 
thirty-six  hymns  above  mentioned  are  more  ancient  than 
those  which  superseded  them,  or  that  they  really  are  the 
Benedictine  series,  let  us  for  the  time  being  denote  these 
as  the  A  class,  their  rivals  as  the  B  hymnal.  Blume  has 
brought  forward  the  most  convincing  reasons  for  thinking 
that  the  A  hymns  are  the  more  ancient. 

The  MSS  which  contain  them  are  in  almost  every  case 
older,  usually  much  older.  No  fewer  than  eight  of  the 
hymns  were  the  work  of  St  Ambrose :  no  fewer  than 
seventeen  are  mentioned  by  either  Caesarius  or  Aurelian 


xvi  INTRODUCTION 

or  by  both  bishops.  The  incompleteness  of  the  series  for 
the  hours  other  than  Lauds,  which  is  the  one  office  pro- 
vided with  a  separate  hymn  for  each  day  of  the  week, 
points  rather  plainly  to  a  time  when  hymn-singing  was 
still  comparatively  undeveloped.  In  B  each  day  of  the 
week  has  its  own  proper  hymn  for  Nocturns  and  Vespers. 
With  still  greater  force  does  this  consideration  apply  to 
the  hymns  de  communi  sanctorum.  This  section  in  A  is 
represented  by  the  one  hymn  of  Ambrose  Aeterha 
Christi  munera,  this  being  in  honour  of  actual  martyrs 
and  given  in  only  one  of  the  five  early  MSS, — as  opposed 
to  the  full  array  of  the  many  in  commemoration  of 
martyrs  and  confessors,  which  are  included  in  the  B 
series,  as  given  by  the  IXth  century  hymnary  at  Karls- 
ruhe (Augien.  CXCV)^  and  by  virtually  all  later  MSS. 
Now  A.  Manser  has  pointed  out  (in  Buchberger's  Kirchl. 
Handlexicon  I.  col.  735  f  under  'Brevier')  that  towards 
the  end  of  the  VII  Ith  century,  especially  in  the  Basilica 
of  St  Peter  at  Rome,  a  rich  sanctorale  developed,  and,  as 
many  saints  of  the  same  class  were  commemorated, 
formed  a  commune  sanctorum,"^.  Finally,  the  Vesper  hymns 
of  A  are  part  of  a  night  office,  belonging  to  a  time  when 
Vespers  often  bore  the  name  oi prima  uigilia^.  They  are 
all  prayers  for  the  night,  all  dwell  upon  noctis  caligo,  5.  1 8, 
fessa  curis  corpora,  57.  3,  sotnnus,  ib.  4,  18,  nox  /wrrida, 
ib.  5  ;  all  are  variations  of  the  prayer  expressed  in 
Ambrose's  Vesper  hymn,  5.  17  f  : 

ut  cum  profunda  clauserit 

diem,  caligo  noctium, 

fides  tenebras  nesciat 

et  nox  fide  reluceat. 

^  The  earliest  extant  MS  containing  the  B  hymnal. 

2  See  Blume  Cursus  p.  77. 

3  Blume  refers  to  Baumer  Geschichte  des  Brevier  p.  175. 


INTRODUCTION  xvii 

The  corresponding  hymns  of  B,  describing  the  several 
days  of  the  Creation,  make  no  mention  of  night  or  of 
nightly  rest.  They  were  written  at  a  time  when  Vespers 
was  a  day  office,  that  is  to  say  after  the  time  of  Benedict, 
who  gave  it  this  new  character^ 

Blume  still  further  urges  that  in  A  all  the  hymns  ad 
matutinas  laudes,  with  the  exception  of  the  Te  Detim 
and  of  Ambrose's  Splendor  paternae  gloriae  (the  model 
on  which  the  others  were  formed),  were  the  work  of  one 
man,  as  to  him  seems  evident  from  their  interdependence 
in  point  of  thought  and  phrase.  Here  I  cannot  quite 
follow  him.  The  hymns  in  question  are  44 — 50,  with  the 
exception  of  45  Lucis  largitor  splendide,  which  is  brought 
into  the  series  on  fairly  strong  but  subjective  grounds,  as 
will  be  seen  in  the  special  introduction  on  p.  224.  That 
most  of  these  hymns  are  like  each  other  and  like  their 
model  is  not  to  be  denied.  But  I  can  see  little  or  no  simi- 
larity to  the  rest  in  44b,48  or  49,  with  its  peculiar  rhythm. 
In  this  case  Blume's  argument,  that  the  mention  of  one  of 
them  (47  Fulgentis  auctor  aetheris)  by  Caesarius  proves 
that  all  of  them  were  written  by  his  time  falls  to  the 
ground.  Not  that  this  invalidates  his  main  thesis,  for 
these  very  three  hymns  are  amongst  the  most  ancient  of 
the  series,  especially  49  Christe  caeli  domine  with  its  con- 
stant'reminders  of  the  Te  Deuni.  In  like  manner  I  do  not 
think  that  Blume  is  right^  in  regarding  44b  as  an  integral 
part  of  44,  so  that  here  also  his  deductions  are  not  justi- 
fied; see  further,  p.  221. 

In  spite  of  the  failure  of  Blume's  last  argument,  we 
may  now  look  upon  it  as  a  certain  and  proved  fact  that 
the  36  A  hymns  are  the  old  stock,  and  may,  speaking 

^  [Blume  does  not  give  proof  of  this  last  assertion,  but  the  Regula  shews 
that  Vespera  was  a  day  office ;  see  Caput  XLi.] 
2  Blume  Cursus  pp.  92  f. 


xviii  INTRODUCTION 

generally,  be  called  the  Benedictine  hymns,  so  that  the 
inscription  of  the  IXth  century  MS  Rheinau  34  is  to  be 
taken  literally  (at  least  so  far  as  Benedict  is  concerned), 
and  not,  as  it  has  been  taken,  rhetorically :  incipiimt 
hymni  sancti  Ambrosii,  quos  sanctus  Benedictus  in  diuersas 
horas  canendos  ordinauit. 

We  must  not  however  think  that  each  and  all  of  the 
component  parts  of  the  A  hymnal  were  of  just  the  same 
antiquity.  Thus  the  three  Lenten  hymns  for  Terce,  None 
and  Vespers  respectively  :  99  Dei  fide  qua  uiuimus,  100 
Meridie  orandum  est,  103  Sic  ter  quaternis  irahitur,  are 
vouched  for  only  by  three  IXth  century  MSS,  as  are  also 
the  Easter  hymns  109  Ad  cenam  Agni prouidi,  iw  Aurora 
lucis  rutilat.  These  do  not  belong  exclusively  to  the 
A  hymnal,  being  found  also  in  several  later  MSS,  and 
probably  originated  in  the  Vlllth  century  or  not  long 
before. 

The  A  hymnal,  theui  disappeared  from  sight,  banished 
by  its  victorious  rival  B.  But  by  a  kind  of  survival  of  the 
fittest  a  very  few  individual  hymns  lived  on,  either  in 
this  newer  hymnal  or  in  those  of  various  lands  and 
districts.  Especially  was  this  the  case  with  the  hymns  of 
Ambrose.  Thus,  for  instance,  2,  3,  5,  6,  15  continued  to 
be  copied  in  many  breviaries  and  other  MSS  besides  those 
of  the  Ambrosian  rite.  Also  61  Christe  qui  lux  es  et  dies 
lived  on  for  many  centuries  before  it  was  at  last  driven 
out  and  its  place  taken  by  83  Te  lucis  ante  terminum.  It 
is  to  be  found  in  English,  French,  German,  Italian  and 
Spanish  MSS  of  every  century  so  long  as  MSS  were  written, 
to  say  nothing  of  the  many  printed  breviaries,  its  appear- 
ance in  which  is  noted  by  U.  Chevalier  Repertorimn 
Hymn.  no.  2934,  one  of  these  being  as  late  as  1766. 
Similarly  the  hymn  for  the  Ninth  hour,  54  Perfectum 
trinum  numerum,  though  in    the    Xth   century   it  was 


INTRODUCTION  xix 

restricted  to  this  hour  in  Lent,  with  its  first  line  changed 
into  what  seemed  to  be  a  more  grammatical  shape, 
Perfecto  trino  numero,  lived  on  in  this  shape  for  several 
centuries.  Chevalier,  under  heading  14835,  notes  its 
presence  in  several  XVIth  century  breviaries  and  even 
in  one  of  1775.  Another,  42  Rex  aeterne  domine  has  had 
the  longest  life  of  all ;  for  it  was  mentioned  by  Caesarius, 
and  in  the  altered  form  Rex  sempiterne  caelitum  is  in  the 
modern  Roman  breviary  the  Sunday  hymn  in  Eastertide. 

[It  is  not  known  how  the  Later  Hymnal  (B)  came  to 
be  substituted  for  the  Earlier  (A).  But  Blume  throws  out 
the  suggestion  that,  as  the  earliest  authorities  for  this  col- 
lection come  from  England  and  Ireland,  and  as  Gregory 
the  Great  was  specially  interested  in  the  British  Isles 
and  their  liturgical  arrangements,  Gregory  may  have 
drawn  up  the  Later  Hymnal,  and  in  particular  may 
himself  have  composed  the  cycle  of  Vesper  hymns  con- 
tained in  it.  This  suggestion  appears  in  note  i  to  p.  78 
of  the  work  already  referred  to  {Ctirsus  s.  Benedicti). 
Blume  further  elaborated  it  in  a  paper  Gregor  der  Grosse 
als  Hymnendichter  in  the  Stintmen  aus  Maria-Laach  for 
1908  pp.  269  ft*.  He  returns  to  it  in  Analecta  Hymnica 
vol.  LI  p.  xiv.  The  IXth  century,  the  age  of  Charlemagne 
and  Alcuin,  was  a  time  of  many  liturgical  changes.  If  at 
that  period  hymns  were  introduced  at  Rome  into  the 
breviary  of  the  secular  clergy — till  that  time  they  had 
only  formed  part  of  the  monastic  offices — and  if  tradition 
recorded  that  Gregory  the  Great  had  prescribed  these 
particular  hymns  for  the  Irish  Church,  the  universal 
spread  of  these  hymns  from  that  time  onwards  would  be 
easily  accounted  for.] 

We  have  now  spoken  of  two  sets  of  hymns  :  viz.  A  the 
old  Benedictine  series,  and  B  consisting  of  those  which 
afterwards  took  their  place.    There  is  further  a  third  set. 


XX  INTRODUCTION 

the  Irish  Liber  Hymnorum,  as  they  are  called  by  Arch- 
bishop Bernard  and  Dr  Atkinson,  who  with  scholarly 
thoroughness  edited  them  for  the  Henry  Bradshaw 
Society  (1868).  Blume  has  also  printed  them  (1908), 
with  many  valuable  remarks,  under  the  title  oi  Hymnodia 
Hiberno-Celtica  in  the  Analecta  Hymnica  vol.  LI  pp. 
264  f.  [These  are  not  to  be  confused  with  the  hymns  of 
collection  B  already  spoken  of  as  contained  in  Irish  and 
English  MSS.] 

This  Irish  collection  contains  hymns  i,  41  and  61  of 
the  present  volume,  and  from  it  are  taken  107  and  108. 
But,  being  in  general  written  by  native  Irish  poets  for 
Irish  singers,  it  touches  at  few  points  the  main  stream  of 
Latin  Church  song,  and  so  need  not  here  detain  us. 

[Much  uncertainty  still  surrounds  the  early  history  of 
the  Mozarabic  liturgy  of  Spain,  and  therefore  of  the 
hymnary  connected  with  it.  None  of  the  existing  MSS  of 
the  Mozarabic  hymnary  seems  to  be  earlier  than  the  end 
of  the  IXth  century,  and  only  one  as  early  as  that 
(Toledo  33 — 3;  see  Hymnodia  Gotica^d.  Blume,  forming 
vol.  XXVII  of  the  Analecta  Hymnica).  The  MS  is  injured, 
and  only  nine  hymns  are  partly  decipherable  in  it. 
Blume  mentions  four  (or  five)  other  MSS  belonging  to  the 
Xth  century.  The  contents  of  these  hymnaries  vary 
strangely  from  each  other.  The  MS  which  may  be  taken 
as  a  kind  of  standard  is  the  Madrid  MS  1005,  as  numbered 
by  Blume.  By  J.  Mearns  {Early  Latin  Hymnaries  p.  xx) 
it  is  numbered  '  Nacional  kxxdi.'  This  is  printed  in 
Lorenzana's  edition  of  the  Mozarabic  Breviary,  reprinted 
in  Migne's  Patr.  Lat.  vol.  LXXXVI.  It  contains  176  hymns, 
including  Te  Deum  laudamus. 

Of  these  176  hymns  it  may  be  noted  that  eight  are 
common  to  it  with  what  we  have  called  the  Old  Hymnal  A. 
Of  these  eight  five  are  by  St  Ambrose  ;  the  remaining 


INTRODUCTION  xxi 

three  are  Certum  tenentes  ordinem,  Christe  qui  lux  es  et 
dies,  and  Mediae  noctis  tempus  est.  The  MS  contains  five 
other  hymns  of  St  Ambrose.  No  fewer  than  thirty-three 
centos  from  Prudentius  occur  in  it,  and  six  from  the 
hymn  of  Sedulius  A  solis  ortus  cardine.  A  Mozarabic 
book  of  the  Xlth  century  contains  one  more  hymn  of  A, 
Christe  precamur  annue ;  and  the  printed  breviary  of 
Ortiz  (Toledo  1 502)  contains  six  more,  but  whether  they 
formed  part  of  the  old  Spanish  hymnal,  or  were  intro- 
duced into  the  book  by  Ortiz,  cannot  now  be  ascertained. 
The  chief  feature  of  the  Mozarabic  hymnal  is  the 
multitude  of  hymns  for  the  festivals  of  particular  saints, 
largely  imitated  from  Prudentius,  but  mostly  without 
literary  merit.  The  only  hymn  in  the  present  collection 
directly  taken  from  the  Mozarabic  hymnal  is  127  Squalent 
arua.~\ 


LIST  OF  BOOKS  REFERRED  TO 


EDITIONS  AND  STUDIES  OF  PARTICULAR  AUTHORS 

S.  Hilarii  Tractatus  de  Mysteriis  et    Hymni...quae...deprompsit 

I.  F.  Gamurrini.    Romae,  1887. 
"  The  First  Latin  Christian  Poet."  A.  J.  Mason  {Journal  of  Theol. 

Studies  vol.  v),  1904. 

Inni  sinceri...di  Sant'  Ambrogio.    L.  Biraghi.    Milano,  1862. 

Aur.  Ambrosius,  der  Vater  des  Kirchengesanges.    G.  M.  Dreves. 

Freiburg  i.  B.  1893. 
Studia  Ambrosiana  scripsit  M.  Ihm.    Lipsiae,  1889. 
Untersuchungen  iiber  die  Echtheit  der  Hymnen  des  Ambrosius. 

A.  Steier.     (Reprint   from  Jahrbiicher  filr  Klassische  Philo- 

logie.)   Leipzig,  1903. 

Aurelii    Prudentii    Clementis    Carmina    recensuit    T.    Obbarius. 

Tubingae,  1845. 
Aurelii  Prudentii  Clementis.. .Carmina.   A.  Dressel.    Lipsiae,  i860. 
Prudentius  in  seiner   Bedeutung  fiir  die  Kirche  seiner  Zeit.     C. 

Brockhaus.    Leipzig,  1872. 

Sedulii  Opera  Omnia  recensuit   loh.  Huemer  (Corpus   scr.  eccl. 

Lat.).   Vindobonae,  1885. 
De  Sedulii  poetae  Vita  et  Scriptis  commentatio.    loh.  Huemer. 

Vindobonae,  1878. 
Coelii  Sedulii  Opera.   J.  Looshorn.   Miinchen,  1879. 

M.  F.  Ennodii  Opera.   W.  Hartel  (Corpus  scr.  eccl.  Lat.).   Vindo- 
bonae, 1882. 
Fr.  Vogel  {Monum.  Germ.  tom.  vii).   Berlin,  1885. 

Venantii   Honorii  Clementiani  Fortunati   opera  poetica.    F.   Leo. 

Berlin,  1881  {Monum.  Germ.  tom.  iv). 
Hymnologische  Studien  zu    Venantius   Fortunatus  und  Rabanus 

Maurus.    G.  M.  Dreves.    Miinchen,  1908. 


LIST  OF  BOOKS  REFERRED  TO      xxiii 

Commodiani  Carmina  recensuit  B.  Dombart  (Corpus  scr.  eccl. 
Lat.).    Vindobonae,  1887. 

Commodiani  Carmina  recognovit  E.  Ludwig.    Lipsiae,  1878. 

C.  V.  Aq.  luvencus.  I.  Huemer  (Corpus  scr.  eccl.  Lat).  Vindo- 
bonae, 1891. 

Damasi  Epigrammata  recensuit  M.  Ihm.    Lipsiae,  1889. 

M.  Minucii  Felicis  Octavius.    L  P.  Waltzing.    Leipzig,  19 12. 

PHILOLOGICAL 
M.  Bonnet.    Le  Latin  de  Gr^goire  de  Tours.    Paris,  1890. 
F.  Kaulen.    Handbuch  zur  Vulgata.    Mainz,  1870. 
H.  Goelzer.    £tude...de  la  Latinite  de  Saint  Jerome.    Paris,  1884. 
E.  Lofstedt.  Beitrage  zur  Kenntnis  der  spateren  Latinitat.  Uppsala, 
1907. 

Spatlateinische  Studien.    Uppsala,  1908. 

Philologischer  Kommentar  zur  Peregrinatio  Aetheriae.  Upp- 
sala, 191 1. 

C.  Paucker.     Ubersicht  des  der  sogenannten  silbernen  Latinitats 

eigenthiimlichen    Worterschatzes.      Berlin,    1884   [and   other 

works  of  his]. 
A.   Regnier.     De   la   Latinitd   des   Sermons   de   Saint   Augustin. 

Paris,  1886. 
H.  Ronsch.    Itala  und  Vulgata  (ed.  2).   Leipzig,  1875. 
A.    Draeger.     Historische    Syntaxis    der    Lateinischen    Sprache 

(2  vols.).    Leipzig,  i874f. 
Schmalz.    Lateinische  Grammatik  :   Syntax  und  Stylistik  (ed.  4). 

Miinchen,  1910. 
Thesaurus  Linguae  Latinae  editus  auctoritate  et  consilio  Academi- 

arum  quinque  Germanicarum.    1904-  . 
Glossarium   mediae  et    infimae    Latinitatis    conditum    a    Carolo 

Dufresne  Domino  Du  Cange.    Parisiis,  1840. 
Manuale  Latinitatis   Fontium   luris   Civilis   Romanorum.    H.  E, 

Dirksen.    Berolini,  1837. 

LITERARY  AND  HYMNOLOGICAL 

Analecta  Hymnica  Medii  Aevi.   G.  M.  Dreves,  C.  Blume,  H.  M. 

Bannister.    Leipzig,  1886-  . 
O.  Bardenhewer.    Patrologie  (ed.  2).    Freiburg  i.  B.  1901. 
C.  Blume.    Der  Cursus  s.  Benedicti  Nursini  und  die  liturgischen 

Hymnen  des  6 — 9  Jahrhunderts.    Leipzig,  1908. 


xxiv      LIST  OF  BOOKS  REFERRED  TO 

G.  Cassander.  Hymni  Ecclesiastici.  Coloniae,  1556;  Parisiis, 
1616. 

U.  Chevalier.  Repertorium  Hymnologicum  (3  vols.).  Louvain, 
1 892- 1 904. 

J.  Clichtoveus.    Elucidatorium  Ecclesiasticum.    Parisiis,  I5i5f. 

H.  A.  Daniel.   Thesaurus  Hymnologicus  (5  vols.).   Lipsiae,  1855-6. 

J.  Julian.    Dictionary  of  Hymnology.    London,  1892. 

J.  Kayser.  Beitrage  zur  Geschichte  und  Erklarung  der  altesten 
Kirchenhymnen  (ed.  2).    Paderborn,  188 1-6. 

F.  X.  Kraus.  Realencyclopadie  der  christlichen  Altertiimer.  Frei- 
burg i.  B.  1882-6. 

P.  A.  Lipp.  Die  Hymnen  des  Cistercienser-Breviers  iibersetzt  und 
erklart.    Wien,  1890. 

M.  Manitius.  Geschichte  der  christlich-lateinischen  Poesie  bis  zur 
Mitte  des  8ten  Jahrhunderts.    Stuttgart,  1891. 

J.  Mearns.    Early  Latin  Hymnaries.    Cambridge,  1913. 

F.  J.  Mone.    Hymni  Latini  medii  aevi  (3  vols.).    Friburgi  Brisg. 

1853- 
J.  M.  Neale.    Hymni  Ecclesiae  e  Breviariis.    Oxford  and  London, 

1851. 
S.  G.  Pimont.    Les  Hymnes  du  Br^viaire  romain.    Paris,  i874f. 
A.  Schulte.    Die  Hymnen  des  Breviers.    Paderborn,  1898. 
R.  C.  Trench.    Sacred  Latin  Poetry  (ed.  3).    London,  1886. 
J.  Werner.  Die  altesten  Hymnensammlungen  von  Rheinau.    1 891. 


[NOTE  ON  THE  TEXT 

It  has  been  hard  to  know  how  best  to  deal  with  Mr  Walpole's 
material  for  the  textual  criticism  of  his  hymns.  The  difficulty 
lies  partly  in  the  very  abundance  of  the  material.  This  is  in  fact 
so  great,  that  Walpole  at  length  despaired  of  giving  in  full  the 
evidence  for  and  against  the  readings  which  he  adopted.  He 
thought  that  it  was  impossible  to  give  a  complete  apparatus, 
because,  large  as  the  number  of  mss  which  he  had  inspected 
was,  there  were  many  which  he  had  not  inspected.  Accordingly 
he  determined,  though  with  regret,  to  give  only  indications  of 
a  general  character.  Thus  w  was  to  mean  that  a  reading  was 
supported  by  practically  all  the  mss  used  by  him,  a  by  the 
majority,  /?  by  a  good  many,  y  by  a  few,  p  by  later  mss. 

This  seemed  to  me  unsatisfactory.  In  itself  it  appeared  too 
vague  to  be  of  much  use.  Walpole  had  not  himself  gone  through 
much  of  the  book  on  this  system.  And  it  gave  no  idea  of  the 
pains  which  Walpole  had  spent  upon  the  matter.  Besides  work 
in  English  collections,  he  had  travelled  repeatedly  to  France, 
Italy,  Germany,  Switzerland,  Austria,  and  Belgium  to  collate 
MSS.  He  had  received  help  for  the  purpose  from  the  Hort 
Fund.  He  was  an  unusually  skilled  and  accurate  collator. 
I  decided  to  attempt  to  give  Walpole's  notes  of  readings  as 
fully  as  I  could,  while  begging  the  reader  to  remember,  first, 
that  Walpole  himself  had  not  revised  the  apparatus,  whereas 
I  myself  have  been  unable,  except  in  a  few  instances,  to  verify 
his  observations ;  and  secondly,  that,  as  he  said,  the  apparatus 
makes  no  attempt  to  be  complete,  in  this  sense,  viz.  that  there 
are  other  mss  to  consult,  which  he  had  no  opportunity  of  con- 
sulting. The  student  will  not  be  able  to  dispense  entirely  with 
the  critical  notes  of  Blume  and  others. 


XX vi  NOTE  ON  THE  TEXT 

An  even  greater  difficulty  in  representing  Walpole's  textual 
work  lies  in  the  fact  that  he  has  nowhere  left  an  exhaustive  list 
of  the  MSS  which  he  has  used,  and  that  he  has  used  different 
methods  of  notation  in  different  notebooks.  It  is  sometimes 
hard,  even  for  an  expert, — and  I  cannot  profess  to  be  an 
expert  in  this  department, — to  make  out  what  MS  Walpole  is 
denoting  by  the  symbol  which  he  uses  in  a  given  book.  This 
difficulty  would  have  made  me  abandon  the  task  of  coordinating 
his  notes  and  attempting  to  reduce  them  to  a  system,  if  it  had 
not  been  for  the  kindness  of  the  late  Rev.  J.  Mearns.  At  my 
request  he  devoted  several  days  to  the  task  of  identifying  some 
of  the  MSS,  of  which  Walpole  had  recorded  the  readings  with- 
out giving  any  direct  guidance  to  their  identity.  I  wish  to 
express  my  indebtedness  to  that  eminent  hymnologist  for  aid 
which  no  one  else  could  have  given. 

Walpole  generally  followed  a  system  of  notation  which  is  in 
part  Mr  Mearns's  own.  In  as  close  accordance  with  it  as  cir- 
cumstances admit,  I  offer  the  following  table  of  mss.  It  does 
not  attempt  to  state,  as  Mr  Mearns's  Early  Latin  Hymnaries 
does,  where  the  various  mss  were  written,  but  for  the  most  part 
only  where  they  are  now  to  be  found.  The  arrangement  how- 
ever is  not  completely  logical.  Two  classes,  '  Ambrosian  '  and 
'  Mozarabic,'  represent  a  different  principle ;  and  some  mss 
which  properly  belong  to  these  two  classes  will  be  found  under 
other  heads  than  A  or  M.  Here,  for  convenience,  I  have  taken 
over  what  Walpole  set  down. 

A  =  Ambrosian  (Milan),  a  =  Ambrogiana,  T  103  sup.  (IX,  X^). 
b  =■  Chapter  Library  155  (X,  XI).  c  =  Ambr.  s.n.  iv.  43  (X). 
d  =  Ambr.  A  189  inf.  (1188).  e  =  Ambr.  A  i  inf  (XII). 
f=Ambr.  J  27  sup.  (1183).  g  =  Ambr.  J  55  sup.  (XII). 
h  =  Ambr.  E  71b  inf.  (XIII).  i  =  Ambr.  C  23  inf.  k  = 
Ambr.  H  159  inf. 

B  =  Belgian.  b  =  Brussels  8860-7  (IX,  X).  c  =  Brussels  9845-7 
(IX). 

^  The  numbers  given  thus  in  brackets  give  the  date  or  century  to  which 
the  MS  belongs. 


NOTE  ON  THE  TEXT  xxvii 

E-=  English.  {<  =  British  Museum,  Vesp.  A  i  (VIII).  a  =  Brit. 
Mus.  Arundel  155  (XI).  c=C.  C  C.  Cambridge  391  (XI). 
d=  Durham  Chapter  B.  iii.  32.  8=Durham  Rituale.  g  = 
Jesus  Coll.  Cambridge  23.  h^Brit.  Mus.  Harl.  2961 
(XI).  j  =  Brit.  Mus.JuliusAvi(X).  k=C. C.C.Cambridge 
190,  l  =  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  37517  (X).  n  =  Brit.  Mus,  Add. 
19768.  o  =  Oxford  Bodl.  Jun.  25  (IX).  r=Brit.  Mus.  Reg. 
A  XX.  s  =  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  30848.  t  =  Brit.  Mus.  Add. 
24193.  V  =  Brit.  Mus.  Vesp.  D  XII  (XI).  w  =  C.C.C.  Cam- 
bridge 473.  x  =  Oxf.  Bodl.  Misc.  Lit.  297  (XII).  77  =  Brit. 
Mus.  Harl.  2928  (XII).  /Lt  =  Oxf.  Bodl.  16923  (XI).  <^  = 
Brit.  Mus.  Add.  18301  (XII).   i/'  =  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  34209. 

F  =  French,  a  =  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Lat.  14088  (IX). 
b  =  Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  13-388  (IX).  c  =  Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  1153 
(IX).  d  =  Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  103  (about  a.d.  1000).  e  =  BibL 
Nat.  Lat.  1154  (XI).  f=Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  14986  (XI). 
g  =  Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  743.  h  =  Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  11550  (XI). 
i  -  Ste  Genevieve  11 86  (XI).  j  -  a  Jumieges  ms  at  Rouen, 
presumably  231  (A  44).  k  =  Mazarin  512  (X).  K  =  Maza- 
rin  759  (XI).  l^Mazarin  364  (about  a.d.  1099).  m  = 
Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  1240  (X).  n  =  Douai  170  (X — XII).  0  = 
Amiens  124  (XIII).  p  =  Amiens  131  (XI).  q  =  Paris,  St 
Genevieve  BBL  8  (1098).  r  =  Rouen  57.  s  =  Bibl.  Nat 
Lat.  1092  (XI).  t==Evreux  87.  u  =  Evreux  70  (XII). 
v  =  Evreux  43  (IX).  w  =  Orleans  159  (X,  XI).  x=Orleans 
345  (XI).  y  =  Chartres  579  (XI,  XII).  z  =  Chartres44 
(X,  XI).  y8  =  Boulogne  20  (about  1000).  y  =  Chartres 
121.  ^  =  Amiens  115  (XII).  A.  =  Paris,  BibL  Nat.  Lat. 
1464.  p  =  Paris,  Arsenal  227  (VIII).  x  =  '^nii^"s  112 
(XIII).    i/^- Paris,  Bibl.  Nat.  Lat.  528. 

G  =  German,  a  =  Trier  1245  (X).  b  =  Trier  592  (X).  c  = 
Munich  16 119  (XI).  d  =  Darmstadt  2106.  e=  Munich 
14083  (XI).  f=  Munich  14845  (XII).  g  =  Berlin,  Theol. 
IV.  II  (XI).  k  =  Karlsruhe  91.  1  =  Karlsruhe  60.  m  = 
Vienna,  Rossiana  viii.  144  from  Moissac  (X).  s  =  Salz- 
burg IX.  II  (XII).  v  =  Vienna,  Palat.  1825  (XII).  x  = 
Stuttgart  20,  75.  z  =  Stuttgart  98.  )8  =  Berlin  viii.  i  (XI). 
/A  =  Munich  17027  (X). 

H  =  Helvetian,  a  =  Zurich  (Rheinau)  iii  (X).  b  =  Zurich 
(Rheinau)  91  (about  a.d.  1000).    c  =  Zurich  (Rheinau)  83 


xxviii  NOTE  ON  THE  TEXT 

(about  A.D.  looo).  d  =  Zurich  (Rheinau)  82  (XI).  e  = 
Zurich  (Rheinau)  97  (XI).  f=Ziirich  (Rheinau)  129 
(about  A.D.  1 100).  g  =  St  Gall  413  (XI).  h  =  St  Gall  414. 
i=:St  Gall  387  (XI).  k-St  Gall  2.  m  =  St  Gall  196. 
r  =  Zurich  (Rheinau)  presumably  34.  /3==Bern  455  (X). 
y  =  St  Gall  577.  8  =  St  Gall  454.  •>;  =  St  Gall  455.  ^  =  St 
Gall  20  (IX,  X).  A.  =  St  Gall  95.  /x  =  St  Gall  27.  <^  =  St 
Gall  651. 

I  -  Italian.  {<  =  the  Bangor  Antiphonary :  Milan,  Ambrogiana, 
C.  5  inf.  (about  a.d.  690).  a  =  Verona,  Chapter,  90. 
b  =  Naples,  Nazionale,  vi.  G.  41  (XI).  c  =  Monte  Cassino 
506  (XI).  d  =  M.  Cassino  420  (XI).  e=M.  Cassino  559 
(about  1 1  go).  f=  Naples,  Naz.  vi.  F.  2  (about  iioo). 
g  =  Rome,  Casanatense  1907  (B.  11.  i)  (about  1000).  h  = 
Verona,  Chapter,  cix  (102)  (XI).  i  =  Verona,  Chapter, 
32  (IX).  m  =  Florence,  Lorenz.,  Conv.  Soppr.  524  (XI). 
n  =  Naples,  Naz.  vi.  E.  43  (XI).  o  =  Turin,  Nazionale, 
G.  V.  38  (XI).  p- Turin,  Naz.  G.  vii.  18  (X).  t  =  Turin, 
Naz.  F.  II.  10  (XI).    v  =  Rome,  Vallicell.  B.  79  (XI). 

M  =  Mozarabic.  a  =  Madrid  1005  Hh  60.  b  =  Madrid,  Acad. 
Reg.  30.  c= Toledo  35 — 3.  d= Toledo  35 — 2.  e^Toledo 
35 — 6.  f  =  Compostella,  Univ.  Reg.  i.  g  =  London,  Brit. 
Mus.  Add.  30844.  h  =  London,  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  30845. 
i  =  London,  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  30846.  k  =  London,  Brit. 
Mus.  Add.  30851.  m  =  London,  Brit.  Mus.  Add.  30849. 
X  =  Printed  Breviary  of  Ortiz. 

V  =  Vatican,  a  =  83,  Ambrosian  rite  (XI).  b  =  Reg.  338  (XI). 
c=Urbin.  585  (XII).  d=  7018  (XI).  e=43  (X).  h=637. 
1  seems  to  be  the  same  as  d.  o  =  Ottobon.  145  (XI). 
p  =  82,  Ambrosian  rite  (X).  r  =  Reg.  11  (about  a.d.  705). 
3=7172  (XI).   o- =  duplicate  contained  in  s.    t  =  3859. 

No  variants  are  recorded  except  such  as  affect  the  sense, 
nor  any  which  are  obviously  mistakes,  except  where  they  help 
to  guide  towards  the  true  reading,  or  some  places  where  they 
shew  the  character  of  the  particular  ms.] 


I 


I.    HILARY  OF  POITIERS 

Hymn  i 

[This  hymn  is  taken  from  the  hymnal  of  the  ancient 
Irish  Church.  The  text  will  be  found  in  the  Irish 
Liber  Hymnorum  edited  for  the  Henry  Bradshaw  Society 
by  J.  H.  Bernard  and  R.  Atkinson  vol.  I  pp.  36  foil., 
and  their  Notes  upon  it  in  vol.  II  pp.  125  foil.  See  also 
their  remarks  in  vol.  II  pp.  ix-xiii,  and  their  translation 
of  the  Irish  Preface  in  vol.  II  p.  18.  The  text  will  be 
found  likewise  in  Analeda  Hymnica  vol.  LI  pp.  264  foil, 
with  notes  by  C.  Blume.  Blume  refers  to  a  paper  by 
W.  Meyer  in  the  Gottinger  Nachrichten  for  1 903  pp.  1 88  foil, 
which  deals  with  this  hymn. 

The  hymn  is  expressly  ascribed  to  St  Hilary  (died  358) 
by  four  of  the  early  MSS  containing  it.  One  of  these  is 
the  famous  Antiphonary  of  Bangor,  now  in  the  Ambrosian 
Library  at  Milan,  written  in  the  Vllth  century.  Hincmar 
of  Reims  in  the  IXth  century  twice  quotes  from  it  as 
the  work  of  Hilary.  Bernard  and  Atkinson  rightly  affirm 
that  it  is  'the  one  admittedly  foreign  element'  in  the 
Irish  Hymnal,  and  add  that  it  'bears  the  unmistakeable 
stamp  of  a  totally  different  system  of  metrical  structure 
and  consequently  of  treatment  of  the  language '  from 
the  Latin  hymns  composed  in  Ireland.  '  This,'  they  add, 
'  is  a  classic  poem  ;  the  others  are  vulgar  Latin.' 

If  this  estimate  of  the  Latinity  requires  some  modifi- 
cation, the  departures  from  classic  regularity  are  no 
argument  against  Hilary's  authorship.  That  Hilary  com- 
posed a  book  of  hymns  is  stated  by  Jerome  {de  Vir. 
Inlustr.  C;  cp.  Praef.  in  Galat.  II).  Isidore  of  Seville, 
in  the  Vllth  century,  says  that  he  was  the  first  composer 


2  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

of  hymns  in  Latin  {de  Off.  Eccl.  I,  6).  Three  long  hymns 
of  his  besides  this,  though  none  of  them  in  complete 
condition,  are  now  known.  Both  in  respect  of  metre  and 
in  respect  of  difficulties  of  expression  they  bear  out  the 
attribution  of  the  following  hymn  to  Hilary.  (See  article 
in  Journal  of  Theol.  Studies  vol.  V  pp.  413  foil.)  The 
metre  of  Hymnuni  dicat  is  the  same  as  that  of  the  third 
of  the  newly  recovered  hymns,  and  it  is  treated  with 
similar  freedom.  Particular  phrases  in  Hymnimi  dicat 
recall  passages  in  the  three  hymns,  as  well  as  in  the 
prose  writings  of  Hilary.    M.] 

The  text  of  the  hymn  is  in  places  corrupt.  All  the 
MSS  that  contain  it  are  ultimately  derived  from  an 
archetype  not  free  from  demonstrable  errors.  See  the 
notes  on  lines  25  and  58.  The  last  few  lines  in  especial 
are  confused  and  troubled,  as  may  be  seen  from  the 
critical  notes,  and  more  fully  in  the  Irish  Liber  Hymnormn 
and  in  the  Analecta,  which  standard  works  give  a  more 
complete  apparatus  criticus.  Bernard  and  Atkinson  think 
it  probable  that  the  hymn  originally  ended  with  line  66 ; 
but  I  believe  that  the  next  four  lines  are  genuine.  The 
repetition  to  which  they  object  in  galli  cantus,  galli 
plausus  is  parallel  to  factor  caeli,  terrae  factor  in  9 ; 
cp.  lines  20,  59,  Hil.  Hyjnn.  III.  7  gaudet  aris,  gaudet 
templis  (cp.  Draeger  II.  211 ).  The  rhyme  nos  cantantes 
et  precantes  [and  it  might  be  added  pane  quino,  pisce 
bino']  is  no  more  out  of  keeping  with  the  unrhymed 
character  of  the  hymn  than  the  many  instances  of  a  like 
assonance  (collected  by  Trench  p.  28  f )  are  with  their 
surroundings,  beginning  with  Ennius'  maerentes,  fientes, 
lacrumantes,  commiserantes^.   The  extreme  awkwardness 

*  Cp.  further  instances  of  rhyme  from  Cato,  Livius  Andronicus  and 
Naevius  quoted  by  Huemer  Untersuchungen  iiber  die  dltesten  lateinisch- 
christlichen  Rhythmen  p.  44. 


HYMN  I.   HILARY  3 

of  the  passage  is  removed  by  the  transposition  of  line  67. 
Maiestatemque  inmensam  may  be  impossible,  but  in- 
mensamque  maiestatem  is  an  easy  and  likely  correction. 
It  may  be  granted  that  turba  fratrmn  concinnemus  would 
furnish  a  fitting  end  to  a  hymn  beginning  hytnniun  dicat 
turba  fratrutn  ;  but  so  does  the  mention  of  'Christ  the 
King'  in  the  last  line  but  one,  as  in  the  first  line  but  one. 
And  for  the  absolute  end  nothing  could  be  more  effec- 
tive than  the  indication  of  the  day  close  at  hand,  heralded 
by  the  cock  crowing  which  had  such  mystical  significance 
to  the  early  Christians,  declaring  the  night  to  be  far 
spent,  the  day  at  hand.  'The  cock,  "the  native  bellman 
of  the  night,"  became  in  the  middle  ages  the  standing 
emblem  of  the  preachers  of  God's  Word,  nay,  we  may 
say  of  Christ  Himself^' 

Bernard  and  Atkinson  object  to  ante  lucem  in  65  that 
the  preface  to  the  hymn  in  /  says  with  regard  thereto 
nothing  about  any  early  morning  use,  but  only:  sic  nobis 
conuenit  canere  post  prandiiun  {Lib.  Hymn.  I.  35,  II.  xiii 
and  127).  But  these  words  can  only  be  giving  the  local 
use  at  or  about  the  time  when  the  MS  in  question  was 
written,  which  was  some  700  years  after  the  writing  of 
the  hymn,  if,  as  we  suppose,  it  was  written  by  Hilary. 

Lines  71  and  72  however  are  spurious:  71  is  little 
more  than  a  repetition  of  70,  and  we  find  in  yidomifiunt,  in 
72  aim  eo"^.  And  without  doubt  the  doxology  is  spurious. 
As  given  in  most  of  the  MSS  it  is  in  iambic,  not  trochaic, 
rhythm ;  though  some  of  these,  by  writing  genitori  for 
ingenito  try  to  force  it  into  that  metre.  It  is  in  fact,  as 
Blume  points  out,  identical  with  the  doxology  of  41. 

^  Trench  p.  249.  His  whole  note  there  is  full  of  curious  and  interesting 
information. 

^  [Not  that  this  is  much  worse  than  Hil.  I/ymn.  iii.  10  Inter  tania  duin 
exultat.  M.] 


4  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

[A  note  in  the  St  Gall  MS  called  e  below  says  that  the 
hymn  is  to  be  said  omni  tempore.  As  it  is  an  early 
morning  hymn,  this  cannot  mean  omnis  horae,  like 
Prudentius'  Cathem.  IX.  As  Bernard  and  Atkinson 
point  out,  it  means  at  any  season  of  the  year,  not  at 
one  in  particular.    M.] 

My  critical  notes  mention  only  such  variants  as  affect 
the  meaning,  not  matters  of  spelling  and  the  like.  The 
MSS  referred  to  are  these  : 

a  Turin  F.  IV.  i  (IXth  century). 

b  The  so-called  Antiphonary  of  Bangor  written 
between  680-691  now  in  the  Ambrosian  Library  at 
Milan,  C.  5  inf. 

c  The  Book  of  Cerne,  Cambridge  University  Library 
LI.  I.  10  (IXth  century). 

d  St  Gall  2  (Vlllth  century). 

e  St  Gall  577  (IXth,  Xth  century). 

f  Trin.  Coll.  Dublin  E.  IV.  2  (Xlth  century). 

g  Franciscan  Library,  Dublin  (Xlth  century). 

[I  have  left  the  apparatus  as  in  Walpole's  writing, 
without  attempting  to  verify  his  account  of  the  readings, 
which  differs  in  some  particulars  from  those  recorded  in 
the  'standard'  books  above  mentioned.     M.] 


HYMN  I.   HILARY 


5 


Hymnum  dicat  turba  fratrum,  hymnum  cantus  personet, 

Christo  regi  concinnantes  laudes  demus  debitas. 

tu  Dei  de  corde  Verbum,  tu  uia,  tu  ueritas, 

lesse  uirga  tu  uocaris,  te  leonem  legimus. 

dextra  Patris,  nions  et  agnus,  angularis  tu  lapis,  5 

I  personal  c.  2  Christum  regem  (rege  d)  de.     concinnentes  b,  con- 

cinentes  fg.     laudes. ..debita  d. 


1.  hymnum  dicat]  dicere  cannen 
is  a  phrase  used  by  Horace  Od.  i. 
xxxii.  3,  Propert.  I.  ix.  9,  while  later 
writers  freely  use  dicere  in  the  sense 
of 'singing' ;  cp.  106.  i,  Peregrinalio 
Aetheriae  xxiv.  4  dicuntur ymni. 

fratnun  is  used  of  the  faithful  in 
general,  as  in  many  passages  of  the 
N.T.  as  Acts  iii.  17.  In  line  57  it 
denotes  the  apostles.  In  a  later  hymn 
it  would  generally  mark  the  com- 
position as  intended  for  monastic 
use. 

2.  concinnantes]  Festus  p.  38 
defines  concinnare  as  apte  compotiere; 
and  Nonius  p.  43  (according  to  the 
Thesaurus),  says  recte  autem  concin- 
nare et  consentire  intellegi  potest 
quasi  concinere.  This  seems  to  point 
to  some  degree  of  confusion  between 
the  two  words.  It  is  especially  used 
of  literary  composition  ;  cp.  line  65, 
Hil.  Hymn.  in.  2  in  caelesti  rur- 
sum  Adatn  concinnamus  proelia; 
Analecta  Li.  p.  305  cantemus  in  omni 
die  concinnantes  iiarie;  and  Vulg. 
Job  vi.  26  ad  increpandum  tantum 
eloquia  concinnatis. 

laudes  debitas]  Cp.  Hil.  Prol.  in 
Psalm.  (Migne  ix.  239)  in  quo  debi- 
tas Deo  laudes  unitiersitas  spirituum 
prcudicabit ;  and  in  these  hymns  15. 
3,  51.  16,  54.  3,  104.  44,  111.  43. 
[The  plural  (as  against  laudem  debi- 
tam)  has  the  support  of  Bede  de  Arte 
Metr.  23.] 

3.  'Thou  coming  from  the  Fa- 
ther's heart  art  called  the  Word': 
the  heart  being  regarded  as  the  seat 
of  the  affections,  cp.  Col.  i.  13,  23. 
I,  27.  36,  Ambr.  de  Fide  I.  67  audis 


Dei  Filitim:  aut  dele  nomen,  aut 
agnosce  naturani ..  .audis  cor,  uer- 
bum  inlellege.  ib.  82  ergo  et  nos  cum 
audimus  ex  utero  /ilium,  ex  corde 
uerbum,  credamus  quia  non  plasma- 
tus  manibus,  sedex  Patre  natus.  Ob- 
serve this  adjectival  use  of  the  ad- 
verbial clause  Dei  de  corde  (unless 
indeed  the  words  belong  to  the  pre- 
dicate, which  is  perhaps  simpler). 

For  the  emphatic  repetition  of  tu 
cp.  the  Te  Deum  and  hymns  5.  13  f., 
20.  i3f.,21.  9f.,27.  29f.,  41.  46f., 
42,  48,  49,  79,  sf.,  87.  5  f. 

uerbum]  Joh.  i.  r,  Rev.  xix.  13. 

uia,  ueritas]  Joh.  xiv.  6.  The 
final  a  of  uia,  coming  before  a  pause, 
is  lengthened  by  the  stress  falling 
on  it. 

4.  lesse  uirga]  Is.  xi.  i,  cp. 
Rom.  XV.  12,  Rev.  v.  5,  38.  13. 

leonem]  Rev.  v.  5,  cp.  4  Esdras 
xii.  3 1 .  For  the  accusative  cp.  Nicet. 
de  Spir.  3  quern  nusquam  creaturam 
legere  poterit. 

legimus]  probably  perfect,  the 
e  being  long :  '  we  are  wont  to 
read. '  Cp.  the  use  of  the  perfect  in 
9.  20. 

5.  dextra  Patris]  Exod.  xv.  6, 
Ps.  cxvii.  (cxviii.)  16  and  often  in 
the  O.T. ;  cp.  Nicet.  de  Div.  App. 
p.  2  (ed.  Burn)  dextera...dicitur, 
quia  per  ipsum  uniuersa  creata  sunt 
et  ab  ipso  omnia  continentur. 

mons]   Dan.  ii.  35. 

ag^us]  Joh.  i.  29,  cp.  Is.  xvi.  r 
(Vulg.),  Acts  viii.  32,  i  Pet.  i.  19, 
Rev.  V.  6. 

angularislapis]  'the  corner  stone' 
of  especial  size  and  strength,  set  to 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


sponsus  idem,  el,  columba,  flamma,  pastor,  ianua. 
in  prophetis  inueniris,  nostro  natus  saeculo. 
ante  saecla  tu  fuisti  factor  primi  saeculi, 
factor  caeli,  terrae  factor,  congregator  tu  maris, 
omniumque  tu  creator,  quae  Pater  nasci  iubet,  lo 

uirginis  receptus  membris  Gabrihelis  nuntio. 

6  el  fg,  uel  libri  ceteri.  7  inuenimus  nostrum  natum  seculum  d. 

9  caeli  et  terrae  fg.  10  omnia... creasti  d.  11  Gabrihele(-li)  cde, 

Garaelis  a.     nuntiat  a. 


connect  the  ends  of  two  walls ;  Ps. 
cxvii.  (cxviii.)  22,  Is.  xxviii.  16, 
Mt.  xxi.  42,  Acts  iv.  11,  Rom.  ix. 
33,  Eph.  ii.  20,  1  Pet.  ii.  6,  cp.  119. 
13;  Chrysost.  Homil.  vi.  1066  etrd 
(prjffiv'  6  rb  wdv  avvixuv  iarly  6 
X.pi<rT6i,  6  yap  \idos  6  dKpoywviaios 
Kal  To^s  Tolxovi  awix^'-  *■<**  ■'""'^y 
de/ieXlovs.  Prud.  Hamart.  489  an- 
gulus  hie  portae  in  capite  est,  hie 
eontinet  omnem  \  saxorum  seriem 
eonstructaqtie  liminafirmat. 

6.  sponsus]  Ps.  xviii.  (xix.)  6, 
Mt.  ix.  15,  XXV.  I  f.,  Joh.  iii.  29, 
cp.  19.  7,  41.  27,  84.  10,  88.  7,  95. 
12.  'The  mystical  application  of 
Ps.  xviii.  (xix.)  to  the  Incarnation  is 
very  ancient  Found  in  Iren.  adv. 
Haer.  iv.  55.  4  and  d%  'EwtS.  85  and 
yet  earlier  in  Justin  Apol.  i.  54,  Dial. 
64,  69.  See  also  Tert.  adv.  Marc. 
IV.  II,  Cypr.  Test.  11.  19.'  Yorke 
Fausset  on  Novatian  de  Trin.  liber 
XIII. 

el]  i.e.  God,  the  Hebrew  ?}<,  cp. 
Oratio  s.  Adamnani  (Irish  Liber 
Hymn.  i.  184)  idem  est  Hel  et  Deus. 
The  variant  uel  gives  a  poorer 
meaning  and  the  pause  justifies  the 
hiatus. 

columba]  Cant.  v.  12. 

flanuna]  Deut.  iv.  24,  Heb.  xii. 
29;  cp.  Is.  X.  17,  Rev.  i.  14,  ii.  18, 
xix.  12. 

pastor]  Joh.  x.  1 1. 

ianua]  Joh.  x.  7;  cp.  Nicet.  de 
Div.  App.  (p.  3,  ed.  Burn)  ianua 
dicitur  quia  per  ipsutn  ad  caelorum 
regtia  afidelibus  introitur. 

7.  inueniris... natus]  'art  found 


...though  only  afterwards  bom,'  or 
'  Thou  who  wast  bom  art  found ' ; 
cp.  receptus  in  11. 

8.  ante  saecla]  Ps.  Ixxxix.  (xc.) 
2,  Hil.  Hymn.  i.  i  ante  saecula  qui 
manens;  the  'Nicene'  creed  irpb 
ir&vTwv  tQv  altbvwv ;  Ambr.  Epist, 
LXIII.  49  ex  Patre  solo  natus  ante 
saecula,  ex  uirgine  sola  in  hoc  saeculo. 
And  in  the  Quicumque  '  God,  of  the 
substance  of  the  Father,  begotten 
before  the  worlds :  and  Man,  of  the 
substance  of  his  Mother,  born  in  the 
world. ' 

9.  factor]  Joh.  i.  3,  rieb.  i.  2. 
So  the  Nicene  Fathers  hi  oi  tA 
irdvTa  iyivero,  rd  re  iv  t<^  ovpavtfi 
Kal  TO.  iv  Tj  -yiji.cp.  33.  4,  40.  5, -41. 
5  f.,  94.  8.  This  line  and  24  are 
quoted  by  Bede  de  Arte  Metr.  23, 
to  exemplify  the  trochaic  metre,  and 
its  elasticity. 

congregator]  Gen.  i.  9  congre- 
gentur  aquae,  Ps.  xxxii.  (xxxiii.)  7. 
In  classical  writers  congregare  and 
its  compounds  always  denote  the 
assembling  of  persons  or  animals. 

10.  Cp.  49.  isf.,  60.  sf. ;  and 
Hil.  Hymn.  i.  57  foil.  Patri  sed 
genitus  paret,  omnemque  ad  nutum 
attonitus  manet,  said  in  connexion 
with  creation. 

11.  Oabrihelis]  The -4,  found  in 
the  best  Mss  here  and  at  31.  18  (as  in 
Danihel  95.  9,  Israhel  6.  i,  41.  21), 
represents  the  N  of  the  Hebrew.  As 
nuntius  can  also  mean  'a  messenger ' 
the  variant  Gabrihele  nuntio  may  be 
the  reading  to  adopt. 

nuntio  may  be  an  instrumental 


HYMN  I.   HILARY 


crescit  aluus  prole  sancta ;  nos  monemur  credere 
rem  nouam  nee  ante  uisam,  uirginem  puerperam. 
tunc  magi  stellam  secuti  primi  adorant  paruulum, 
offerentes  tus  et  aurum,  digna  regi  mnnera. 
mox  Herodi  nuntiatum  inuidens  potentiae. 
tuoi  iubet  paruos  necari,  turbam  facit  martyrum. 
fertur  infans  occulendus,  Nili  flumen  quo  fluit, 


15 


15  oflfenint  ei  c*.     regis  d. 
nuntiato  a.     inuidit  a,  inuidus  e. 

ablative  'by  the  message'  like  uerbi 
...semine,  38.  10  note. 
\i.  crescit  aluus]  6.  13. 

13.  rem]  credere  takes  an  ace.  of 
the  thing  believed,  as  Cic.  Div.  II. 
13  multa  isHus  modi  dicuntnr  in 
scholis,  sed  credere  omnia  uide  ne 
non  sit  nccesse. 

uirginem  puerperam]  Hil. 
Hymn.  I.  8  inundo  te  genuit  uirgo 
puerpera. 

14.  primi  adorant]  'are  the  first 
to  worship';  this  distinction  really 
belongs  to  tlie  shepherds. 

15.  No  mention  is  made  of  the 
myrrh,  which  may  be  because  it  did 
not  seem  to  be  a  gift  fitting  a  king, 
but  more  probably  comes  from  Is.  Ix. 
6  de  Saba  uenient  atirmn  et  tus 
deferentes.  In  a  fragmentary  poem, 
ascribed  to  Hilary  by  the  one  MS 
which  contains  it,  St  Gall  48, 
giving  an  account  of  the  birth 
and  childhood  of  Christ,  the  gold 
is  not  mentioned;  see  Manitius, 
p.  102  f. 

regi  may  be  dative  after  offerentes, 
but  is  more  probably  governed  by 
digna,  'worthy  of  a  king.'  Cp. 
Commodian  Apol.  23  Caesari  dig- 
nus\  Nicet.  12.  8  dignatn  errori. 
If  we  should  with  one  MS  read  regis 
we  might  compare  V'erg.  Aen.  xil. 
649  indigntts  auorum. 

For  the  mystical  meaning  of  the 
gifts  cp.  Juvenc.  i.  250  tus,  aurum, 
myrrham,  regique  hominique  Deo- 
que  1  donaferunt;  Hil.  in  Ml.  i.  5; 
Prud.  Cath.  XI I.  69  f.,  Dittoch. 
105  f.;  [Claudian]  Epigr.  XLIX.  3f. 


16  Herodes  e. 
1 7  necare  de. 


nuntiatum  est  c, 
18  quod  ad. 


dant  tibi  Chaldaei  praenuntia  mu- 
nera  reges.  \  myrram  homo,  rex  au- 
rum, suscipe  tura  Dens;  Ambr.  in 
Liu:.  II.  44  aurum  regi,  tus  Deo, 
murra  defuncto ;  Sedul.  Carm.  il. 
95  f.  aurea  nascenti fuderunt  mtinera 
regi,  I  tura  dedere  Deo,  myrrham 
tribuere  sepulchro. 

16.  'The  fact  (the  coming  of  the 
magi)  is  at  once  made  known  to 
Herod,  an  event  hostile  to  his 
sway.'  inuidens  is  used  for  inui- 
dum.  This  is  not  satisfactory,  but 
seems  better  than  the  alternative 
pointing  and  explanation  mox  H. 
nuntiatum.  inuidens  potentiae 
('then  he  grudging  His  sway...'). 
Though  Herod  might  be  said  in- 
uidere  Christo  potentiam,  the  dat. 
potentiae  seems  unlikely;  and  else- 
where in  this  poem  (see  14  and  41) 
turn  (tunc)  begins  its  clause.  Per- 
haps however  the  real  explanation 
may  be  'grudging  (jealous)  of  his 
own  power,  he  then '  etc. 

17.  turbam]  We  find  a  like  ex- 
aggeration Sedul.  Carm.  II.  120 
audens  \  innumerum  patrare  nefas, 
puerilia  mactat  \  milia  ;  Prud. 
Perist.  X.  737  mille  in  Bethlehem 
...biberunt  paruuli;  24.  27,  31.  29. 
See  also  the  editors'  note  in  the  Irish 
Liber  Ilymnorum. 

18.  occulendus]  'that  he  might 
be  hidden.'  The  gerundive  came  to 
be  looked  upon  as  a  fut.  pass,  parti- 
ciple ;  cp.  nutriendus  in  19,  offe- 
rendus  in  34,  and  see  Ronsch  Itala 
und  Vulg.  p.  433. 

quo]  '  where, '  as  at  92.  15, 117.  3 1 . 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


qui  refertur  post  Herodem  nutriendus  Nazareth, 
multa  paruus,  muita  adultus  signa  fecit  caelitus, 
quae  latent  at  quae  leguntur,  coram  multis  testibus. 
praedicans  caeleste  regnum  dicta  factis  adprobat. 
debiles  facit  uigere,  caecos  luce  inluminat, 
uerbis  purgat  leprae  morbum,  mortuos  resuscitat. 
uinum  quod  deerat  hydriis  mutari  aquam  iubet, 
nuptiis  mero  retentis  propinando  populo. 
pane  quino,  pisce  bino  quinque  pascit  milia, 


25 


23  fecit  bde.  24  uerbo  d.     morbos  ce.  25  deerat]  erat  c.     idris 

(hidris)  abfg.     motarif,  motare  d,  mutare  cMe,  motuari  g.  •26  merrore 

taentis  a,  maerore  tentis  c.     retentis]  retinctis  c.      propinnando  c^f,  propi- 
nendum  c^,  prouinato  d.     populo]  poculo  g. 


19.  post  Herodem]  'after  the 
death  of  Herod,'  cp.  36.  17.  It  is 
hard  to  say  whether  Nazareth  is  in 
the  ace.  after  refertur,  or  in  the  loca- 
tive with  nutriendus.  nutriendus  is 
a  fut.  participle,  used  similarly  by 
Ambrose  Hex.  vi.  13  matri  dedit 
ecclesiae  nutriendos. 

20.  multa  paruus]  with  refer- 
ence to  details  given  by  apocryphal 
gospels,  in  disregard  of  Joh.  ii. 
II. 

slg^a]  (TTj/meia,  the  usual  word  for 
miracles  in  St  John's  Gospel,  ii.  11, 
23  etc.,  and  common  elsewhere  in 
the  N.T. 

caelitus  refers  to  Joh.  v.  19  and 
perhaps  to  Mt.  xvi.  i. 

21.  quae  latent]  i.e.  the  account 
of  which  was  not  written  in  our 
gospels ;    cp.    Joh.     xx.     30,    xxi. 

25- 

22.  praedicans  c.  r.]  Mt.  iv.  22, 
xi.  I. 

dicta... adprobat]  For  a  particu- 
lar instance  cp.  Mt.  ix.  5  f. 

23.  caecos  1.  i.]  Cp.  10.  6. 

24.  uerbis]  perhaps  with  ref.  to 
Mt.  viii.  8,  16  ;  cp.  Fort.  II.  xvi. 
157  quid  referam  mutts  qui  uerbo 
uerba  dedisti  ? 

leprae  m.]  Mt.  viii.  2  f.,  Lu. 
xvii.  12  f.    Cp.  note  on  9. 


mortuos]  Mt.  ix.  18  f.,  Lu.  vii. 
1 1  f.,  Joh.  xi. 

25,  26.  'He  bids  water  in  water- 
pots  to  be  turned  into  the  wine  that 
was  lacking.'  The  many  variants 
and  the  difficulties  in  metre,  con- 
struction, and  meaning  combine  to 
make  these  lines  doubtful,  although 
they  are  in  all  the  MSS  ;  cf.  Irish 
Liber  Hymn.  il.  xi  f.  We  must 
scan  uinum  quid  deerat  hydriis  or 
uinum  qudd  deirat  hydris,  both  un- 
satisfactory. Then  the  sense  is 
harsh,  whether  we  read  i7iero  retentis 
('cut  short  in  wine')  or  maerore 
tentis  ('  seized  with  mourning');  and 
whether  we  read  propinando  populo 
or  poculo.  On  the  other  hand  some 
reference  to  Cana  seems  most  likely, 
though  this  may  have  been  the  reason 
why  an  interpolater  inserted  it, 
somewhat  after  its  proper  place. 
Dr  Mason  conjectures  mutuari, 
which  would  make  the  sense,  as 
well  as  the  metre,  just  a  little 
better :  '  He  bids  water  to  borrow 
(or  'assume')  the  nature  of  wine 
that  was  lacking.'  viutare  is  so  ob- 
vious a  word  in  the  context  that 
copyists  would  soon  get  it  in. 

hydriis]  Joh.  ii.  6. 

27.  Mt.  xiv.  13  f.  pane  quino  is  a 
poetical  usage. 


HYMN  I.   HILARY 


et  refert  fragmenta  cenae  ter  quaternis  corbibus. 
turba  ex  omni  discumbente  iugem  laudem  pertulit. 
duodecim  uiros  probauit,  per  quos  uita  discitur,  30 

ex  quis  unus  inuenitur  Christi  ludas  traditor. 
instruuntur  missi  ab  Anna  proditoris  osculo. 
innocens  captus  tenetur  nee  repugnatis  ducitur, 
sistitur,  falsis  grassatur  offerendus  Pontic, 
discutit  obiecta  praeses,  nullum  crimen  inuenit.  35 


28  corbibus]  coffinos  d. 
crassatur  d,  grauatur  e. 


31  luda  ab'cd. 


34  grasatur  beg, 


28.  refert]  by  means  of  the  dis- 
ciples. The  coffinos  of  one  MS 
reproduces  cophinos  {Ko<plvovs),  the 
word  used  in  the  Latin  and  Greek 
of  the  gospel  story  and  by  Juvenc. 
ni.  90,  249,  Sedul.  Carm.  III.  216. 

discumbente]  The  Jews  had 
adopted  the  Roman  custom  of 
reclining  on  couches  round  a  table 
at  meals.  Here  of  course  the  crowds 
lay  on  the  grass.  Cp.  Mt.  xiv.  i<)  et 
cum  iussisset  turbam  discumbere 
super  faeiiutn. 

iugem  laudem]  *a  stream  of 
praise.'  iugis  in  itself,  being  con- 
nected w'nYiiungo,  means  'constant,' 
'continuous' ;  but  it  is  almost  always 
used  of  'ever-flowing'  water,  as  at 
8.  28.  Bnigmann  however  (Curt. 
Slud.  IV.  148)  regards  «/^«V(' living') 
applied  to  water  as  quite  distinct 
from  iugis,  '  constant.'  The  ref. 
must  here  be  to  Joh.  vi.  14. 

30.  Mt.  X.  I  f.  duodecim  is  to 
be  scanned  dvodecim ;  Bernard  and 
Atkinson  recall  that  in  Italian  it 
becomes  dodici. 

probauit]  used  as  in  57. 
■  uita]   Cp.  Acts  V.  20. 

31.  Alcuin  Epist.  xxxi.  (Jaffe 
VI.  p.  239)  Iudatn...non  apostolici 
nominis  dignitas  a  tanti  sceleris 
perpetratione  cohibuit,  qui  cognita 
sui  sceleris  nequitia  indignam  uitam 
digna  mortejinivit,  de  quo  ait  Sedu- 
lius :  tunc  uir  aposlolicus,  nunc  uilis 
apostata  f actus  {Carm.  Pasch.  v. 
138). 


32.  Mt.  xxvi.  38.  The  mention 
of  Annas  alone  here  and  in  47  is 
noteworthy  and  may  come  from 
Acts  iv.  6. 

33.  Is.  liii.  7,  Acts  viii.  32. 

nee repugrnans]  'and unresisting'; 
the  nee  qualifies  the  participle,  not 
the  main  verb. 

ducitur]  'is  carried  off  as  a 
prisoner ' ;  a  technical  term  in 
Roman  law,  as  at  9.  14,  32.  12  ; 
cp.  Pliny's  famous  letter  (x.  96) 
perseuerantes  duct  iussi,  Ambr.  cU 
A'ab.  2 1  uide  ego  pauperem  duci. 

34.  '  He  is  brought  to  trial  and  is 
assailed  with  false  charges  that  he 
may  be  delivered  up  to  Pilate.' 
sisti  is  the  regular  word  in  Roman 
law  for  'standing  one's  trial,'  as  at 
Prudent.  Perist.  il.  53  Laurentium 
sisti  iubet.  falsis  is  in  like  manner 
used  in  the  neuter  by  Hil.  Hymn. 
III.  8  \?)3X2lX\'\  gaudet  falsis.  grassa- 
tur here  and  at  38  is  passive.  Ber- 
nard and  Atkinson  refer  also  to  the 
Altus  Prosator  38  grassatis  primis 
duobus  seductisq.  parentibus. 

35.  praeses]  The  regular  repre- 
sentative in  the  Latin  N.T.  of  the 
Greek  -rj-yefiwu,  i.e.  procurator;  cp. 
Mt.  xxvii.  2,  Acts  xxiii.  26,  106.  21. 

nullum  crimen]  Lu.  xxiii.  4. 
Strictly  crimen  was  the  charge, 
culpa  the  offence  on  which  the 
charge  was  based.  But  in  late  Latin 
crimen  often  means  '  guilt, '  '  sin ' ; 
cp.  4.  10,  10.  4  etc. 


lO 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


sed  cum  turbae  ludaeorum  pro  salute  Caesaris 
dicerent  Christum  necandum,  turbis  sanctus  traditur. 
impiis  uerbis  grassatur ;  sputa,  flagra  sustinet. 
scandere  crucem  iubetur,  innocens  pro  noxiis. 
morte  camis  quam  gerebat  mortem  uicit  omnium.  40 

turn  Deum  clamore  magno  Patrem  pendens  inuocat. 
mors  secuta  membra  Christi  laxat,  stricta  uincula. 
uela  templum  scissa  pandunt,  nox  obscurat  saeculum. 

36  turba  abe.  37  negandum  abce,  negatum  d.  38  grauatur  d. 

40  uincit  c.  41  pendens]  petens  d.     inuocans  b.  43  uelum  d. 

templi  libri.     pendit  d,  pendent  e*,  pendunt  abe,  pendens  c. 


36.  Joh.  xix.  12.  To  the  usual 
reading  turba  there  are  two  objec- 
tions :  turba  does  not  answer  as  it 
should  to  turbis  in  37  ;  then  in  this 
hymn  (cp.  52),  as  in  these  hymns  as 
a  whole,  a  collective  singular  takes 
a  singular  verb,  according  to  the 
classical  usage. 

38.  Mt.  xxvii.  26,  30.  grassatur 
as  in  34. 

sputa,  flagra]  Cp.  Hil.  Hymn.  11. 
\(>  sputus,flagella\  33.  19,  112.  19. 

39.  The  final  e  of  scandere  is 
lengthened  by  the  stress  falling  upon 
it,  as  Hil.  Hymn.  I.  17  extra  quam 
capere  potest,  59  et  scire  non  est  ar- 
dtium. 

innocens  pro  noxiis]  i  Pet.iii.  18. 

40.  Heb.  ii.  14;  cp.  \i\\.  Hymn. 
II.  17  triumpho  morte  sumpto  a 
mortua;  10.  27  f. 

nicit]  conquered  once  for  all,  an 
isolated  aorist  among  the  present 
tenses. 

41.  Mt.  xxvii.  46,  50. 

42.  '  Death  ensues  and  relaxes  the 
limbs  of  Christ,  (loosens)  the  tight 
drawn  bonds,'  a  case  of  zeugma. 
Thus  we  must  explain  if  we  keep 
the  MS  reading,  but  the  correction 
uinculo  is  decidedly  easier, 

stricta]  Cp.  33.  15.  That  hymn  is 
much  influenced  by  Hilary. 

uincula]  Evidently  the  writer 
thought  that  Christ  was  bound,  as 
well  as  being  nailed,  to  the  cross, 
as  indeed  was  often  done  in  crucify- 


ing men  ;   see  Smith  Dictionary  oj 
the  Bible  i.  p.  673. 

43.  *  The  rending  of  the  veils 
lays  open  the  temple.'  There  were 
two  veils,  or  rather  a  double  curtain, 
between  the  Holy  Place  and  the 
Most  Holy  Place  (see  Hastings 
Diet.  0/  Bible  I  v.  714  b),  although 
'  the  veil '  is  usually  spoken  of  both 
in  O.  and  N.T.  The  Most  Holy 
Place  had  no  door,  so  that  the  rend- 
ing of  the  veil  (Mt.  xxvii.  51)  would 
lay  open  that  which  was  never 
opened,  and  which  only  the  high 
priest  might  enter,  and  he  only  on 
the  great  Day  of  Atonement.  Cp. 
Sedul.  Op.  V.  23  tunc  illud  quoque 
templum  tnirabile,  plenum  religionis 
antiquae,  maioris  templi  culmina 
cecidisse  conspiciens...discisso  pro- 
tinus  uelo  nudum  cunctis  pectus 
ostendit.  For  the  construction  of 
uela  scissa  cp.  29.  9  rescissa  sed 
isla  seorsum  soluunt  hominem  peri- 
muntque.  The  variant  pendent  is 
intolerably  weak,  and  pandunt,  to 
be  taken  in  the  sense  of panduntur, 
gives  the  wrong  sense  :  it  would  not 
be  the  veil  that  would  be  exposed. 
The  reading /fw/^/z  would  come  from 
the  gospel  text,  the  phrase  'the  veil 
of  the  temple'  being  so  common. 
templum  is  often  used  in  the  Latin 
versions  to  translate  va6i,  as  well  as 
oIkos  and  lepov,  cp.  Mt.  xxvi.  55,  61, 
xxvii.  40,  51. 

nox]  i.e.  darkness,  cp.  Ovid  Met. 


HYMN  I.  HILARY 


II 


excitantur  de  sepulcris  dudum  clausa  corpora. 

adfuit  loseph  bealus ;  corpus  myrra  perlitum,  45 

linteo  rudi  ligatum  cum  dolore  condidrt. 

milites  seruare  corpus  Annas  princeps  praecipit, 

ut  uideret  si  probaret  Christus  quod  spoponderat. 

angelum  Dei  trementes  ueste  amictum  Candida, 

qui  candore  claritatis  uellus  uicit  sericum,  50 


After  44  (added  by  a  later  hand)  regna  Christus  uictor  ingens  uastat 
infemalium  d.  47  Anna  be.  49  timentes  d.  50  qui  d,  qua  c, 

quo  rell. 


VII.  2  perpetuaque  trahens  inopem 
sub  node  senectum  \  Phineus.  This 
darkness  is  related  Mt.  xxvii.  45 
and  is  alluded  to  55.  i3f. ,  66.  gf. 

44.  Mt.  xxvii.  52.  excilare  is 
used  of  awakening  Lazarus,  Job.  xi. 
II. 

45.  Joseph]  Mt.  xxvii.  57,  Joh. 
xix.  39.  adesse  specially  means  to  be 
at  hand  when  wanted ;  it  was  a 
technical  term  to  describe  the  busi- 
ness of  an  aJtiocatus. 

perlitum]  '  anointed  all  over.' 
The  need  of  doing  this  accounts  for 
the  great  amount  of  myrrh  and  aloes 
used,  Joh.  xix.  39. 

46.  linteo]  the  sindone  of  Mt. 
xxvii.  59.  It  was  used  by  the  Egyp- 
tians in  preparing  corpses  and  was 
made  of  ^vaabs,  a  kind  of  flax. 

rudi]  '  new, '  the  usual  meaning 
of  the  word  in  late  writers,  cp.  the 
Vulgate  of  Mt.  ix.  16,  Mk  ii.  21  ; 
Sedul.  Carm.  i.  294  riidis . .  .Icgis  ~ 
'oftheN.T.';  Fort.  x.  vi.  i^  posi- 
qtie  usus  ueteres  praemicat  aula 
ntdis;  Ronsch  p.  336  f. 

47.  M  t .  XX  vi  i .  60  f.  princeps  —pr. 
sacerdotnm,  'the  high  priest.' 

48.  si]  'whether,'  a  usage  first 
found  perhaps  in  Propert.  II.  iii.  5 
quaeiebam  sicca  si  posset  piscis  ha- 
rena  \  uiuere ;  cp.  Mk  iii.  2  obser- 
uabant  eum  si  sabbatis  curaret.  The 
Italian  se  and  French  si  carry  on  this 
use. 


probaret]  'accomplish,'  'bring  to 
pass,'  which  would  be  the  best '  proof 
of  the  truth  of  His  words. 

quod  spoponderat]  Mt.  xvi.  21, 
xvii.  23,  XX.  19. 

49.  *  As  they  [the  soldiers,  see 
Mt.  xxviii.  4]  are  trembling  at  an 
angel.'  angelum  is  governed  by  tre- 
mentes, which  is  either  nom.  or  ace. 
absolute,  rather  than  in  agreement 
with  milites  in  47,  which  would  be 
difficult,  owing  to  the  intervening 
clauses  ut  uideret... spoponderat. 

50.  uellus  sericum]  Silk  was  sup- 
posed to  be  gathered  by  the  Seres 
(an  Indian  or  Chinese  people)  from 
trees;  cp.  Verg.  Georg.  Ii.  121  [why 
tell]  uelleraqtie  ut  Joins  depectant 
tenuia  Seres?  Plin.  Al.JI.  vi.  17 
Seres  lanitio  siluarum  nobiles,  per- 

fusam  aqua  depectentes  frotuiium 
canitiem\  Ambr.  Hex.  V.  "JT  ex  his 
foliis  mollia  ilia  Seres  depectttnt 
uellera,  quae  ad  usus  sibi  proprios 
diuites  uindicarunt ;  in  Luc.  V.  107, 
Fort.  Vita  Mart.  il.  88,  259.  But 
as  siik  can  hardly  be  said  to  be 
gathered  from  trees  the  allusion  in 
these  passages  is  no  doubt  to  a  ma- 
terial, possessing  many  of  the  pro- 
perties of  silk,  made  from  a  kind  of 
nettle,  'Boehmerianiuea,' which  has 
long  been  used  for  the  purpose  in 
China.  Silkworms  were  not  known 
in  Europe  before  the  time  of  Jus- 
tinian. 


12 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


demouet  saxum  sepulcro,  surgens  Christus  integer, 
haec  uidet  ludaea,  mendax  haec  negat  cum  uiderit. 
feminae  primum  monentur  saluatorem  uiuere, 
quas  salutat  ipse  maestas,  conplet  tristes  gaudio, 
seque  a  mortuis  paterna  suscitatum  dextera 
tertia  die  redisse  nuntiat  apostolis. 
mox  uidetur  a  beatis  quos  probauit  fratribus. 


55 


£1  demouet  e,  demuit  a,  demouit  rell.  sepulchri  e.  surgens  abcfg. 
52  uidet]  uidit  libri  contra  metrum.  uiderit]  abdei,  uiderat.g.  ^4  con- 
plens  d.  56  nuntians  cd. 


51.  demouet]  'he  (the  angel) 
moves  away,'  Mt.  xxviii.  2.  In  strict 
grammar  the  subject  should  be 
Christus ;  but  Christus  surgens 
should  rather  be  construed  as  nom. 
abs.  than  as  equivalent  to  surgit. 
[This  seems  to  me  an  unnecessary 
strictness  of  fidelity  to  St  Matthew's 
narrative.  I  would  rather  remove 
the  stop  after  sepulcro,  and  make 
Christus  nominative  to  demouet. 
M.] 

Integer]  'body  and  soul.'  This 
word  was  soon  to  be  the  Italian 
intero,  the  French  entier,  our  entire. 
Cp.  Hor.  Od.  II.  xvii.  7  nee  superstes 
integer;  Aetheriae  Peregr.  xvil.  i 
ubi  corpus  illius  integrum  positum 
est;  ib.  XXVIII.  3  fcuere  integras 
septimanas  ieiuniorum. 

52.  ludaea]  the  Jewish  nation, 
as  at  116.  25  and  probably  at  105.  25 ; 
cp.  the  use  of  Aegyplus  41. 1 7.  The 
comma  should  come  after  ludaea, 
not,  as  in  some  editions,  after  men- 
dax, which  goes  closely  with  negat. 
The  sense  is  that  more  fully  ex- 
pressed Sedul.  Op.  V.  25  quidjidem 
niteris  explorare,  quam  non  uis, 
etiam  cum  probarts,  admittere?  or 
by  Ambr.  in  Ps.  XLiii.  6  in  ueritate 
uiderunt  ludaei  [Christum]  et  non 
crediderunt. 

cum  uiderit]  'although  it  has...,' 
hence  the  subjunctive. 

53.  primum  m.]  '  are  straightway 
told,'  or  'are  the  first  to  be  told,' 
though  this  would  strictly  heprimae. 


monentur]  'are  informed,'  used 
much  as  in  12.  For  the  sense  of  the 
line  cp.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  x.  72  ideo 
mulier  resurrectionis  accepit  prima 
viysterium  et  mandata  custodit,  ut 
ueterem  praenaricationis  abokret  er- 
ror em. 

54.  Mt.  xxviii.  9.  maestas  denotes 
their  display  of  'mourning,'  tristes 
their  sorrow  at  heart. 

55.  Acts  ii.  24,  32,  v.  31. 

56.  tertia  die  refers  to  Christ's 
prophecy,  Mt.  xvi.  21,  alluded  to  at 
48  above. 

nuntiat]  '  sends  word.'  Final  -at 
was  in  early  Latin  long  and  may 
have  remained  so  in  popular  usage. 
In  this  line  the  stress  also  falls  upon 
it ;  cp.  Hil.  Hymn.  i.  34  uirtus, 
cum  dederit  omnia,  non  tamen;  ib. 
36  cuncta  quae  sua  sunt,  cum  dedertt 
habens;  II.  22  tremlt  et  alte.  So  in 
35  discutit.  But  as  nuntiare  is  ge- 
nerally used  of  a  messenger  carrying 
word,  and  as  we  read  Mt.  xxviii.  8 
[the  women]  exierunt. . .  nuntiare  dis- 
ciptdis  eius,  it  is  just  possible  that 
we  ought  to  read  nuntiant,  in  which 
case  se  is  used  for  ilium;  see  Irish 
Lib.  Hymn.  11.  xii. 

57.  uidetur]  '  is  seen,'  passive 
(a  beatis  fr.). 

probauit]  as  in  30^  cp.  56.  32. 

58.  Joh.  XX.  19.  'To  their  midst, 
while  they  still  doubt  His  having 
returned.  He  enters.'  In  late  Latin 
^«(7^  gradually  gained  more  and  more 
acceptance,   taking   up  at  last  the 


HYMN  I.   HILARY 


13 


quod  redisset  ambigentes  intrat  clausis  ianuis. 
dat  docens  praecepta  legis,  dat  diuinum  spiritum, 
Spiritum  Dei,  perfectae  Trinitatis  uinculum. 
praecipit  totum  per  orbem  baptizare  credulos, 


60 


58  quos  de.     redisse  e.     ianuis  clausis  libri  contra  metrutn.  60  per- 

fectum  libri.  61   baptizari  fg. 


function  of  every  other  particle  and 
of  the  ace.  and  infinitive.  It  was 
used  with  the  subjunctive,  as  here, 
or  with  the  indicative,  as  at  91.  25, 
94.  25.  It  passed  into  the  Italian 
che  and  French  que. 

ambigentes  may  be  regarded 
either  as  ace.  abs.,  like  trementes, 
in  49,  or  as  the  ace.  after  intrat ; 
cp.  Fort.  VI.  vi.  15  ne  lupus  intret 
oues.  The  MS  reading  ianuis  clausis 
will  not  scan. 

59.  Mt.  xxviii.  20,  Joh.  xx.  22. 

60.  Spiritum  Dei]  '  even  the 
Spirit  of  God,'  a  stronger  reiteration 
of  diuinum  spiritum  in  59,  and  so 
no  mere  tautology;  cp.  the  use  of 
diuinus  at  48.  24,  49.  20,  107.  12. 

perfectae  Trinitatis  u.] '  thebond 
of  the  perfect  Trinity.'  The  read- 
ing perfectufn  would  be  introduced 
from  spiritum  and  uinculum  in  the 
same  line,  and  from  a  recollection 
of  Eph.  iv.  3,  Col.  iii.  4;  cp.  41.  6 
perfecta  Trinitas;  Ambr.m  Luc.  I  v. 
44  Trinitatem  coaeternam  atque  per- 
fectam  ;  Nicet.  de  Spir.  22  perfectam 
Trinitatem  adorantes.  Blume  takes 
perfectum  as  qualifying  spiritum, 
which  does  not  seem  to  me  so  good. 

uinculum]  Although  the  word  in 
this  connexion  does  not  seem  to 
occur  in  Hilary's  prose  writings,  yet 
the  thought  underlying  it  is  to  be 
found  in  various  passages.  See  e.g. 
de  Trin.  VIII.  27  Deusigitur  Chris- 
tus  est  unus  cum  Deo  Spiritus ;  ib. 
36  sed  sacramentum  dicti  Dominici 
apostolus  tenens,  quod  est  ego  et  pater 
unum  sumus,  dum  utrumque  unum 
profitetur,  unum  utrumque  sic  signi- 
ficat  non  ad  solititdinem  singularis, 
fed  ad  Spiritus  unitatem.,.;  ib.  39 


cum  in  eodem  domino  filio  et  in  eodem 
Deo  poire  unus  atque  idem  Spiritus 
in  eodem  Spiritu  sancto  diuidens 
uniuersa  perficiat  \  Op.  Hist.  ll.  31 
et  cum  sit  Pater  in  Filio  et  Filius  in 
Patre,  et  Spiritus  sanctus  accipiat  ea 
ah  utroque,  in  eo  quod  Spiritus  ex- 
primitur  sanctae  huius  inuiolabilis 
Trinitatis  unitas,  haeretica  parte 
parturiat  Trinitas  pronuntiata  dis- 
sidium  ? 

It  must  be  recognised  in  inter- 
preting some  of  these  passages,  that 
Hilary  uses  the  word  Spiritus  to 
denote  the  common  Deltas  of  the 
Three  Persons ;  but  this  very  fact 
lent  itself  to  seeing  a  bond  of  union 
in  that  Person  of  the  Three  who 
bears  as  His  proper  name  the  de- 
signation of  the  common  substance. 
For  the  later  statement  of  the  doc- 
trine by  Augustine  and  others  see 
Petavius  de  Trinitate  vii.  12.  He 
does  not  give  any  example  of  the 
use  of  the  word  uinculum  before 
St  Bernard. 

61.  credulos]  'those  who  be- 
lieve'; cp.  Mt.  xxviii.  19  as  quoted 
by  Niceta  de  Sytnbolo  8 ;  Hil.  Hymn. 
I.  21  felix  qui potuit  fide  \  res  tantas 
penitus  credulus  adsequi;  107.  15. 
In  classical  writers  the  word  is 
always  used  as  an  adjective  and  in 
a  disparaging  sense,  '  credulous.' 

61  f.  As  to  the  punctuation  of 
these  lines,  it  seems  that  62  is  closely 
connected  with  6 1 ,  but  it  also  seems 
that  62  is  no  less  closely  connected 
with  63 ;  for  thus  the  Three  Names 
are  brought  together  and  the  mystic 
faith  is  not  only  the  belief  in  bap- 
tismal regeneration  but  also  in  the 
Trinity.  This  idea  I  have  taken  froni 


14 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


nomen  Patris  inuocantes,  confitentes  Filium, 
^mysticam  fidem  reuelat — unctos  sancto  Spiritu, 
fonte  tinctos,  innouatos,  filios  factos  Dei. 
ante  lucem  turba  fratrum  concinnemus  gloriam, 
63  mystica  fide  libri  excepto  d.    unctos]  iunctos  d,  tinctos  re//. 
cinemus  g,  concinamus  e. 


65 

65  con- 


Blume,  who  however  does  not  point 
the  rest  of  the  sentence  exactly  as  I 
have  done.  I  would  explain  the 
lines  thus :  '  He  bids  them  to  bap- 
tize throughout  the  whole  world 
those  who  believe,  calling  upon  the 
Father,  confessing  the  Son  (mystic 
the  faith  that  He  reveals!),  anointed 
by  the  holy  Spirit,  dipped  in  the 
font,  born  again,  made  the  sons  of 
God.'  It  will  be  seen  that  I  regard 
unctos,  tinctos  etc.  as  in  apposition 
with  inuocantes  and  confitentes,  and 
mysticam  y]  r.  as  a  parenthesis. 
unctos  I  take  to  be,  not  a  reference 
to  the  unction  with  the  chrisma  (cp. 
26.  4  note),  then  the  necessary  ad- 
junct of  baptism,  for  ihis  folloived 
the  immersion  in  the  KoXvfi^ridpa, 
but  to  the  anointing  of  the  whole 
body  which  is  described  by  Cyril  of 
Jerusalem  as  immediately  preceding 
this  immersion.  After  the  anointing 
each  candidate  was  asked  if  he  be- 
lieved in  the  name  of  the  Father  and 
of  the  Son  and  of  the  holy  Spirit. 
Each  made  this  confession.  Cyril 
makes  no  further  mention  of  an  in- 
vocation of  the  Trinity  by  the  bap- 
tiser.  Then  all  were  thrice  dipped 
in  the  pool  and  came  forth  again, 
and  after  putting  on  white  robes 
were  confirmed  with  chrism  applied 
to  forehead,  ears,  nostrils  and  breast. 
Cyril's  words  are  Cat.  xx  (p.  312 
ed.  Paris  1720)  etra  a-KoSvdivrei 
iXaiif)  rjKeiifteade  iiropKiarQ  air'  &Kpu)v 

rpiX^f    KOpV<pTJi    iui  t(x3V    KdTU}.../X,eTdi 

ravTo,  ivl  tt]v  ayiav  rov  6elov  /Sair- 
rlff/JMTOs  ixeipaywyeiade  koXv/x^i^- 
dpav.  At  Cyprian  Epist.  LXX.  2  the 
allusion  is  no  doubt  to  the  confirma- 
tion which  immediately  followed 
baptism  :  baptizati  unguntur  oleum 
in  altari  sanctificatum . . ,  ttngi  quoque 


necesse  est  eum  qui  baptizatus  est,  ut 
accept 0  chrismate,  id  est  tinctione,  esse 
unctus  Dei  possit.  Hilary,  as  I  be- 
lieve, during  his  exile  in  Eastern 
parts  would  have  had  an  opportunity 
of  witnessing  a  baptism  according 
to  the  Jerusalem  ritual.  [I  cannot 
think  that  the  tense  of  utictos  is  so 
strictly  used  as  to  signify  an  action 
previous  to  baptism.  If  it  were,  the 
same  would  apply  to  tinctos,  eic.  M.] 
unctos  would  easily  pass  into 
tinctos,  which  is  so  similar  in  writ- 
ing, from  tinctos  in  the  next  line. 
The  phrase  tinctos  s.  Spiritu, '  dipped 
in  the  Spirit,'  is  more  than  awkward. 

64.  fonte]  Cp.  Tit.  iii.  5. 

innouatos]  '  born  again,'  '  re- 
newed.' More  usual  words  are  re- 
natus  (J oh.  iii.  3),  regeneratus.  See 
Tit.  iii.  5  saluos  nos fecit  per  lauacrum 
regenerationis  et  renouationis  Spiri- 
tussancti.  At26.  4(  =  Prud.vi.  128), 
where  Dressel  reads  innotatum, 
several  Mss  of  Prud.  and  most 
breviaries  that  contain  the  hymn 
write  innouatuin ;  see  Obbar.  ad  loc. 

fllioa  f.  Dei]  Rom.  viii.  16,  Gal. 
iv.  5  f. 

65.  ante  lucem]  Cp.  Plin.  ^/?>/. 
X.  96  adfirmabant  autevi  hanc  fuisse 
summam  uel  culpae  suae  uel  erroris, 
quod essent  soliti  stato  die  ante  lucem 
conuenire  carvienque  Christo  quasi 
Deo  dicere  secum  inuicem.  Daniel 
Thes.  IV.  30  seems  to  hint  at  the 
possibility  of  our  present  hymn  being 
one  of  those  thus  sung  in  Bithynia, 
A.  D.  1 1 1  f.  But  those  would  be  in 
Greek. 

concinnemus  is  used  as  in  2. 

66.  qua  is  a  kind  of  descriptive 
ablative,  somewhat  like  such  familiar 
phrases  as  qua  es  benignitate. 

sempitemo  saeculo]  '  throughout 


HYMN  I.   HILARY 


15 


qua  docemur  nos  futures  sempiterno  saeculo, 

nos  cantantes  et  precantes  quae  futura  credimus, 

inmensamque  maiestatem  concinnemus  uniter. 

ante  lucem  nuntiemus  Christum  regem  saeculo. 

galli  cantus,  galli  plausus  proximum  sentit  diem.  70 

[ante  lucem  decantantes  Christum  regem  dominum. 

qui  in  ilium  recte  credunt  regnaturi  cum  eo. 

gloria  Patri  ingenito,  gloria  Unigenito, 

una  cum  sancto  Spiritu  in  sempiterna  saecula.] 

66   quia   docemus   d.      futura   c,    futuri   fg.      sempiterna   saecula   cfg. 
67  cantantes]  canentes  bde.  68  maiestalemque  inmensam  libri.    conci- 

nemus  fg.  iugiter  libri  'exc.  b.  After  70  b  repeats  70  and  adds  72  et  qui  in 
ilium  rectae  credunt  regnaturi  cum  eo.  e  writes  68  f.  magestatemque  in- 
mensam concinnemus  iugiter  ante  lucem  nuntiemus  XP°  regi  saecula.  Ante 
lucem  nuntiemus  XP°  regi  dno  qui  in  illo  recti  credunt  regnaturi  cum  eo.  et 
itt  72  ovi.  de.  All  the  MSS  except  d  add  a  doxology  gloria  patri  ingenito 
gloria  unigenito  simul  cum  sco  spu  in  sempiterna  saecula.  ingenito]  genitori 
e.     simul]  ac,  una  eg.     in  saecula  saeculorum  c. 


eternity,'  the  abl.  of  time  during 
which,  rare  in  classical  writers ;  but 
cp.  Caes.  Bell.  Civ.  i.  47  nostri... 
quinque  horis  proelium  suslinuis- 
sent;  Cic.  Div.  I.  19  negari  non 
potest  niultis  saeculis  fuisse  id  ora- 
ctUum.  In  late  Latin  duration  of 
time  was  regularly  expressed  by  the 
abl. 

66  f.  In  the  arrangement  of  these 
lines  I  have  put  the  Wne  galli  cantus 
...  last,  Ixicause,  when  in  the  usual 
order  it  came  between  </ua  docemur 
and  nos  cantantes...,  it  interrupted 
the  sense ;  whereas  it  makes  a  good 
•  finish.  With  the  transposition  all 
runs  easily:  'which  we  are  taught 
shall  be  ours  through  endless  ages, 
even  we  who  sing  and  pray  for  what 
we  believe  will  be.' 

68.  imiter]  *  in  unison, '=M«a«^fe 
. . .  lino  carmine  of  49. 3 1  f.  The  gene- 
rally read  iugiter  is  less  appropriate 
here;  see  note  on  iugem  Ifludem  in 
29  above,  uniter  is  a  Lucretian  word. 

inmensamque  maiestatem]  Cp. 
Te    Deum    1 1     Patretn    inmensae 


maiestatis;  Athanasian  Creed  9,  la; 
76.  I ;  Commod.  Apol.  102  quod 
Dei  maiestas,  quid  sit,  sibi  conscia 
sola  est.  relucet  inmcnsa  super  caelos. 
Minuc.  Felix  Octauius  xviii.  8  sic 
eum  digne  custitnamus,  dum  inae- 
stimabilem  dicimus ;  ...magnitudi- 
nein  Dei  qui  se  putat  nosse,  minuit. 

69.  'Christ  the  King'  comes  just 
before  the  end  as  at  the  begiiming 
of  the  hymn.  With  the  sense  of  the 
line  cp.  the  prologue  to  Hilary's 
Hymns :  in  came  Christum  hymnis 
miindo  nuntians. 

70.  'The  cock's  crowing,  the 
cock's  clapping  of  wings  feels...'; 
i.e.  the  cock  by  his  crowing  and 
clapping  shows  that  he  is  aware  of 
the  approach  of  another  day.  When 
accurate  clocks  were  as  yel  unknown, 
the  hours  of  the  night  were  often 
reckoned  by  cockcrow;  cp.  Mk  xiii. 
35,  xiv.  30,  72  ;  2.  5  praeco  diei  iam 
sonat ;  20.  i  ales  diei  nuntius  lucem 
propinquam praecinit.  Shakesp.  Ro- 
meo and  Juliet  IV.  iv.  'the  second 
cock  has  crowed. ..'tis  three  o'clock.' 


II.   AMBROSE 

The  siege  of  St  Ambrose  in  the  Portian  basilica,  in 
386,  made  an  epoch  in  the  history  of  Latin  hymns. 
Ambrose  had  already  written  some  hymns  for  the  liturgy 
of  the  Milanese  church,  though  we  do  not  exactly  know 
when^  Hymns  in  themselves  were  by  this  time  no 
novelty.  But  a  new  mode  of  singing  them  was  then 
introduced.  The  whole  congregation  was,  as  usual,  the 
choir.  When  the  first  verse  of  a  hymn  had  been  sung  by 
the  one  side  the  second  verse  was  taken  up  by  the  other 
side,  and  so  on  throughout  the  hymn.  It  was  the  singing 
of  the  hymns  in  this  novel  manner  that  above  all  seized 
upon  the  imagination  of  the  people.  One  who  was  in 
Milan  during  these  stirring  times  has  painted  in  memor- 
able words  the  deep  impression  produced  by  the  sound 
of  all  those  voices  singing  with  one  mouth  and  with 
one  soul.  Augustine  tells  the  story  thus,  according  to 
Dr  Pusey's  translation  : 

'  Not  long  had  the  church  of  Milan  begun  to  use 
this  kind  of  consolation  and  exhortation,  the  brethren 
zealously  joining  with  harmony  of  voice  and  hearts.  For 
it  was  a  year,  or  not  much  more,  that  Justina,  mother  to 
the  emperor  Valentinian,  a  child,  persecuted  Thy  servant 
Ambrose,  in  favour  of  her  heresy,  to  which  she  was 
seduced  by  the  Arians.  The  devout  people  kept  watch 
in   the   church,    ready  to   die   with   their   bishop   Thy 

^  Some  scholars  think  that  Augustine's  words  quoted  below  do  not  bear 
out  this  assertion.  They  maintain  that  amid  the  storm  and  stress  of  the 
siege  of  the  basilica  Ambrose  found  time  and  leisure  to  write  his  hymns,  no 
improvisations  but  carefully  worked  out  poems.  That  he  should  have  done 
so  may  not  be  absolutely  impossible,  but  it  is  most  improbable. 


AMBROSE  17 

servant.  There  my  mother  Thy  handmaid,  bearing  a 
chief  part  of  those  anxieties  and  vvatchings,  lived  for 
prayer.  We,  yet  unwarmed  by  the  heat  of  Thy  Spirit, 
still  were  stirred  up  by  the  sight  of  the  amazed  and  dis- 
quieted city.  Then  it  was  first  instituted  that  hymns 
and  psalms  should  be  sung  after  the  manner  of  the 
eastern  churches,  lest  the  people  should  wax  faint 
through  the  tediousness  of  sorrow :  and  from  that  day 
to  this  the  custom  is  retained,  divers  (yea,  almost  all) 
Thy  congregations  throughout  other  parts  of  the  world, 
following  herein ^' 

The  Arians  fixed  upon  Ambrose  the  charge  of  using 
the  hymns  as  magic  spells.  He  accepted  the  charge 
with  pride.  'They  allege,'  he  said,  'that  the  people  are 
deceived  with  the  magic  spells  of  my  hymns.  I  do  not 
deny  the  fact.  For  what  can  be  more  powerful  than  a 
confession  of  the  Trinity  daily  sung  by  the  mouth  of  the 
whole  people**?' 

We  are  entitled  to  believe  that  hymns  which  had  so 
.striking  an  effect  must  have  borne  strongly  marked 
features  by  which  they  might  be  recognised  ;  and  that 
hymns  which  thus  found  their  way  to  the  heart  of  the 
Milanese  faithful  could  not  have  been  by  them  neglected, 
forgotten  and  lost.  This  is  the  case.  They  had  definite 
characteristics  of  substance  and  of  form  ;  and  they  were 
clung  to  with  obstinate  pertinacity  against  both  emperors 
and  popes.  And  yet,  when  we  come  to  ask  which  these 
precious  hymns  are,  in  the  midst  of  many  others  more 
or  less  like  them  that  have  been  handed  down  to  us  in 


*  Aug.  Confessions  IX.  vii.  15.  [In  Dr  Pusey's  translation  the  words 
'  after  the  manner  of  the  eastern  churches '  stand  before  '  hymns  and 
psalms  should  be  sung.'  See  the  note  in  the  edition  of  Gibb  and  Mont- 
gomery in  this  series.    M.] 

2  Serm,  c.  Auxent.  34.    Cp.  Aug.  Conf.  ix.  vi.  14. 

w.  3 


1 8  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

old  hymnals,  it  has  not  been  found  easy  to  give  a  precise 
answer. 

Their  very  excellence  has  put  one  great  hindrance  in 
the  way.  In  this  case,  as  in  all  others,  success  led  to 
imitation.  Almost  at  once  writers  arose  who  composed 
hymns,  which  they  tried  as  best  they  could  to  make 
close  copies  of  those  of  Ambrose.  Moreover  Ambrose 
had  made  the  metre  that  he  used  so  completely  his  own 
that  it  soon  came  to  be  called  the  '  Ambrosian'  metre,  as 
Alcaeus  and  Sappho  gave  their  names  to  their  respective 
measures.  Any  hymn  composed  in  that  metre  was 
called  an  'Ambrosian,'  [The  earliest  instances  are  in  the 
Rule  of  Benedict  (IX.  8,  xii.  8,  xiir.  2i,xvii.  19 — the  lines 
being  those  of  E.  C.  Butler's  edn).]  Isidore  of  Seville  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Vllth  century  says,  'Hymns  are 
from  his  name  called  Ambrosians.'  Indeed  so  completely 
were  the  two  words,  hymn  and  Ambrosian,  identified  in 
the  course  of  time,  that  even  the  connexion  of  the  one 
word  with  the  Bishop  of  Milan  was  half  forgotten. 
Hincmar  in  the  IXth  century  gives  an  alternative 
derivation  of  the  term  Ambrosian  as  accepted  by  some: 
'there  is  a  certain  herb  called  ambrosia  which  the 
heathen  used  in  honour  of  their  gods,  and  thence  is 
derived  "Ambrosian,"  that  is  "divine."'  It  is  often  im- 
possible to  tell  with  certainty  what  even  such  careful 
writers  as  Cassiodorus  and  the  Venerable  Bede  mean, 
when  they  call  such  and  such  a  hymn  an  Ambrosian. 

The  next  stumbling-block  in  our  way  is  this.  The 
hymns  of  Ambrose  were  one  and  all  written  for  and 
inserted  in  the  service-books  of  his  own  church  of  Milan. 
Now  it  is  notorious  that  the  several  parts  of  a  liturgy 
are  not  signed  with  their  authors'  names.  The  hymns  in 
the  use  of  Milan  would  be  anonymous.  For  a  while  this 
would  cause  no  doubt  or  confusion.   But  when  the  writer 


AMBROSE  19 

was  dead,  and  when  the  generation  that  knew  him  had 
passed  away,  and  when  the  hymns  had  been  adopted 
into  the  uses  of  other  churches,  then  confusion  and 
doubt  would  arise,  aggravated  in  this  particular  case  by 
the  imitation  of  other  writers.  We  need  feel  no  surprise 
when  we  find  the  hymn  collectors  of  the  XVIth  century, 
— such  as  were  Clichtoveus  or  Cassander  or  Gillot, — 
assigning  to  Ambrose  any  hymns  which  they  believed 
to  be  ancient  and  which  they  did  not  wish  to  give  to 
any  other  writer. 

The  first  attempt  at  discrimination  that  can  at  all  be 
called  scientific  was  made  by  the  Benedictines  of  the 
congregation  of  St  Maur  in  Parish  The  hymns  formed 
an  appendix  to  their  edition  of  the  works  of  Ambrose. 
No  hymn  was  by  them  allowed  to  pass  as  genuine  if  it 
was  not  attested  by  some  good  writer  who  lived  near 
enough  to  the  close  of  the  IVth  century  to  render  his 
I  statement  on  the  point  worthy  of  credit  in  the  editors' 
judgement.  The  Benedictine  scholars  themselves  did  not 
claim  that  their  method  was  perfect,  only  that  it  was  the 
best  available  in  the  circumstances.  They  did  not  deny 
that  among  the  hymns  omitted  by  them  there  might  be 
some  written  by  Ambrose. 

The  witnesses  admitted  as  adequate  were  seven  in 
number.  They  were  Augustine  of  Hippo,  Caelestine 
(Pope  from  422  to  436),  Faustus  (Bishop  of  Riez,  who 
died  in  492),  Cassiodorus  (who  died  in  575),  Ildefonsus, 
Bishop  of  Toledo  (who  died  in  66^),  the  Venerable  Bede 
(who  died  in  735),  and  Hincmar  of  Reims  (who  died  as 
late  as  882).  The  hymns  thus  attested  were  twelve  in 
number.    They  were : 


^  The  editors  of  St  Ambrose  were  J.  du  Frische  and  N.  le  Nourry  and 
the  work  appeared  in  two  folio  volumes  at  Paris  1 686-1 690. 


*:  /" 


20  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

1.  Aeterne  rerum  conditor. 

2.  Deus  creator  omnium. 

3.  lam  surgit  hora  tertia. 

4.  Veni  redemptor  gentium. 

5.  Inluminans  altissimus. 

6.  Orabo  mente  Dominum. 

7.  Splendor  paternae  gloriae. 

8.  Aeterna  Christi  munera, 

9.  Somno  refectis  artubus. 

10.  Censors  paterni  luminis. 

11.  O  lux  beata  Trinitas. 

12.  Fit  porta  Christi  peruia. 

Useful  as  this  test  of  quotation  by  an  early  and  care- 
ful writer  may  be  when  taken  in  combination  with  other 
tests,  it  is  not  good  enough  when  taken  alone.  It  is 
more  or  less  a  matter  of  chance  whether  any  particular 
hymn  is  or  is  not  among  the  few,  the  very  few,  that  are 
so  quoted.  And  it  will  be  seen  from  what  we  have  said 
above  that  the  canon  of  the  Benedictines  is  open  to  yet 
another  serious  objection.  The  evidence  of  such  men  as 
Augustine  and  Caelestine,  and  even  perhaps  that  of 
Faustus,  is  as  good  as  evidence  can  be  and  is  not  to  be 
gainsaid.  But  the  last  few  writers  on  the  list — Cassio- 
dorus,  and  in  especial  Bede  and  Hincmar — are  by  no 
means  equally  trustworthy.  As  to  Bede,  apart  from  his 
lateness  of  date,  we  can  seldom  feel  sure  whether  in 
calling  a  hymn  an  'Ambrosian'  he  thereby  means  to  say 
that  it  was  one  written  by  Ambrose.  At  times  his  words 
can  scarcely  be  taken  to  mean  this.  Thus  in  one  place 
he  writes:  quo  modo  et  adinstar  ianibici  metri piilcherrhne 
/actus  est  hymnus  ille praeclarus'.  Rex  aeterne  Domine... 
et  alii  Ambrosiani  non  pauci — a  hymn  which  he  cannot 
have  ascribed  to  St  Ambrose. 

The  Benedictine  canon  is  therefore   when  taken  by 


AMBROSE  21 

itself  insufificient.  And  yet  well-nigh  all  modern  writers 
on  the  subject  before  the  last  few  years  have  followed  it 
implicitly.  We  may  adapt  Bentley's  well-known  saying 
about  Stephens:  the  judgement  of  the  Benedictines 
stood  as  if  an  apostle  had  been  their  compositor.  A 
quotation  by  an  early  writer  has  been  the  one  test  of 
authenticity  allowed  by  such  scholars  as  Ebert,  Manitius, 
Huemer  and  others.  Ihm,  who  has  done  such  excellent 
work  on  Ambrose,  winds  up  a  brief  account  of  the  above 
mentioned  twelve  hymns  with  the  significant  words:  '  I 
neither  wish  nor  am  able  to  say  more  about  the  hymns 
of  AmbroseV 

But  there  is  a  better  way.    As   long  ago   as    1862, 
)r  Luigi  Biraghi  of  the  Ambrosian  Library  brought  out 
^an  edition  of  the  Inni  sinceri  e  carmi  di  Sanf  Ambrogio 
ath  an  illustrative  commentary  and  an  excellent  intro- 
duction setting  forth  his  methods  in  detail.    Strange  to 
say,  not  one  of  the  scholars  just  mentioned  makes  any 
use  of  this  book,  only  one  or  two  of  them  so  much  as 
mentioning  his  name.    We  hope  to  be  able  to  shew  that 
he  is  in  the  right  and  that  he  proves  his  case.   Of  recent 
years  the  late  Dr  G.  M.  Dreves,Fr.  C.  Blume,Dr  A.  Steier 
and  others  have  successfully  contended  for  him. 

The  Benedictines  had  laid  down  one  canon  and  only 
one.  Biraghi  lays  down  no  fewer  than  three.  Firstly  a 
hymn  must  be  in  every  respect  worthy  of  Ambrose,  in 
subject-matter,  literary  style,  and  prosody.  Secondly,  it 
must  have  been  continuously  in  the  Ambrosian  use,  as 
the  use  of  Milan  is  called.  Thirdly,  if  it  happens  to  be 
attested  by  some  early  and  careful  writer,  so  much  the 
better.  This  third  test  is  (as  it  should  be)  chiefly  used  to 
confirm  other  evidence.  For,  as  we  have  already  seen, 
because  a  hymn  does  not  happen  to  be  quoted,  it  does 

^  Sludia  Arnbrosiana  p.  6r. 


22  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

not  follow  that  on  this  account  it  is  not  one  of  the 
genuine  hymns  of  Ambrose.  We  may  well  add  a  fourth 
canon,  which  is  indeed  a  corollary  of  the  first.  Like 
some  other  writers  Ambrose  was  given  to  repeating 
himself,  often  using  well-nigh  the  same  words.  A  hymn 
therefore  that  contains  characteristically  Ambrosian 
thoughts  and  phrases  is  likely  to  have  been  written  by 
Ambrose. 

Let  us  take  first  the  second  of  these  tests,  which  at 
least  at  the  beginning  of  the  search  is  as  important  as 
any.  If  the  leading  question  to  ask  is  :  Where  shall  we 
be  likely  to  find  Ambrose's  hymns  ?  the  answer  is 
obviously:  In  the  service-books  of  that  church  for  which 
they  were  written.  We  know  that  this  church  of  Milan 
in  every  age  of  its  history,  but  more  especially  in  its 
earlier  days,  has  shewn  itself  intensely  conservative  in 
upholding  the  Ambrosian  use.  Charles  the  Great  suc- 
ceeded in  ousting  the  offices  of  other  churches  in  his 
wide  domains,  but  in  spite  of  his  strenuous  measures^  he 
failed  to  persuade  or  compel  the  Milanese  to  give  up 
theirs.  Is  it  then  likely  that  they  should  have  neglected 
that  which  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  important 
parts  of  their  rite,  the  hymns — and  such  hymns  written 
at  such  a  crisis  by  their  great  bishop  ? 

Then  we  have  to  look  for  our  hymns  in  the  old  manu- 
scripts— the  hymnals,  breviaries,  manuals,  antiphonaries 
and  psalters — which  have  preserved  for  us  the  tradi- 
tional use  of  the  Ambrosian  church.  And  we  shall  not 
search  in  vain.  Biraghi,  and  after  him  Dreves,  examined 
these  manuscripts,  some  dozen  or  so  in  number,  ranging 
in  date  from  the  Xth  to  the  XlVth  or  XVth  century. 

'  Vita  Caroli  (apud  Bolland.  28  Jan.)  26  Mediolanum  profecttis  omties 
libros  Ambrosiano  titulo  sigillatos,  quos  iiel  dono  uel  pretio  uel  ui  habere 
potuit,  alios  combussit,  alios  trans  monies  quasi  in  exilitim  misit. 


AMBROSE  23 

The  outcome  of  the  investigation  is  a  collection  of 

some  forty  hymns.     Out  of  this  number  our  genuine 

lymns  of  Ambrose  have  to  be  picked,  as  for  one  reason 

lor  another  the  whole  forty  cannot  be  his.    This  we  must 

fdo  by  the  application  of  Biraghi's  first  canon.    We  have 

to   find   out   the   characteristics    of   matter,    style   and 

scansion  to  which  a  hymn  of  Ambrose  may  be  expected 

to  conform.    With  this  end  in  view  we  may  take  the  four 

fhymns  which  we  know  on  Augustine's  authority  to  have 

[been  written  by  his  master,  regarding  him  for  the  time 

being,  but  only  for  so  long,  as  the  .one  unimpeachable 

witness  of  authenticity. 

The  four  hymns  are  these:  Aeterne  reriim  conditor, 
Deiis  creator  omnium,  lam.  siirgit  hora  tertia,  Intende  qui 
regis  Israel. 

What  helpful  characteristics  can  we  note  in  them } 
To  begin  with,  each  one  of  them  contains  eight 
stanzas  of  four  lines.  If  any  one  should  ask  why  this 
exact  number,  we  have  an  answer  to  hand  which  is  at 
least  plausible.  A  hymn  of  just  so  many  verses  would 
on  the  one  hand  not  be  so  long  as  to  weary  the  singers, 
nor  on  the  other  hand  would  it  be  so  short  as  to  preclude 
the  teaching,  for  which  it  was  specially  written.  Then 
again,  as  we  have  seen,  the  hymn  was  to  be  sung  anti- 
phonally,  and  therefore  it  must  needs  contain  an  even 
number  of  verses.  This  mode  of  singing  made  it  also 
desirable  that  as  a  rule  the  sense  should  end  with  each 
stanza  and  not  overlap  into  the  next. 

In  the  next  place  we  note  that  the  four  hymns  were 
all  written  in  the  '  Ambrosian'  metre,  the  iambic  dimeter 
as  it  is  called.  The  laws  of  metre  are  carefully  observed, 
almost  as  carefully  as  they  had  been  observed  by  the 
great  metrists  Vergil,  Horace  and  Martial.  Ebert  would 
indeed  bind  Ambrose  too  fast  when  he  says  that  his 


/- 


/ 


24  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

prosody  is  perfect.  But  we  must  remember  that  he  was 
thinking  only  of  the  four  hymns  attested  by  Augustine. 
To  take  one  or  two  licences  by  way  of  example.  Hiatus 
was  as  a  rule  avoided  by  the  classical  poets.  Yet  Horace 
could  scan  capiti  inhumato',  Vergil  ter  sunt  conatt  im- 
ponere  Pelib  Ossam,  and  even  addam  cerea  prund ;  honos 
erit  huic  quoque  pomo.  Then  we  cannot  complain  if 
Ambrose  wrote  Petri  adaequauit  fidem.  And  as  to  the 
lengthening  of  short  final  syllables  by  the  ictus  or  stress 
of  the  verse :  of  this  we  have  two  examples  in  the  four 
hymns — te  diligat  castus  amor,  and  qui  credidit  saluus 
erit.  In  this  licence  Ambrose  goes  little  farther  than 
Horace  with  perruptt  Acheronta,  or  Vergil  with pectoribus 
inhians. 

Let  us  now  inquire  into  the  literary  character  of  the 
four  hymns,  their  outward  form  and  style.  They  are,  as 
we  should  expect  from  a  man  of  Ambrose's  character 
and  education  under  the  best  masters  of  Rome,  sharp- 
cut,  clear,  concise,  nervous  and  strong.  And  as  the 
themes  are  high,  so  the  thought  is  profound.  As  Arch- 
bishop Trench  happily  put  it : 

'  The  great  objects  of  faith  in  their  simplest  expression 
are  felt  by  him  so  sufficient  to  stir  all  the  deepest  feel- 
ings of  the  heart,  that  any  attempt  to  dress  them  up,  to 
array  them  in  moving  language,  were  merely  superfluous. 
The  passion  is  there,  but  it  is  latent  and  represt,  a  fire 
burning  inwardly,  the  glow  of  an  austere  enthusiasm, 
which  reveals  itself  indeed,  but  not  to  every  careless 
beholder.  Nor  do  we  fail  presently  to  observe  how  truly 
these  poems  belonged  to  their  time  and  to  the  circum- 
stances under  which  they  were  produced — how  suitably 
the  faith  which  was  in  actual  conflict  with,  and  was  just 
triumphing  over,  the  powers  of  this  world,  found  its 
utterance  in  hymns  such  as  these,  wherein  is  no  softness. 


AMBROSE  25 

perhaps  little  tenderness ;  but  in  place  of  these  a  rock- 
like firmness,  the  old  Roman  stoicism  transmuted  and 
glorified  into  that  nobler  Christian  courage,  which  en- 
'  countered  and  at  length  overcame  the  worldV 

The  hymns  which  stand  the  tests  that  have  been 
(mentioned,  that  is  to  say,  those  which  are  in  the  liturgi- 
cal books  of  the  Milanese,  church  and  which  bear  the 
hall-mark  of  a  workmanlike  hand  such  as  was  that  of 
Ambrose,  are  according  to  Biraghi  eighteen  in  number. 
They  are  the  eighteen  which  follow  (nos.  2-19). 

As  to  the  first  fourteen  of  these  we  may  follow  Biraghi 
without  hesitation  and  admit  that  they  were  written  by 
Ambrose.  But  while  the  evidence  with  regard  to  the 
last  four  hymns  is  no  doubt  weighty,  it  is  not  convincing 
in  the  same  measure. 

We  will  first  take  the  three  short  hymns,  16,  17  and 
18,  each  consisting  of  two  stanzas.  It  is  in  their  favour 
that  they  are  contained  in  most  of  the  Ambrosian 
manuscripts,  that  in  thought  and  expression  they  are 
not  unworthy  of  Ambrose,  and  that  they  may  be  illus- 
trated to  some  extent  at  least  from  his  prose  writings. 
Against  their  authenticity  however  the  following  objec- 
tions must  be  taken  into  account. 

Ambrose  undoubtedly  wrote  another  hymn  for  the 
Third  Hour,  number  4  in  this  volume.  But  the  longer 
hymn  may  possibly  have  been  written  for  use  on 
Sundays  and  festivals,  a  shorter  one  for  daily  use.  And 
there  may  have  been  another  reason  why  the  author 
should  write  a  second  hymn  for  the  Third  Hour.  In  the 
longer  hymn  there  is  but  a  bare  allusion  to  the  descent 
of  the  Holy  Spirit  on  the  day  of  Pentecost :  he  may 
have  felt  that  the  subject  was  too  great  to  be  brought  in 
as  merely  part  of  a  hymn,  and  so  may  have  separated 

'  Sacred  Latin  Poetry  p.  88. 


26  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

for  special  treatment  the  two  events  with  which  the  third 
hour  was  especially  connected. 

Their  shortness  renders  the  Ambrosian  authorship  of 
the  three  hymns  doubtful.  It  is  this  above  all  that  per- 
suades Steier  to  assign  them  to  some  other  unknown 
writer.  He  argues  that,  as  the  undoubted  hymns  of 
Ambrose  without  exception  contain  eight  verses  each  of 
four  lines,  we  may  expect  this  number  in  any  hymn 
of  his.  But  this  seems  to  be  too  definite  a  statement 
considering  our  limited  knowledge  of  the  circumstances. 

It  is  perhaps  more  important  to  note  that  they  are  not 
included  in  the  Rule  either  of  Caesarius,  or  of  his  suc- 
cessor Aurelian,  nor  are  they  to  be  found  in  the  MSS 
which  contain  the  older  series  of  hymns,  although  all  the 
hymns  known  to  be  written  by  Ambrose,  except  the  six 
composed  in  honour  of  individual  saints,  are  forthcoming 
in  one  or  more  of  these  documents. 

Steier  objects  moreover  that  the  agreement  in  respect 
of  language  between  these  three  hymns  and  Ambrose's 
prose  writings  is  very  slight.  With  regard  to  this  we 
must  bear  in  mind  the  obvious  truth  that  the  shorter  the 
hymn,  the  less  chance  is  there  of  our  coming  across  such 
parallels,  which  after  all  are  by  no  means  entirely 
wanting. 

It  is  perhaps  safest  in  the  present  state  of  our  know- 
ledge to  leave  the  question  undecided.  If  the  three 
hymns  in  question  were  not  written  by  Ambrose  they 
are  for  all  that  worthy  of  him. 

For  the  last  hymn  on  the  list  Biraghi  confidently 
claims  Ambrose  as  its  writer,  but  his  main  argument 
rests  on  doubly  insecure  grounds.  In  the  treatise  De 
Lapsu  Virginis  consecratae,  which  is  sometimes  assigned 
to  Ambrose  and  which  is  a  severe  rebuke  of  one  Susanna 
who  had  broken  her  vows  of  chastity,  we  read  frustra 


HYMN  IL   AMBROSE  27 

hymnum  uirginitatis  exposui.  But  probably  Ambrose  did 
not  write  the  book^  and  even  if  he  did  the  words  cannot 
allude  to  our  hymn,  for  exposui  must  mean  *  I  have  set 
forth'  or  'explained/  not  'I  have  composed^' 

However  this  does  not  prove  that  the  hymn  was  not 
written  by  Ambrose.  It  is  likely  enough  that  he  should 
have  composed  such  a  hymn  for  the  virgins  of  whom  he 
wrote  and  thought  so  much.  His  characteristic  ideas 
and  phrases  occur  in  it,  including  the  slightly  altered 
quotation  of  scripture,  which  was  quite  in  his  manner. 
The  number  of  stanzas,  four  instead  of  the  usual  eight, 
is  not  an  insuperable  difficulty.  We  are  inclined  there- 
fore to  say  that  in  all  probability  Ambrose  was  the 
write'r  of  hymn  19.  It  must  be  mentioned  that  it  is  not 
in  honour  of  one  or  more  virgins,  in  which  case  a  later 
writer  would  have  had  to  be  found  for  it,  but  a  beautiful 
prayer  to  Christ  the  heavenly  bridegroom. 


Hymn  2 

Augustine  definitely  says  that  this  hymn  was  written 
by  Ambrose:  Retract.  I.  21  in  quo  [sc.  libro  contra  epist. 
Donati]  dixi  in  quodam  loco  de  apostolo  Petro,  quod  in  illo 
tamquani  in  petra  fundata  sit  ecclesia ;  qui  sensus  etiam 
cantatur  ore  niultoruni  in  uersibus  beatissitni  Ambrosii^ 
ubi  de  gallo  gallinaceo  ait :  hoc  ipsa  petra  ecclesiae  \  canente 
culpam  diluit. 

A  passage  from  Ambrose  Hex.  V.  88  with  which  the 
hymn  is  clearly  and  closely  connected,  forms  a  good 
commentary    on    it :    est  etiam  galli  cantus   suauis   in 

^  It  is  given  by  some  to  Niceta  of  Remesiana,  the  possible  writer  of  the 
Te  Deum ;  cp.  Ihm  Studia  Ambrosiana  73  f.,  Burn  Niceta  cxxxi  f. 

^  The  Benedictine  editors  of  Ambrose  identify  the  '  hymn  of  virginity ' 
with  the  latter  part  of  Psalm  xliv.  (xlv.),  namely  from  verse  10  to  the  end. 


28  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

noctibus,  nee  solum  suauis  sed  etiain  utilis ;  qui  quasi 
bonus  cohabitator  et  dorniientem  exeitat  et  sollicitmn 
admonet  et  uiantem  solatur^  processunt  noctis  canora 
uoce  protestans.  hoc  canente  latro  suas  relinquit  insidias, 
hoc^  ipse  hicifer  excitatus  oritur  caelumque  inluminat ;  hoc 
canente  maestitiam  trepidus  nauta  deponit,  omnisque  crebro 
uespertinis  flatibus  excitata  tempestas  et  procella  mitescit ; 
hoc^  deuotus  affectus  exsilit  ad  precajidum,  legendo  quoque 
munus  instaurat;  hoc  postremo  canente  ipse  ecclesiae  petra 
culpam  suam  diluit,  quam  priusquam  gallus  caniaret 
negando  contraxerat.  istius  cantu  spes  ointiibus  redit,  aegri 
releuatur  incornmodum,  minuitur  dolor  uulnerunt,  febrium 
Jlagrantia  mitigatur,  reuertitur  fides  lapsis,  Jesus  titubantes 
respicit,  errantes  corrigit.  denique  respexit  Petrum  et 
statim  error  abscessit ;  pulsa  est  negatio,  secuta  confessio. 
The  passage  appears  to  be  based  on  the  hymn,  rather 
than  the  hymn  on  the  passage. 

As  to  the  first  stanza  of  this  hymn  and  also  that  of  5, 
Kayser  notes  that  we  need  not  be  surprised  if  Ambrose 
more  than  once  in  his  hymns  alludes  to  the  recognition 
of  the  one  true  God  which  is  brought  home  to  us  by 
means  of  the  immutable  course  of  nature.  There  were  in 
his  time  many  Christians  who,  although  they  had  aban- 
doned the  polytheism  of  heathendom  for  the  monotheism 
of  Christianity,  yet  needed  to  be  reminded  of  the  great 
doctrine  which  distinguished  the  one  from  the  other.  In 
their  attacks  on  paganism  the  apologists  continually 
appeal  to  the  possibility  and  necessity  of  learning  the 
existence  of  one  almighty  God  from  the  facts  of  surround- 
ing nature.  They  point  to  the  regular  and  beneficial 
succession  of  times, — as  for  instance  day  and  night, — 

^  Note  that  just  as  in  line  1 1  of  the  hymn  canente  has  to  be  supplied  from 
the  context,  so  here.  It  does  not  seem  necessary  to  write  with  Schenkl 
hoc  {canente)  deuotus. 


HYMN II.   AMBROSE  .    29 

and  of  seasons, — spring,  summer,  autumn  and  winter, — 
as  the  work  of  one  all-seeing,  all-working  providence. 

Thus  Minucius  Felix  Octavius  XVII.  4  f  quid  enim 
potest  esse  tarn  apertum^tam  confessum^  tamque perspicuum, 
cum  oculos  in  caelum  sustuleris  et  quae  sunt  infra  circaque 
lustraueris,  quam  esse  aliquod  numen  praestantissimae 
mentis,  quo  omnis  natura  inspiretur,  moueatur,  alatur, 
£^bemetur?  5.  caelum  ipsmn  uide :  quam  late  tenditur, 
quam  rapide  uoluitur,  uel  quod  iti  noctem  astris  distin- 
guitur,  uel  quod  in  diem  sole  lustratur:  iam  scies  quam 
sit  in  eo  summi  nioderatoris  mira  et  diuina  libratio.  uide 
et  annum,  ut  solis  ambitus  faciat,  et  mensem  uide,  ut 
luna  auctu,  senio,  labore  circumagat.  6.  quid  tenebrarum 
et  luminis  dicani  recursantes  uices,  ut  sit  nobis  operis 
et  quietis  alterna  reparatio  ? 

The  same  thought  often  recurs  in  Ambrose's  prose 
works  and  especially  in  his  Hexaemeron.  Thus  at  IV.  2 
niagnus  est  \sol\  qui  per  horarum  uices  locis  aut  accedit 
aut  decedit  cotidie  jib./  est  ergo  in  diei  potestate  sol,  et 
luna  in  potestate  noctis,  quae  temporum  uicibus  oboedire 
conpellitur  et  nunc  impletur  luniine  atque  uacuatur ... 
namque  luna  luminis  inminutionem  habet,  nan  corporis, 
quando  per  Alices  menstruas  deponere  uidetur  suuni  lumen. 
See  also  the  first  stanzas  of  5,  17,  18,  25,  45,  47,  57,  58 
etc.,  and  84.  17  f. 

This  hymn  was  appointed  by  Caesarius  of  Aries  to  be 
sung  ad  secundum  nocturnum  (i.e.  at  what  was  afterwards 
known  as  Lauds)  in  alternation  with  the  unmetrical 
Magna  et  inirabilia,  which  latter  is  extant  only  in  Vat. 
reg.  II  f.  236,  where  the  rubric  is  hymnus  nocturnus.  It 
runs  thus :  Magna  et  mirabilia  opera  tua  sunt  Domine 
Deus  omnipotens.  iustae  et  uerae  sunt  uiae  tuae  Domine 
rex  gentium,  quis  non  timebit  et  magnificabit  nomen 
tuum  ?  quoniam  tu  solus  sanctus  et  pius,  et  omnes  gentes 


30  EA  RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

uenient  et  adorabunt  notnen  tuum  sub  oculis  tuts,  quoniam 
iustitiae  tiiae  manifestatae  sunt.  It  will  be  seen  that, 
although  this  is  called  a  hymn  both  in  the  Rule  of 
Caesarius  and  in  the  MS  just  quoted  from,  it  is  in  fact  a 
translation  of  Rev.  xv.  3  f.  independent  of  the  Vulgate. 

According  to  the  Mozarabic  use  the  Aeterne  reruin 
conditor,  to  go  by  the  rubric  of  the  one  MS  of  the  old 
Spanish  use  that  contains  it  (Madrid  1005  Hh  60,  p.  125, 
Xth  century),  was  originally  sung  at  a  very  early  service 
adpullorum  cantum.  In  the  Breuiariunt  secundum  regulam 
sancti  Isidori  printed  at  Toledo  in  1502,  the  editor 
Alfons  Ortiz  appoints  it  for  the  ist  Sunday  in  Advent. 
In  the  older  Roman  use  it  was  sung  on  Sundays  at 
Lauds  or  Mattins.  The  ancient  Ambrosian  MSS  have  as 
rubric  ^vcs\^\y  yinnus  nocturnalis,  and  so  conservative  are 
they  that,  although  none  of  them  is  older  than  the 
Xth  century,  this  no  doubt  gives  the  old  tradition  of  the 
Milanese  church. 

For  further  information  on  liturgical  and  other  points 
see  Daniel  I.  15,  IV.  3,  Chevalier  Repertorium  number 
647,  Julian's  Dictionary  of  Hymnology  p.  26,  Mearns' 
Early  Latin  Hymnaries  p.  4. 

Abcghik  Eacdhjlosvx»j/t(^  FdhiklnpqsAf  Gab  Habcdefghi 
Ibceghimnop  Mamx  Vabcp 

Aeterne  rerum  conditor, 
noctem  diemque  qui  regis, 
et  temporum  das  tempora, 
ut  alleues  fastidium ; 

3  dans  Eos  Fs  Hbd  letnn  Mm. 

I.    conditor]  i.e.  Christ;   cp.  de  thought   de   Helia   ix.   32   ab  ipso 

Fid.  V.  36  Dei  Filium,  cum  conditor  niundi    conditore    didicimus    saepe 

ipse  sit  temporum;  ib.   IX.  58  cum  diuersitatibus  cumulari p-atiam. 

Filius  temporis  auctor  sit  et  creator  \  temporuia... tempora]    There   is 

Hex.  IV.  5  Filius  fecit  solem.  some  play  on  the  different  uses  of 

3.     Ambr.    expresses    the    same  the  word,  temporutn  being  the  sea- 


HYMN IL   AMBROSE 

praeco  diei  iam  sonat, 
noctis  profundae  peruigil, 
nocturna  lux  uiantibus, 
a  nocte  noctem  segregans. 

hoc  excitatus  lucifer 
soluit  polum  caligine, 
hoc  omnis  error  urn  chorus 


31 
S 


5  sonet  Eh  Fp*s  Gb  Hbcde  Im  Mm. 
tEh.  8  ac  nocte  He.     segregat  Ed. 


6  profunda  Imp  Vc,  profundo 
9  excitato  El  Fkn  Igm. 


sons  of  the  day  and  night,  summer 
etc.,  and  tempora  the  fixed  times  at 
which  they  come  and  go  ;  cp.  Hex. 
IV.  21  tempora  autem  quae  sunt, 
nisi  mutationum  uices? 

6.  '  Watchful  throughout  the 
depth  of  night.'  So  of  the  night- 
ingale Hex.  V.  85  quae  peruigil 
custos...insomnem  longae  noctis  la- 
borem  cantilenae  suauitate  solatur. 

7.  iilantlbus]  Quintilian  viii. 
vi.  33  objects  to  the  word  then  just 
coined  :  tdo  pro  eo  infelicius  fictum. 
But  it  is  more  significant  than  eo, 
connected  as  it  is  with  the  uiae.,  the 
great  military  roads.  It  is  one 
of  Ambr.'s  favourite  words,  e.g. 
Hex.  III.  38  luna  quoque  uiantibus 
iter  demonstrat.  The  derivative  uia- 
tor  is  of  course  classical. 

8.  i.e.  marking  off  one  part  of 
the  night  from  another;  cp.  Epist. 
LXix.  3  qiiam  canora  uox  galli, 
noctumis  uicibus  sollemne  munus 
ad  excitandum  et  canendum  mini- 
strans. 

9.  lucifer]  the  sun ;  cf.  Ambr.'s 
lucifer  excitatus  oritur  caelumque 
inluminat,  quoted  in  the  introduc- 
tion to  the  hymn.  So  probably  at 
44.  15,  46.  8,  61.  3;  at  46.  5,  71.  9 
it  seems  that  the  morning  star  is 
meant. 

The  rhetorical  repetition  of  hoc  in 
9,  II,  13,  15  is  in  Ambr.'s  manner; 
as  is  that  of  gallus,  gallus,  gallo  in 
18,  20  and  21,  and  of  tu,  te,  tibi  in 
29,  31  and  32. 


10.  poliun]  The  Greek  iroXoj  was 
accepted  as  a  Latin  word  and  meant 
(i)  'the  pivot'  on  which  a  thing 
turns,  especially  the  axis  of  the 
earth,  '  the  pole  ' ;  hence  (2)  '  the 
vault  of  heaven '  as  here,  at  44.  2 
and  Hex.  i.  20  micans  fulgentibus 
stellis  polus,  having  been  so  used  in 
classical  writers,  as  Verg.  Aen.  III. 
585  lucidus  aethra  \  siderea  polus\ 
then  (3)  '  heaven '  itself,  13.  30, 
32.  I  and  often. 

caligine]  '  gloom '  rather  than 
absolute  darkness;  cp.  Cic.  Phil. 
XII.  3  quod  uidebam  equidem,  sed 
quasi  per  caliginem  ;  yet  applicable 
to  night,  Hor.  Od.  iii.  xxix.  30 
caliginosa  nocte ;  Ambr.  Hex.  v.  86 
nocturnarum  tenebrarum  caligan- 
tetit  horror  em. 

11.  hoc]  'at  his  note,'  canente 
being  supplied  in  thought  from  16. 
This  is  simpler  than  (with  Lipp)  to 
supply  praecone  governed  by  excita- 
tus in  9. 

errorum]  '  the  roving  demons,' 
abstract  for  concrete.  Prudentius  no 
doubt  had  this  stanza  in  mind :  Cath. 
'•  .^7  f-  f(t-unt  uagantes  daemonas  \ 
laetos  tenebris  noctium  \  gallo  ca- 
nente exterritos  \  sparsim  timere  et 
cedere;  and  cp.  Shakespeare  Hamlet 
I .  i .  Bernardo.  It  was  about  to  speak 
when  the  cock  crew.  Horatio.  And 
then  it  started  like  a  guilty  thing  | 
upon  a  fearful  summons.  I  have 
heard  |  the  cock  that  is  the  trumpet 
of  the  morn,  |  doth  with  his  lofty 


32 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


uias  nocendi  deserit. 

hoc  nauta  uires  coUigit, 
pontique  mitescunt  freta ; 
hoc  ipse  petra  ecclesiae 
canente  culpam  diluit. 


15 


12  uiam  Eacdjlosv0  Fk  Gb  Hgi  lehnp  Mm  Vbc.  15  ipsa  Ai 

Ecdhjv  Gb  Hbcdef  la  Vabp.  16  deluit  Edhjlv  Fnp^  Vc. 


and  shrill  sounding  throat  |  awake 
the  god  of  day;  and  at  his  warn- 
ing... I  the  extravagant  and  erring 
spirit  hies  |  to  his  confine....  Mar- 
cellus.  It  faded  on  the  crowing  of 
the  cock.  I  Some  say  that  ever 
'gainst  that  season  comes  |  wherein 
our  Saviour's  birth  is  celebrated,  | 
the  bird  of  dawning  singeth  all 
night  long,  |  and  then  they  say  no 
spirit  can  walk  abroad,  erronum, 
the  correction  of  the  editors  of  the 
Roman  breviary  of  1632,  has  been 
taken  up  by  most  modern  editors, 
but  it  has  no  MS  authority,  and 
spoils  the  sense.  For,  meaning 
'idle  slaves,'  it  would  refer  to  evil 
men,  as  both  Biraghi  and  Lipp  tak« 
it,  in  which  case  line  23  mucro  latro- 
nis  conditur  would  be  tautological. 
And  as  to  the  use  of  the  abstract 
word  errores  for  the  roving  demons, 
if  Livy  I.  xiii.  2  could  use  iras  in 
the  sense  of  iratos,  and  at  xxvill. 
ix.  15  triuniphum  in  that  of  trium- 
phatorem;  if  Tacitus  ^«m.  xiil.xxv 
could  use  captiuitatis  =  captae  urbis, 
and  later  writers  coniugia  =  coniuges, 
and  so  on,  surely  here  Ambr.  may 
put  errores  when  he  means  '  wan- 
dering spirits.'  At  Hex.  vi.  52  he 
uses  seruitioruin  for  '  slaves,'  as 
Livy  does  at  li.  xxxiv. 

chorus  is  used  in  this  sinister 
sense  l)y  Ambr.  de  Cain  I.  14  quo- 
dam  nequitiarum  choro  circumfusa. 
The  cohors  of  the  Roman  breviary 
is  found  in  no  MS. 

12.  For  the  phrase  uias  deserere 
cp.  Ambr.  Epist.  Lxxvili.  2  qui 
uias  eius  deserant,  and  Deut.  ix.  12, 
16,  Ecclus.  xlix.   18,  and  for  uias 


nocendi  Damasus  xxvil.  2  carni- 
ficumque  uias  pariter  quod  tniile 
nocendi  \  uincere  quod  potuit,  mon- 
strauit  gloria  Christi. 

15.  ipse  petra]  'the  church's 
rock  himself.'  For  the  gender  of 
ipse  cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  v.  88  ipse 
ecclesiae  petra,  which  is  reproduced 
by  Paulin.  Nol.  Epist.  XXXH.  10; 
also  ille  (ipse)  uas  electionis,  Ambr. 
in  Ps.  XXXVI.  17,  in  Ps.  cxviii.  iii. 
18,  de  Paenit.  I.  33 ;  see  too  Vincent 
Ler.  9  ille  uas  electionis, . ..ille  aposto- 
lorum  tuba ;  and  3.  30  aurora  tolus, 
13.  31  electa... caput. 

With  Mt.  xvi.  18  f.  cp.  Ambr.  de 
Incarn.  Dom.  ■^^  fides  ergo  est  eccle- 
siae fundamentum ;  non  enim  de 
came  Petri  sed  de  fide  dictum  est 
quia  portae  mortis  ei  nojt  praeuale- 
bunt ;  in  Luc.  VI.  95  qui  enim 
carnem  uicerit,  ecclesiae  fundamen- 
tum est. 

16.  diluit]  'washed  away'  with 
his  tears.  The  phrase  culpa  dilttitur 
is  found  in  Ambr.  in  Ps.  XL.  5 ;  and 
for  Ambr.'s  application  of  Peter's 
tears  of  penitence  cp.  in  Luc.  x.  90 

fieuit  ergo amarissinie Petrus...et  tu, 
si  ueniam  uis  mereri,  dilue  lacrimis 
titis  culpam  tuam.  The  form  sup- 
ported by  so  many  Mss,  deluit, 
inclines  one  to  think  that  a  word 
deluo,  with  which  cp.  abluo  (10.  18 
etc.,  inPs.  cxviii.  iii.  18  and  often), 
existed  side  by  side  with  diluo, 
especially  as  other  compounds  of  de 
are  used  in  a  similar  way:  thus  we 
have  in  Luc.  v.  56  delicta  defieui 
(where  see  the  context  in  55  etc.), 
ib.  V.  106  peccata  detergas. 

1 7  f.    '  The  cock  awakens  the  lie- 


HYMN  IL  AMBROSE 


33 


20 


surgamus  ergo  strenue  : 

tgallus  iacentes  excitat 
et  somnolentos  increpat ; 
gallus  negantes  arguit. 
gallo  canente  spes  redit, 
aegris  salus  refunditur, 
mucro  latronis  conditur, 
lapsis  fides  reuertitur. 
lesu,  labantes  respice, 
et  nos  uideado  corrige ; 

20  negantem  Abi  Hd  Vap.  21   ipso  {pro  gallo)  Ih.  22  egri 

Fi  Ig.  24  fide  Vp.  25  labentes  EcdjsvxV<^  Fdhinpsx  Gab  Habdef 

Ibghimo  Vb  Mm,  pauentes  A  meliores  cum  bcgi  Elo  Vap. 


25 


a-beds  and  chides  the  drowsy,  the 
cock  convicts  those  who  deny ' : 
note  the  climax.  The  sleep  is  of  the 
soul,  and  the  denial  is  compared,  by 
the  choice  of  the  word  negantes,  to 
the  guilt  of  Peter  ;  the  three  calls 
reminding  us  of  Christ's  three  calls 
in  the  garden,  and  Peter  being  men- 
tioned here  as  in  stanzas  iv,  vi  and 
VII.  The  variant  rugantem  would 
perhaps  over-emphasize  the  con- 
nexion with  him. 

arguit]  'Convicts' of  their  guilt; 
Joh.  xvi.  8  arguet  mttndum  de  pec- 
cato. 

2r.  spes]  because  the  weary 
watcher  knows  thereby  that  dawn 
is  at  hand. 

22.  Ambr.  is  remarkably  fond 
of  using  ftindo  and  its  many  com- 
pounds, especially  refundo  and  in- 
fundo,  in  both  literal  and  meta- 
phorical sense  ;  cp.  de  Noe  42  ani- 
mae  refusatn  esse  uirtutem  ;  ib.  59 
uigor  animae  se  refundU ;  Epist. 
IV.  7,  XII.  2;  9.  3,  10.  5,  16.  4. 
See  the  note  on  infunde  3.  8,  and 
the  fuller  list  of  the  derivatives  of 
fundo  used  by  Ambr.  which  Steier 
gives  on  pp.  586,  642.  The  com- 
pounds used  by  Ambr.  are  circwn- 
fnndo,  confundo,  diffundo,  effundo, 
offundo,  profunda,  superfundo,  trans- 
fundo,  and  perhaps  others. 


25  f.  Lu.  xxii.  60  f.,  esp.  61 
Domin'K  respexit  Petrum ;  cp. 
Prud.  Calh.  I.  49  qtixe  uis  sit  huius 
alitis  I  Saiuator  ostendit  Petro,  \  ter 
antequam  gallus  canat  \  sese  negan- 
dum  praedicans.  \\_fit  natnque  pecca- 
tum  prius  \  quain  praeco  lucis  proxi- 
mae  \  inluslret  humanum  genus  \ 
finemque  peccati  ferat.  ||  fleuit  ne- 
gator denique. 

labantes]  '  tottering,'  '  ready  to 
fall,'  answers  to  tilubantes  in  the 
parallel  prose  passage.  The  less  rare 
word  labentes  is  read  in  most  Mss, 
but  this  would  bring  a  spondee  into 
the  second  foot  of  the  verse,  which 
fault  Ambr.  would  be  likely  to 
avoid,  but  which  copyists  would  as 
a  rule  disregard.  But  we  must  admit 
that  Ambr.  elsewhere  uses  labor 
in  this  connexion,  as  at  Hex.  v.  35 
titubal  sed  non  labitur.  Dreves  at 
first  read  labantes  with  Biraghi,  but 
in  Analecta  L.  p.  11  labentes  (with 
v.l.  in  critical  no^ti-fatientes,  which 
must  be  a  misprint).  Steier  reads 
pauentes  with  the  Ambrosian  mss, 
and  this  should  perhaps  be  read  in 
the  text,  the  allusion  being  probably, 
not  (as  Biraghi  and  Pimont  suggest) 
to  the  fear  of  mighty  demons,  but 
to  the  cowardice  through  which  St 
Peter  fell. 

respice]    Ambr.   in  Luc.  x.   89 


54 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


si  respicis  lapsus  cadunt, 
fletuque  culpa  soluitur. 

tu  lux  refulge  sensibus, 
mentisque  somnum  discute ; 
te  nostra  uox  primum  sonet, 
et  uota  soluamus  tibi. 


30 


27  lapses  E/*0  Fs  Habcdegi  Icim  Va^p,  lapsi  Ex  Fh  Hf  Ibo  (h  lapsis), 
lapsu  Es,  laxus  Ev.  stabunt  (pro  cadunt)  Ex/uc^  Fhs  Hacdefgi  Ihimo, 
cauent  Ab,  si  nos  respicis  lapsi  non  cadunt  Eo.  30  noctis  [pro  mentis) 

Eo.  32  ora  [pro  uota)  Abcg^o/i  Fk  Gb  Habce'-'gi  Ibehnop  Vacp, 

ore  Esx0  Fis  Hde*  Ic  Mm.     psallamus  (pro  soluamus)  Esx^  Fis  Hd^e' 
Mm. 


respexit  lesus  et  Hie  atnarissime 
Jleuit.  respice,  domine  lesu,  ut 
sciamus  nostrum  deflere  peaatum. 
unde  etiam  lapsus  sanctorum  utilis. 
37.  lapsus  cadunt]  '  our  back- 
slidings  fail  from  us ' ;  a  play  on 
words  rather  like  5.  22  dormire  culpa 
nouerit.  For  the  plural  lapsus  cp. 
Ambr.  Apol.  Daiiid  46  lapsus  quis 
intellegit?  (  =  Ps.  xviii.  13  delicta 
quis  intellegit:),  Epist.  LXX.  23  con- 
fite7itibus  nobis  lapsus  nostras.  He 
elsewhere  Hex.  i.  31  speaks  of  a 
lapsus  ad  mortem. 

29.  '  Shine  forth  as  a  light ' ;  lux 
is  nominative  as  being  part  of  the 
predicate.  Ambr.  constantly  uses 
lux  of  Christ,  cp.  among  many  pas- 
sages in  Luc.iv.^iet  ipse  lux  uera ; 
ib.  IV.  43  quis  est  enim  lux  magna 
nisi  Christus;  ib.  viii.  36  lux,  Dei 
Filius  ;  de  Spir.  S.l.  141  lux  autem 
et  Filius;  ib.  I.  142  quia  Filius 
Dei  lux  est.  refulge  almost  means 
'  blaze ' ;  cp.  Hex.  iv.  8  ante  solem 
lucet  quidem,  sed  non  refulget  dies, 
sensibus  stands  here,  as  elsewhere, 
for  'thoughts'  not  'senses';  cp. 
3.8. 

30.  mentis]  '  of  the  soul,'  as  at 
3.  17,  28,  6.  16,  21  etc. 

somnum]  Slothful  negligence  of 
our  duty  towards  God  is  often  de- 
scribed as  a  sleep  of  the  soul ;  cp. 
I   Cor.  xi.  30,  5.  21,  20.  12.    Our 


praise  of  Him  is  one  of  our  duties, 
and  so  lines  31,  32  are  added. 

For  the  phrase  somnum  discute 
cp.  Propert.  III.  x.  13  ac  primum 
pura  somnum  tibi  discute  lympha ; 
Ammian.  Marcell.  XIX.  vi.  8  dis- 
cusso  somno.  Steier  quotes  also  from 
Ambr.  de  Bono  Mortis  42  lux  non 
recepit  tenebras,  nam  statim  discutit, 
in  Ps.  cxvill.  iii.  25  uelamen  dis- 
cutei-et. 

Line  30  is  imitated  by  Prudentius, 
see  20.  13;  and  31  with  slight 
changes  recurs  in  later  hymns,  see 
60.  2,  64.  5. 

32.  We  'discharge  our  vows  '  to 
God  by  singing  His  praises.  This 
thought  also  often  recurs,  cp.  6. 
II  f.  uoli...soluimus. 

The  variant  ora  is  no  doubt  due 
to  the  misreading  of  uota  by  an 
early  copyist,  who  did  not  see  what 
.'  the  vows '  were.  With  ora,  32 
would  be  little  more  than  a  repeti- 
tion of  31,  as  would  be  the  other 
reading  ore  psallamus  tibi,  which  is 
not  quite  free  from  blame  from  a 
metrical  point  of  view,  see  the  note 
on  16.  10.  But  when  Dreves  (Aure- 
lius  Ambrosius  p.  48,  note  2)  states 
that  ore  psallamus  is  to  be  found 
only  in  Daniel,  he  is  not  quite  just, 
for  this  reading  is  found  in  several 
Mss,  though  none  of  them  are  very 
old. 


HYMN  III.   AMBROSE  35 

kHYMN  3 
■  [The  following  hymn  is  twice  quoted  in  one  epistle 
by  Fulgentius  (468-533)  as  the  work  of  Ambrose. 
Ipsiim  enim  apostolica  praedicat  auctoritas  splendoreni 
gloriae  et  figuram  substantiae  Dei;  quod  sequens  beatus 
Ambrosius  in  hymno  tnatutino  splendorem paternae  gloriae 
Filiuin  esse  pronuntiat  {Ep.  XIV.  10).  Again,  Hinc  est 
quod  beatus  Ambrosius  in  hymno  matutino  huius  nos 
postulare  gratiam  ebrietatis  edocuit,  dum  dicimus :  Laeti 
bibanius  sobriam  ebrietatem  Spiritus  {Ep.  XIV.  42).  The 
testimony  of  Fulgentius  would  itself  be  as  good  as  that 
of  any  of  his  contemporaries.  But  the  testimony  is 
borne  out  by  an  allusion  of  Augustine's,  Veni  Medio- 
lanium  ad  Anibrosiuyn  episcopum,... cuius  tunc  eloquia 
strenue  tninistrabant  adipem  frumenti  tui  et  laetitiam  olei 
^^K^/  sobriam  vini  ebrietatem  popjilo  tuo  {Conf.  XIII.  xiii.  23). 
^^»  The  style  of  the  hymn  itself  is  unmistakable,  and  the 
other  canons  of  Biraghi  hold  good  with  regard  to  it. 

Aurelian  orders  that  it  should  be   sung  at  matins, 
alternately  with  Aeterne  lucis  conditor.^ 

Abcdgh  EKacdhjlosvxAi  Fabdhijknopsuyy^  Gabm  Habcdefgir 
Ibcdeghininopv  Mam  Vabcpr 

Splendor  paternae  gloriae, 

de  luce  lucem  proferens, 

2  praeferens  ESv. 

I.    Heh.  i.  7,  qui  cum  sit  sfleitdor  senipiternus,    quasi  uerbum,   quasi 

gloriae  eius\   VVisd.  vii.  26  candor  spletuior  huis  aeternae ;  quia  simul 

est  enim   lucis  aeternae.     In    both  splendor  operatur,ut  tiascitur.  ih.ii. 

places  the   Greek   has   aira)jya<rfjui,  prol.  8,  IV.  108,  in  Ps.  xxxvill.  24, 

'effulgence.'   The  eternal  relation  of  XL.  35,  xmi.  i2,XLVii.  18,  cxviii. 

the  Son  to  the  Father  is  often  illus-  xix.  38.  Hex.  vi.  42  splendor  gloriae 

trated  in  early  Christian  writers  by  et  paternae  imago  substantiae.    The 

the  relation  of  the  rays  of  light  to  the  first  two  stan/as   are  addressed  to 

central  source  whence  they  stream.  Christ. 

Ambr.  frequently  uses  spletuior  thus ;  2.    Cp.  the  '  Nicene '  creed  lumen 

e.g.  de  Fid.  I.  79  dicet  aliquis  quo-  de  lumine;  Sedul.   Carm.  i.  113  et 

modo  generatus  est  Filius?    quasi  totum  commune,  Patris  de   lumine 

3—' 


36 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


lux  lucis  et  fons  luminis, 
dies  dierum  inluminans, 

uerusque  sol  inlabere, 
micans  nitore  perpeti, 
iubarque  sancti  Spiritus 
infunde  nostris  sensibus. 

4  diem   {^pro  dierum)   Ehs/t   Fbhipuy  Gb^  Igimv  Vb. 
6  nitorem  Gb.     perpetim  Echv  Fb  Gb  Hd  Iv. 


inluminas  Vp. 


lumen',  \  Esdras  vi.  40  tunc  dixisti 
de  thesauris  tuis  proferri  lumen 
luminosum. 

3.  lux  lucis]  the  Light  which 
gives  its  character  to  all  other  light, 
without  which  there  could  be  no 
light.  The  -que  of  v.  5  seems  to  in- 
dicate that  lux,  like  sol,  is  intended 
to  be  a  predicate,  'Come  as  the 
Light.' 

4.  The  variant  diem  dies  i.,  though 
read  by  most  modern  editors,  is  not 
found  in  any  of  the  early  MSS,  most 
of  which  give  the  certainly  true  text 
di^s  dierum  i.  Participles  used  as 
adjectives  regularly  take  a  gen. 
Draeger  i.  p.  445?.,  Schmalz  367. 
Among  many  examples  we  find  in 
Ambr.  Hex.  ill.  8  efficiens  naturae, 
ib.  V.  22  appetens  cibi,   ib.  vi.   20 

futuri  prouidens,  de  Fuga  6  fugi- 
tantes  mundi;  cp.  de  Res.  90,  133, 
etc.  Kayser  well  says  that  the  con- 
trast of  the  one  eternal  day  with  the 
countless  earthly  days  makes  us  pre- 
fer the  reading  dies  dierum.  And  he 
notes  that  the  construction  of  the 
genitive  with  the  present  participle 
brings  out  well  the  abiding  character 
and  the  constantly  and  changelessly 
returning  power  of  bringing  light 
held  by  the  Son.  The  variant  dies 
diem  would  be  due  to  a  misreading 
of  the  contracted  form  in  which 
dierum  would  often  be  written ;  and 
when  elision  was  no  longer  in  use, 
diem  would  be  easier  to  sing  and 
more  natural  to  write  than  the  longer 
dierum. 

5.   Christ  is  the  real  sun,  our  sun 


in  the  heavens  having  but  borrowed 
light  and  heat,  the  phrase  coming 
from  Mai.  iv.  2  to  which  Ambr.  con- 
stantly refers;  cp.  Hex.,  iv.  2  and  5, 
in  Ps.  XLiii.  6,  cxviii.  ii.  g,  viii.  51 
and  57,  xii.  13  and  25,  xix.  18  et  tu 
surge  uel  media  nocte...ut,  dum  oras 
node,  ueri  solis  pectori  tuo  splendor 
inradiet;  97.  i. 

uerus  sol  is  nom.  because  it  is 
part  of  the  predicate,  like  tu  lux 
re/ulge  in  the  hymn  before. 

inlabere]  'steal  into  our  souls'; 
cp.  Verg.  Aen.  in.  89  [Aeneas  to 
the  god  Apollo]  da  pater  augurium 
atque  animis  inlabere  nostris;  89. 
10,  115.  19. 

7 .  iubax]  strictly '  the  ray '  of  early 
dawn;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  iv.  130,  Ju- 
venc.  HI.  I  fuderat  in  terras  roseum 
iubar  ignicomus  sol,  74.  14,  Ambr. 
de  Parad.  23  Christum,  qui  iubar 
quoddam  aeternae  lucis  effudit.  Hex. 
IV.  I  procedit  sol  magno  iubare  diem 
...conplens. 

8.  infunde]  2.  22  note.  /«  Ps. 
CXVIII.  vi.  9  m/  infundat  sensibus...; 
xix.  30  \Dominus\  subito  se  apostoli- 
cis  penetralibus  inprouisus  infudit ; 
in  Luc.  I.  34  cui  Spiritus  sanctus 
infunditur.  This  appeal  to  the  Son 
to  shed  the  rays  of  the  Spirit  upon 
us  is  perhaps  based  on  Ambr.'s  in- 
terpretation of  Ps.  XXXV.  (xxxvi.)  10 
apud  te  est  fons  uitae  etc. ;  see  de 
Spir.  I.  152  f. 

9.  et  Fatrem]  as  well  as  the  Son. 
For  the  rhetorical  repetition  see 
2.9. 

10  f.    '  Let  us  call  upon  the  Father 


HYMN  III.   AMBROSE 


37 


uotis  uocemus  et  Patrem— 
Patrem  perennis  gloriae, 
Patrem  potentis  gratiae — 
culpam  releget  lubricam, 

informet  actus  strenuos, 
dentem  retundat  inuidi, 
casus  secundet  asperos, 
donet  gerendi  gratiam, 

mentem  gubernet  et  regat 
casto  fideli  corpore ; 


lO 


IS 


9  ad   (pro  et)   EKj,  te   Ecdhv/i^ 
12  religet  Vbc  et  pluritni,  redegit  EKj, 

Edhjlv  {-is  Ec)  Gb  Hd  Ibcdhmv. 

• 

...to  banish  afar  guilt  with  its  snares.' 
releget  depends  upon  uocevitts:  the 
mood  is  indirect  jussive,  to  pass  in- 
sensibly into  the  precative  use,  which 
seems  more  suitable  in  2 1  f.  gloriae 
looks  back  to  line  i ,  gratiae  to  the 
following  words. 

12.  lubricam  always  connotes 
an  idea  of  danger,  which  is  further 
brought  out  here  by  its  emphatic 
place  at  the  end  of  the  stanza.  The 
epithet  is  applied  to  the  sin  itself 
though  more  strictly  applicable  (as 
in  6.  25)  to  the  occasion  of  sin  or  to 
the  desires  which  lead  to  the  sin; 
cp.  Ambr.  Epist.  xxil.  4  aduersus 
lubricum  saeculi  htiius  stabiles  per- 
manserunt ,Vl .  13,  62b.  5,72.4,86.8. 

13.  'May  He  shape  our  actions 
into  energy,'  cp.  in  Ps.  I.  t2  actus- 
que formare,  in  Luc.  i.  31  informa- 
tus  a  Domino,  ib.  IV.  50  moralem 
informet  adfecttim .  infer  mare  is  one 
of  Ambr. 'swords,  cp.  in  Luc.  II.  50, 
IV.  4,  13,  50,  Hex.  III.  19,  53,  IV. 
13,  V.  25,  Epist.  I.  31,  VI.  105,  IX. 
17,  LIII.  2. 

14.  inuidi]  cp.  Wisd.  ii.  24  in- 
uidia  antem  diaboli  mors  introiuit 
in  orbem  terrarum,  6.  27,  31.  89, 
43.  16,  68.  8.  Our  '  malignant  foe '  is 
probably  here  conceived  of  as  in  the 
form  of  a  serpent ;  cp.  in  Ps.  .\LViii. 


Fbd  Gabm  Hce  Id'gm  Mm  Vb. 
repellat  (-et)  Fb  Gb  Ih.  14  dentes 
J  8  castos  Ad  ESs<^,  casto  et  Hd. 

8  Adam  dente  serpentis  est  uulne- 
ratus  et  obnoxiam  hereditatem  sue- 
cessionis  humanae  sua  unlnere  dere- 
liqtiit,  ut  omnes  illo  uulnere  claudi- 
cemiis.  de  Abrah.  ii.ty^ quia princeps 
mundi  huius  et  uolucres  caeli,  spirt- 
tttalium  nequitiae . .  .uelut  cadauera 
mortuorum  dilacerent  dente  aspero. 
de  Bened,  Patr.  32  uulneratus  dente 
serpentis.  He  is  elsewhere  described 
as  a  lion :  1  Pet.  v.  8,  31.  90,  32. 
16,  or  as  a  wolf  Joh.  x.  1 2,  36.  4,  or 
as  a  tyrant  109.  23. 

15.  secundet]  'change  for  the 
better,'  '  turn  to  good,'  Verg.  Georg. 
IV.  397  euentus .. .secundet,  Aen.  ill. 
36  secundarent  uistis. 

1 6.  gerendi]  '  grace  to  act  wisely ' 
used  absolutely  in  the  sense  of  rem 
gerendi,  as  in  Cic.  Pep.  I.  8  in  ge- 
rendo  probabiles. 

17.  mentem]  'the  soul'  as  at  2. 
30.  Ambr.  often  combines  the  two 
verbs  ^/<^.  and  reg.  as  at  Hex.  i.  7, 
de  Abr.  II.  9  following  the  example 
of  Cic.  de  Nat.  D.  I.  52  qui  regat, 
qui  gubernet  quoted  by  Steier,  who 
also  compares  ad  Attic,  xv^.  ii.  1, 
pro  Sulla  78. 

18.  The  body,  the  animal  part  of 
us,  is  the  great  hindrance  to  the  soul 
in  its  aspirations  after  God,  Rom. 
viii.  13.    If  therefore  the  flesh  does 


38 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


fides  calore  ferueat, 
fraudis  uenena  nesciat. 

Christusque  nobis  sit  cibus, 
potusque  noster  sit  fides  ; 
laeti  bibamus  sobriam 
ebrietatem  Spiritus. 

laetus  dies  hie  transeat, 
pudor  sit  ut  diluculum, 


25 


23  uiuamus  Es.     sobria  Gm  Vr,  sobrie  EKchlo  Fi  Gb''  Habceir  Id^mn^p 
Vb.  24  ebrietate  Vr.  26  diluculo  Eos  Gb  Hcd^e^  Mm  (de 

luculo  EKv). 


not  seduce  the  soul  [casta),  and  if  it 
loyally  obeys  the  promptings  of  the 
soul  [fidelt),  all  is  well.  The  use  of 
two  adjectives  without  et,  qualifying 
one  subst.,  is  very  rare  in  Latin,  but 
we  find  it  again  at  91.  5,  109.  17. 
This  passage  is  imitated  in  46. 
2t  f. 

20.  'The  poison  of  false  craft' 
is  that  of  wrong  doctrine,  the  prayer 
being  that  owr  faith  may  not  know 
it.  Steier  is  wrong  when  he  objects 
to  this  interpretation,  explaining  the 
poison  as  that  of  the  devil,  quoting 
several  passages  where  uenenum  is 
so  used  by  Ambr. ;  but  among  other 
passages  cp.  de  Sp.  1. 17.  Cp.  Ambr. 
de  Fid.  i.  42  omnetn  enim  uim  tune- 
norum  suorum,  44  una  perfidia... 
non  dissimilis  fraude,  ill.  129;  in 
Ltic.  I.  3  uenenatus...adsertionibus, 
VII.  51;  Epist.  II.  28  imbuti  animi 
infidelitatis  uenenis;  in  Luc.  Vll.  47 
haereticos . .  .qui  studio  fraudis  abiu- 
rant.  uenena  is  thus  used  in  the 
plural  by  Verg.  and  Hor.  and  often 
by  Ambr.  e.g.  in  Ps.  xxxvil.  8, 
XLVIII.  8. 

nesciat]  with  ace.  is  very  common 
in  Ambr.  e.g.  in  Ps.  cxvill.  vii.  31 
nescis  illam  caliginem  noctis;  cp. 
Verg.  Georg.  i.  ^gi puellae \  nesciuere 
hiemem.    Ronsch  373. 

21.  Joh.  vi.  50;  Ambr.  in  Luc. 
VI.  74  nonne  ipse  te  pauit?  cibus 
eius  uirtus  est,  cibus  eius  fortiludo 


est;  Epist.  Lxxvii.  5  bonus  cibus 
omnium  Christus  est,  bonus  cibus 
est  fides. 

23  f.  '  Let  us  drink  with  joy  the 
sober  intoxication  of  the  Spirit ' ; 
based  on  Eph.  v.  18  nolite  inebriari 
uino...sed implemini  Spiritu  sancto. 
Ambr.  often  refers  to  this  bold 
phrase;  de  Cain  i.  19  hcuc  ebrielas 
sobrios  fcuit,  haec  ebrietas  gratiae 
non  temulentiae  est ;  laetitiam  gene- 
rat,  non  titubantiam,  ib.  20  haec 
ebrietas pudiciticu  custos  est ;  de  Bono 
Mortis  20  feruentioris  Spiritus  ser- 
mo  qui  inebriat ;  in  Ps.  I.  33  bona 
ebrietas,  quae  sobriae  stabiliret 
mentis  incessum ;  CXVIII.  xv.  28  hcu 
ergo  ebrietate  corpus  tton  titubat  sed 
resurgit;  cp.  also  the  passages  of 
Aug.  and  Fulg.  (xiv.  42)  quoted  in 
the  introduction  to  this  hymn.  For 
the  combination  bibamus  ebrietatem, 
cp.  de  Isaac  50  anima  haiisit  mys- 
teriorum  ebrietatem  caelestium,  and 
for  the  metaphorical  use  of  ebrieta- 
tem, Ecclus.  xxxil.  17  Dominum... 
inebriantem  te  ab  omnibus  bonis  suis. 

ebrietatem]  The  accent  falls  on 
the  i  and  tends  to  lengthen  it. 

26.  dilacolum] '  the  twilight '  just 
before  dawn.  Ambr.  may  be  think- 
ing in  this  beautiful  line  either  of  the 
shy  retirement  of  modesty  dwelling 
in  the  dim  light,  or  of  the  purity  of 
the  first  rays  of  dawn.  Cp.  Cant.  vi. 
9  quaenam  est  haec  prospiciens  tarn- 


HYMN  IV.   AMBROSE 


39 


fides  uelut  meridies, 
crepusculum  mens  nesciat. 

aurora  cursus  prouehit, 
aurora  totus  prodeat, 
in  Patre  totus  Filius, 
et  totus  in  Verbo  Pater. 


30 


29  aurorae  Vr.     prouehat  (proueat)  Abcg  Fb  Vap.  30  tota  Ecdl, 

lotos  Eo  Habce-gir  lo  Vac.     protegat  Eo  F^  Habce*gir  lo,  fulgeat  Es. 


t/uam  diluculum  ?  quoted  by  Ambr. 
de  Bened.  Patrutn  45. 

27.  fides]  unlike  pndor,  delights 
in  the  heat  and  light  of  noon;  cp. 
calore  fenteat,  19. 

meridies]  Cp.  Hex.  iv.  22  in 
meridiano  pascis...ubi  fulget  iudi- 
cium  sicut  meridies  ;  in  Ps.  CXVIII. 
ii.  II  Hits  luces.  Hits  reftdges,  illis 
calet  gratia  sicut  meridies. 

28.  crepusculum]  strictly  'the 
dusk  '  of  evening,  mens,  '  the  soul,' 
from  which  Ambr.  prays  that  the 
light  may  never  fade  away ;  cp.  6. 
19,  6.  32. 

29.  cursus]  p'ural  in  a  singular 
sense  as  at  Verg.  Aen.  in.  460,  686 
and  Ambr.  Hex.  IV.  2  rapidis  cur- 


sibus...lustret  omnia;  de  Fid.  Res. 
II.  31  anni  cursus,  4tt.  3,  66.  2. 
Ambr.  also  uses  Hex.  v.  %<jjletibus, 
in  Luc.  VII.  160  naturis  etc.  See 
Draeger  I.  9  f.,  Schmalz  604,  Steier 

643- 

30.  For  the  gender  of  totus  cp. 
ipse petra,  2.  15  note.  This  'dawn' 
is  Christ,  as  the  following  lines  ex- 
plain. 

31  f.  Cp.  in  Ps.  XXXVI.  37  Pater 
Detis  totus  in  Filio  est  et  Filius  in 
Patre;  in  /*j.  XLVii.  18  qui  ita  ex- 
pressit  Patrem  ut  in  eo  totus  sit 
Pater  sicut  in  Patre  totus  est  Filius. 
The  thought  is  of  course  taken  from 
passages  like  Joh.  xiv.  10. 


I 


Hymn  4 

Augustine  definitely  says  that  Ambrose  wrote  this 
hymn  ;  see  de  Natiira  et  Gratia  63  quern  Spiritum  memo- 
ratus  episcopiis  etiam  precibiis  impetrandum  adnionet,  tibi 
in  liymno  dicit :  uotisque  praestat  sediilis  sanctum  mereri 
Spiritum.  Even  without  his  authority  we  might  know 
from  the  style  and  from  the  treatment  of  the  subject- 
matter  that  it  came  from  Ambrose. 

Caesarius  of  Aries,  in  his  Regula  ad  uirgines,  and 
Aurelian  both  appoint  it  to  be  sung  in  primo  die  paschae 
ad  tertiam,  the  latter  adding  cotidianis . .  .diebus  (i.e.  on 
week  days  as  opposed    to   Sundays   and  festivals)  ad 


40  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

tertiam  sex  psalmos  dicite^antiphonam,  ymnum  lamsurgit 
hora  tertia. 

It  does  not  seem  to  have  passed  into  any  later  use,  its 
place  being  taken  by  Certum  tenentes  ordinetn  (52),  lam 
sexta  sensim  uoluitur  (55),  and  Rector  potens,  uerax  Deus 

(17). 

The  first  line  was  borrowed  with  which  to  begin  a 
Mozarabic  hymn,  also  for  terce,  the  first  stanza  of  which 
runs  thus ;  lam.  surgit  hora  tertia  \  et  nos  intenti  curri- 
mus,  I  psallendi  opus  implemus,  \  Christum  laudemus 
Dominutn  ;  see  Analecta  XXVII.  108. 

Abcdghk  Vapr 

lam  surgit  hora  tertia, 
qua  Christus  ascendit  crucem  ; 
nil  insolens  mens  cogitet, 
intendat  affectum  precis. 

qui  corde  Christum  suscipit,  5 

innoxium  sensum  gerit, 

uotisque  praestat  sedulis 

sanctum  mereri  Spiritum. 

7  perstat  edd. 

I.   surgit  is  used   of  time  as  at  mundum;     de     Inst.      Virg.     113 

116.  5,  cp.  22.  I  and  the  note  on  6.  Christum  intendat;  in  Ps.  cxviil. 

10  noctis  exortu.   It  is  fairly  common  \ni.  ^%  haec  diligenter  intende.    He 

of  the  coming  of  day   (cp.   Verg.  also  uses  it  with  a  following  dative, 

Georg.  in.  400  surgente  die;  Aen.  and  with  ad  or  in  followed  by  an 

HI.  588),  less  common  of  the  several  ace. 

hours.  5.     Cp.    Eph.    iii.     17;     Ambr. 

3.  nil  Insolens]  'no  proud  Epist.  xxxvii.  22  qui  Christum 
thought ' :  the  hour  of  Christ's  hu-  recipit.  This  we  are  invited  to  do 
miliation  is  no  season  for  this.  by  a  reminder  of  what  took  place  dt 

4.  affectum    precis  appears   to       the  third  hour. 

mean  '  the  mind  to  pray '  (cp.  Hex.  6.    For  gerit  thus  used  cp.  de  Off. 

V.  88  hoc  canente  deuotus  adfectus  11.  68  sobrium  gerere  animum  ;  de 

exsilit  ad  precandum)  and    to   in-  Jacob  \\. -jjo pacificum  affectum  gere- 

tendere  this  is  to  apply  oneself  to  it,  bat ;  in  Ps.  xxxvi.  51  paenitentiam 

to  give   all   one's   attention   to  it.  g.\  de  Fuga  Saec.  ^T  si  geras  Chris- 

Ambrose  is  given   to   constructing  turn. 

intendere  with  an  ace,  as  Hex.  i.  t  7.    praestat]    When  praestare  is 

Deum...ideam    intendentem  fecisse  used  with  an  infinitive  or  a  depen- 


HYMN  IV.  AMBROSE 


41 


9  qua  Vr. 
Abdgh  Vap. 


haec  hora,  quae  finem  dedit 

diri  ueterno  criniinis,  .  10 

mortisque  regnum  diruit 

culpamque  ab  aeuo  sustulit. 

hinc  iam  beata  tempora 
coepere  Christi  gratia, 

10  ueterni  Vr.     crimini  Ab^cg  Vap.  11  diluit 

13  hie  Abcdg  Vapr.  14  Christi  coep.  Acdgh  Vapr. 


dent  clause,  the  meaning  seems  to 
be  connected  with  that  use,  common 
in  classical  Latin,  where  praestare 
aliquem  or  aliquid  is  *  to  be  respon- 
sible for,'  'to  undertake.'  Thus  Cic. 
pro  Flacco  12  quid?  nullos  fore  quis 
praestare  poterat?  'Who  could  un- 
dertake that  there  should  be  none?' 
This  passes  into  'seeing  to  it  that' 
etc.  So  Livy  xxx.  30  says  ne  quern 
eius  paeniteret,...praestili,  'I  have 
made  it  my  business,  have  seen  to  it 
that  no  one';  Ov.  Trisl.  v.  xiv.  19 
nequispossittemerariadicereprcusta, 
'See  to  it  that  nobody';  Juvencus 
in.  462  nee  minus  in  stratis  aegros 
donare  salute... praestat,  'makes  it 
his  business  to  give' ;  Damasus  IX.  2 
uiuere  qui  praestat  morientia  semina 
terrae,  '  sees  to  it  that  they  live.' 
Here  praestat  mereri  will  thus  be 
'undertakes  to  gain,'  'makes  it  his 
business  to  win.'  Perstat  would 
make  good  sense,  if  it  had  any  au- 
thority, but  not  one  MS  that  I  have 
seen  contains  it.  The  two  words  are 
often  confused.  In  Prud.  Symm.  11. 
991  in  ordine  recto  praestat,  the 
word  seems  to  have  become  a 
synonym  of  perstat.,  which  Dressel 
reads. 

8.  mereri] 'win,' '  obtain.'  Aug. 
quotes  these  lines  (see  intr.  to  this 
hymn)  to  shew  that  Ambr.  held  the 
belief  that  men  can  do  nothing 
without  the  grace  of  God.  Clearly 
he  had  no  idea  that  nureri  could  be 
used  against  him  in  the  sense  of  '  to 
merit.'  Cp.  Ambr.  de  Resur.  124 
post  usutn  iiota  fastidiunt ;  et  quae 


optauimus  mereri,  cum  nlenierimus, 
abdicamus;  41.  51,  63.  6,  102.  6, 
126.  22,  127.  33.  Ronsch  p.  387 
quotes  Herm.  Past.  I.  iii.  i  qui  iam 
meruerunt  Deum.  The  Greek  «raT- 
a^iwdrjvai  is  used  in  a  similar  way. 

Spiritum]  which  was  outpoured  at 
this  third  hour,  Acts  ii.  See  Intro- 
duction to  16  below. 

9.  'This  is  the  hour  which...' 
fitiem  dare  in  place   of  the    more 

usual  f.  facere  is  a  Vergilian  phrase 
Aen.  I.  J  99,  241.  It  is  found  in 
Ambr.  in  Ps.  .XL.  37,  de  Virginib. 
I.  15,  Epist.  VI.  9. 

10.  uetemus]  (i)  'old  age,' 
Stat.  Theb.  vi.  94  \silu<i\  nee  solos 
hominum  transgressa  ueterno  \fer- 
tur  auos :  hence  (2)  'lethargy,' 
'neglect,'  Verg.  Georg.  i.  124  nee 
torpere  graui  passus  sua  regno  ue- 
terno. (3)  'filth,'  'sin,'  Prud.  Cath. 
XI.  63  f.  nam  nunc  renaitts  sordi- 
dum  I  mundtis  ueternum  defmlit. 

11.  mortis  regnom]  Cp.  Wisd. 
i.  14,  Rom.  v.  14. 

12.  aeuo] 'the  world.'  The  more 
usual  word  is  saeculum,  but  cp. 
Paulin.  Nol.  Carm.  XV.  173  Christi 
Tnemor,'inmemor  aeui;  Sedul.  Cflrw. 
III.  JY2  in  reliquum  doctrina fluens 
decurreret  aeuum;  id.  Hymn.  I.  97 
toto  credent ibus  aeuo;  36.  23. 

13.  Ilinc]  'with  this  hour.'  For 
beata  tempora  cp.  116.  8. 

14.  Christi  gratia]    Acts  ii.  33. 
For  the  sense  cp.  Ambr.  in  Ps. 

cxviii.  vi.  25  passus  est  Christus  et 
omnia  coeperunt  noucu gratiaefecun- 
dari  ger minibus. 


42 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


fidei  repleuit  ueritas 
totum  per  orbem  ecclesias. 
celso  triumphi  uertice 
matri  loquebatur  suae : 
*en  filius,  mater,  tuus,' 
apostolo  *  en  mater  tua,' 


15 


T5  fide  Vr.  17  celsus  Vr. 

15.  fidei  ueritas]  a  phrase  used 
by  Ambr.  de  Job  III.  16,  in  Ps. 
XXVIII.  34,  Epist.  XXI.  12.  It 
means  the  true  faith. 

1 7.  Triumphus  in  the  sense  of  an 
instrument  or  monument  of  victory 
is  not  classical,  and  this  is  a  singu- 
larly bold  identification  of  the  Cross 
with  what  it  stood  for :  '  from  the 
height  of  His  ensign  of  victory.' 
Possibly  31.  87  is  to  be  understood 
in  the  same  way.  That  the  Cross, 
apparently  the  token  of  shame, 
was  really  the  sign  of  victory,  is 
found  in  i  Cor.  i.  18,  23,  Gal.  vi. 
14,  Col.  ii.  15.  Thus  Peter's  cross 
was  a  triumph  (13.  3).  This 
thought  often  recurs  in  Ambr. : 
cp.  in  Luc.  VII.  5  ilk  est... 
ecclesiae  filius  qui  crucem  trtum- 
phum  putat,  si  uocem  Christi  triuni- 
phantis  agnoscat ;  X.  109  units  Dei 
triumphus  fecit  omnes  prope  iam 
homines  triumphare ;  de  Fide  I  v.  8 
triu7Hpho  cnicis.  So  also  Ambr. 
uses  tropaeum,  de  Virginib.  I.  7 
[Agnes]  tendere  Christo ...manus, 
tropaeum  Domini  signare  uictoris; 
i.e.  with  outstretched  arms  she  made 
the  sign  of  the  Cross.  So  too 
Prud.  Cath.  IX.  83  die  tropaeum 
passionis,  die  triumphalem  crucem; 
and  33.  2. 

18.  Joh.  xix.  26f.  Cp.  in  Ltu.  11. 
1  nialuit. .  .aliquos  de  suo  ortu  quam 
de  matris  pudore  dubitare ;  ib.  4 
Dominus  ipse  in  cruce  positus  mani- 
festauit  [Mariae  uirginitatem],  cum 
dicit  matri:  mulier,  ecce  filius  tuus, 
deinde  discipulo :  ecce  mater  tua. 
de  Inst.  Virg.  46  f.  ipse  testis  est 
Filius  Dei,  qui  cum  esset  in  cruce 
discipulum   matri  commendabat  ut 


20  apostole  omn.     en  om.  Ah. 

filium,  discipulo  eam  tradebat  ut 
matrem...^']  dignum  quippe  erat  ut 
qui  latroni  ueniam  donabat,  matrem 
dubio  pudoris  absolueret.  dicit  enim 
ad  matrem :  mulier,  ecce  filius  tuus, 
dicit  et  ad  discipulum:  ecce  mcUer 
tua.  ipse  est  disci pulus  cui  mater 
commendatur...^^  testalur  de  cruce 
Dominus  Jesus  et  paulisper  publi- 
cum differt  salutem,  tie  matrem  in- 
honoram  relinquat ; . .  .legatur  matri 
pudoris  defensio,  testimonium  in- 
tegritatis.  in  Luc.  X.  133  quo  loco 
uberrimum  testimonium  Mariae 
uirginitatis  adhibetur,  neque  enim 
abrogatur  uxor  marito,  cum  scrip- 
turn  sit :  quod  Deus  coniunxit  homo 
non  separet,  sed  quae  propter  myste- 
ritim  coniugium  praetexuit  comple- 
tis  mysteriis  iam  coniugio  non  egebat. 
Ambr.  thought  that  Joseph  was 
still  living,  as  is  to  be  seen  from  the 
passage  just  quoted  and  from  in  Luc. 
II.  4  numquam  uirum  propnum  re- 
liquisset  [Afaria],  nee  uir  eatn  iustus 
passus  esset  a  se  discedere.  See  also  de 
Inst.  Virg. ^2,  Epist.  i.\iii.  109  etc. 

20.  I  have  written  apostolo  for 
apostole  of  the  MSS;  cp.  in  Ltu.  11. 
4  dicit  matri :  mulier,  ecce  filius 
tuus,  deinde  discipulo:  ecce  mater 
tua.  Ib.  X.  131  hie  et  in  cruce  non 
inmemor  matris  appellat  eam  dicens: 
ecce  filius  tuus,  et  lohanni :  ecce 
mcUer  tua. 

21.  praetenta]  lit.  'stretched  in 
front  of  the  mystery  like  a  veil,  to 
screen  it ;  from  praetendere.  Cp. 
Tert.  Pudic.  17  omnes  [epist ulae 
apostolicae^  pro  pudicitia,  pro  casti- 
tate...praetendunt.  The  verb  was 
especially  in  military  use  and  a  fa- 
vourite with  Ambr.  Ronsch  p.  366  f. 


HYMN  IV.   AMBROSE 


43 


praetenta  nuptae  foedera 
alto  docens  mysterio, 
ne  uirginis  partus  sacer 
matris  pudorem  laederet. 

cui  fidem  caelestibus 
lesus  dedit  miraculis, 
nee  credidit  plebs  impia : 
qui  credidit  saluus  erit. 


25 


21  praetentae  Va.     nupta  Ad.        23  nee  Adh.         25  in  cael.  Adgh. 


quotes  several  examples  of  its  use  by 
him. 

nuptae  foedera]  '  the  covenant  of 
a  bride,'  i.e.  the  bridal  covenant. 

22.  Mysterio  is  dative,  governed 
hy praetenta.  The  mysterium  was  the 
secret  of  Christ's  conception  by  the 
holy  Spirit;  cp.  in  Luc.  X.  133 
quoted  aljove,  ^//5/.  v.  \^hissignis 
et  ipsa  Mariae  tiirginitas  apud  ig- 
naros  mysterii  probri  suspectabatur. 
The  combination  of  altuin  with 
mysterium  is  found  in  Ambr.  de 
Cain  I.  37,  in  Luc  III.  35  and 
elsewhere  ;  and  he  has  Epist.  xviii. 
7  caeli  mysterium  doceat  me  Deus 
ipse. 

23.  ne... laederet]  i.e.  in  the 
opinion  of  the  people,  in  view  of  the 
above  passages  ;  otherwise  the  re- 
ference might  have  been,  not  to  the 
purpose  of  the  praetenta  foedera, 
but  to  the  manner  of  the  birth  : 
*  that  His  birth  (being  a  sacred  and 
a  virgin  birth)  might  not  impair  His 
mother's  purity.'  This  would  fall  in 
with  Ambr.'s  use  oi  pudor,  e.g.  6. 
14,  18. 

25  f.  'Of  which  (i.e.  His  mira- 
culous birth  and  Godhead)  Jesus 
gave  proof  by  heavenly  miracles '  ; 
a  passage  imitated  by  Sedulius,  31. 
45  f.  miraculis  dedit  fidem  habere  se 
Dtum  patrem.  cui  refers  back  to 
mysterio,  or  perhaps  to  u.  partus 
sacer. 

25.    cui]    The  tendency  of  late 


Latin  was  to  resolve  diphthongs. 
Thus  Juvenal,  Martial,  Ausonius, 
Prudentius  scan  cM,  Orientius  cUt. 
But  Prud.  once  scans  it  as  a  short 
monosyllable,  Cath.  III.  167.  So 
Fortunatus  scans  cfiliis,  vi.  i.  135, 
vii.  V.  22. 

fidem]  'proof,'  the  ground  on 
which  the  belief  is  founded.  Cp. 
12.  14,  31.  45,  flex.  IV.  15  hinc 
fidem  suae  disputationis  arcessere. 

caelestibus . . .  miraculis]  C  p .  in 
Ps.  cxviii.  xxxiii.  6  crucem  esse 
salutem  mundi  iestimoniis  caeles- 
tibus adstruebut.  The  in  of  several 
Mss  may  have  been  inserted  by  a 
copyist  who  looked  upon  cui  as  a 
monosyllable. 

27.  Joh.xii.37.  plebs  impia ,  the 
Jewish  people,  as  at  Niceta  de 
Psalmod.  Bono  6  (p.  74,  ed.  Burn) 
tiam  et  generatio  eius  exprimitur  et 
reiectio  plehis  impiae  et  gentium 
hereditas  nominatury  cp.  108.  14. 

impia]  failing  in  the  special  duty 
towards  God  of  believing  in  His 
Son.  Ambr.  puts  it  more  fully  in 
the  phrase  Hex.  I.  14  impii  et  in- 
fideles. 

28.  [Mk]  xvi.  16.  Ambr.  Epist. 
XXII.  21  audiuimus  hodie  dicentes 
eos,  t/uibus  mantis  imponebatur, 
neminem  posse  esse  saluum,  nisi  qui 
in  Patrem  et  Filium  et  Spiritum 
sanctum  credidisset.  Perhaps  the 
concurrence  of  the  double  u  explains 
the  lengthening  of  -uus. 


44 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


nos  credimus  natum  Deum 
partumque  uirginis  sacrae, 
peccata  qui  mundi  tulit 
ad  dexteram  sedens  Patris. 


30 


29  dei  Vap. 

29.  nos]  in  emphatic  contrast 
witii  Jews  and  no  doubt  also  with 
Arians,  see  Introduction,  p.  17. 
'We  for  our  part  do  believe  the 
birth  of  God  and  that  a  sacred 
virgin  bare  [Him]';  cp.  Damas. 
XCi.  I  f.  qui  natum  passumque 
Deum  repetisse  paternas  \  sedes  atque 
iterum  uenttirum  ex  aethere  credit. 

31.  Joh.  i.  29  qui  tollit  peccatiim 
mundi.  tuli,  in  meaning  as  in  form, 
is  often  found  as  the  perfect  of  tollo 
(though  sustuli  abstuli  are  the  com- 
moner words) ;  cp.  amongst  many 
instances  in  Ambr.  in  Ps.  cxviii. 
xii.  47  uenit  agnus  Dei,  qui  tulit 
peccatum  mundi;  de  Fuga  Saec.  55 
dottec  moriatur  princeps  sacerdotum 
qui  tulit  peccatum  mundi,  with 
Apol.  David  73  qui  p.  m.  abs tulit; 
in  Luc.  IV.  41  tolle  martyrum  cer- 
tamina,  tulisti  coronas;  tolle  cru- 
ciatus,  tulisti  beatitudines.  So  in 
the  Vulgate  Joh.  xi.  39  f.  tollite 
lapidem...tulerunt  ergo;  Lk.  v.  24 f. 


32  sedit  Vr. 

tolle  ledum... tulit  ledum.  Sedul. 
Op.  II.  12  tollit ..  .quod  quidem 
tulit.  Fort.  IV.  X.  22  gaudia  tot 
populis,  heti,  tulit  una  dies. 

peccata  may  he  chosen  instead 
of  peccatum  in  order  to  avoid  a 
spondee  in  the  2nd  foot,  but  Ambr. 
uses  the  plural  in  the  prose  of  in 
Ps.  CXVIII.  iii.  26  tulit  peccata 
mundi.  The  plural  passed  into  the 
Gloria  in  Excelsis,  both  in  the  Greek 
and  in  the  Latin,  not  without  a  loss 
of  some  depth  of  significance ;  see 
Westcott  on  St  John  I.e. 

32.    [Mk]  xvi.  19,  Heb.  i.  3. 

sedens]  now,  not  at  the  time  of 
tulit.  Niceta  is  perhaps  alluding  to 
this  line  when  he  says  de  Psalmodiae 
Bono  7  (p.  74,  ed.  Burn)  uirtutes 
Dotnini cantantur,  passio  ueneranda 
depingitur,  resurredio  glorlosa  mon- 
stratnr,  sedisse  quoque  ad  dexteram 
nan  tacetur.  But  the  reference  is 
more  probably  to  the  Te  Deum  18. 


Hymn  5 

The  evidence  for  Ambrose  as  author  of  this  hymn  is 
irrefragable.  Twice  Augustine  refers  to  it  as  his :  de 
Beata  Vita  35  hie  maier  recognitis  uerbis,  quae  suae  me- 
moriae penitus  inhaerebant,  et  quasi  euigilans  in  fidem. 
suam  uersuin  ilium  sacerdotis  nostri :  foue  precantes,  Tri- 
niias,  laeta  effudit.  Conf.  IX.  32  (after  his  mother's  death) 
deinde  dormiui  et  euigilaui  et  non  parua  ex  parte  miti- 
gatmn  inueni  dolorem  memn,  atque,  ut  eram  in  lecto  meo 
solus,  recordatus  sum,  ueridicos  uersus  A  mbrosii  tui :  tu  es 
enim  Deus  creator  omnium .. .  Augustine  also  twice  quotes 


HYMN  V.   AMBROSE  45 

the  first  line  without  giving  the  writer's  name  {de  Mus. 
VI.  ii.  2,  ix.  23),  and  often  in  the  Confessions  without  even 
marking  it  as  a  quotation  (e.g.  IV.  15),  and  he  twice  men- 
tions it  as  part  of  a  hymn  (x.  52,  XI.  35). 

As  to  its  church  use  see  the  Rule  of  Caesarius  ad  uir- 
gines:  ad  uesperam  siniili  inodo  in  exteriori  oratorio  direc- 
taneus  pariiulus  dicatur  et  antiphonae  tres,  hymnus  una 
die:  Dens,  qui  cert  is  legibus,  altera  die:  Deus  creator 
omnium  ;  cp.  the  Rule  of  Aurelian  cotidianis  igitur  die- 
bus... ad  lucernarium  omni  tempore  et  festis  et  cotidianis 
diebus  inpritnis  directaneus,  postea  antiphonae  duae,  tertia 
semper  cum  alleluia  dicatur,  ymnus  una  die :  Deus,  qui 
certis  legibus,  alia  die:  Deus  creator  omnium  et  capitellum. 

Ambr.  probably  wrote  it  for  daily  use  throughout  the 
year  and  Ambrosian  MSS  give  as  rubric  simply  ymnus 
uespertinalis.  It  was  adopted  into  the  later  hymnary 
and  there  assigned  to  vespers  on  Saturday.  'Its  general 
use  is  on  Saturdays  from  that  preceding  the  ist  Sunday 
after  the  Octave  of  the  Epiphany  to  the  Saturday  before 
Quadragesima  Sunday,  both  inclusive ;  and  from  the 
Saturday  preceding  the  ist  Sunday  in  August  to  Advent.' 
(Julian  p.  290.) 

It  does  not  seem  to  have  been  adopted  into  the 
Mozarabic  breviary,  which  however  has  a  hymn  Deus 
creator  omniuju,  \  lucis  auctor  et  diei,  \  per  lustra  cor  da  om- 
nium I  lesu  bone  fidelium ;  etc.  this  being  appointed  for 
lauds  on  Saturdays  infra  hebdomadam,  i  quadragesimae. 
Ambr.'s  vesper  hymn  is  not  received  into  the  modern 
Roman  breviary. 

Biraghi's  sub-title,  ad  horam  incensi,  i.e.  *  at  the  hour 
of  lighting,'  is  a  phrase  resting  on  no  MS  authority,  being 
derived  from  Ambr.  de  Virginib.  III.  18  oratio  nos  crebra 
Deo  commendet ;...certe sollemnes  orationes  cum  gratiarum 
actione  sunt  deferendae,  cum  e  somno  surgimus . .  .et  hora 


46  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

incensi.  Prudentius'  evening  hymn,  from  which  27  is 
taken,  is  entitled  ad  incensum  liicertiae.  The  service  at 
this  hour  was  known  in.  the  Greek  Church  as  to  \v)(yiK6v, 
in  the  Western  Church  as  lucernare  or  lucernarium.  See 
Aetheriae  Peregrinatio  LXXII.  5  hora  autem  decima,  quod 
appellant  hie  Hcinicon,  nam  nos  dicimus  lucernare,  simi- 
liter se  omnis  multitudo  colliget  ad  Anasiasin,  incenduntur 
omnes  candelae  et  cerei^  etfit  lumen  infinitum. 

Abcdghik  ENcdhjlsvx^  Fabknops  Ga  Habcdefghi 
Icdehnop  Vacpr 

Deus  creator  omnium, 
polique  rector,  uestiens 
diem  decoro  lumine, 
noctem  soporis  gratia, 

artus  solutos  ut  quies  5 

reddat  laboris  usui, 
mentesque  fessas  alleuet 
luctusque  soluat  anxios, 
4  gratiam  Va. 

1.  Cp.  2  Maccab.  i.  24.  mundi istius pulchritudinem...Ergo 

2.  poll]  See  2.  10  note.  Earthly  decortim  hoc,  quod  in  singulis  mundi 
kings  are  redores  mundi  Ambr.  in  partibus  elucebat,  in  uniuersi(ale 
Luc.  IV.  37;  cp.  Verg.  A  en.  viii.  resplenduit. 

572  diuum  tu  maxime  rector  \  lup-  4.   gratia]  'the  gracious  gift,'  or 

piter.  perhaps  'the  kindly  influence,' with 

uestiens]  as  with  a  garment ;  cp.  which   cp.   Keble's   '  soft   dews   of 

Ps.  ciii.  2,  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  640  lar-  kindly  sleep.'    Aug.   Conf.   ix.   32 

gior  hie  campos   aether  et   lumine  (see  the  introduction  to  this  hymn) 

uestit  purpurea.    Ambr.  often  uses  quotes   the   line   as   noctem    sopora 

uestire    metaphorically,    e.g.    Hex.  gratia  according  to  the  best  Mss. 
III.  47,  49,  52,  65,  Epist.  XXXIV,  7  5.    Note    the    threefold    use    of 

caeli  lumina.-.creaturae  sunt...ser-  soluere   in   these   lines   'relaxed  in 

uientes  dispositioni  creatoris  aeterni,  sleep,'  'disperse,'  'pay.' 
ministrantes    splendorem    quo   ues-  6.    Cp.  Nicet.  de  Vigiliis  \  nox... 

tiuntur  atque  die  nocteque  emicant.  cunctos  in  somno  detinet  animantes. 

There  is  something  of  a  zeugma  in  ut  reparatis    Jtiribus   per    soporem 

joining  gratia  and  lumitte  with  ues-  possint  diurnos  labores  sustinere  ui- 

tiens  in  the  same  way.  gilantes . .  .ergo  diem  ad  opus,  noctem 

3.  Ambr,  de  Off.  i.  221  est  igitur  fecit  ad  requiem,  et  pro  hoc,  sicut 
decorum  quod praeeminet...Habes hoc  pro  omnibus,  gratias  debemus  agere 
decorum  generate,  quia  fecit  Deus  illi  qui  praestitit. 


HYMN  V.   AMBROSE 


A7 


grates  peracto  iam  die 

et  noctis  exortu  preces,  lo 

uoti  reos  ut  adiuues, 

hymnum  canentes  soluimus. 

te  cordis  ima  concinant, 

te  uox  canora  concrepet, 

te  diligat  castus  amor,  15 

te  mens  adoret  sobria  : 

ut  cum  profunda  clauserit 

II  uotis  Adh  Fnps  Vp.  13  concinat  Eh  Ga  Ih  Vr^,  concinent  Ejs 

(concinnent  Fb).  14  sonora  Ah  Vap.     increpet  Ej.  17  vX  {pro 

et)  Abdh  EKl  Fb  Gd  Vap.     profundo  Ed. 


7.  alleuet]  '  relieve,'  cp.  2.  4. 

8.  anxlos]  'torturing,'  much 
stronger  than  our  anxious.  Verg. 
Aen.  IX.  89  sollicitain  iimor  anxius 
angit. 

9.  'We  pay  our  thanks  and 
prayers... that  Thou  wouldest  help 
us  who  are  bound  by  our  vow.' 
The  singers  are  regarded  as  having 
in  the  morning  vowed  to  offer  songs 
and  prayers  on  being  brought  safely 
through  the  day.  Now  at  evening, 
having  obtained  their  petition,  they 
acknowledge  that  the  song  and 
prayers  are  due.  Catteiites  is  nomi- 
native and  almost  means  '  by  sing- 
ing.' The  clause  ut  adiuues  de- 
pends \x\iOX\  preces.  The  first  stanza 
of  16  is  constructed  in  .somewhat 
like  manner.  Not  altogether  unlike 
is  Hex.  V.  36  auium,  quae  cum  etint 
cubitum,  quasi  peracto  laetae  munere 
aetkera  caniu  mulcere  consuerunt, 
ut...laudes  suo  referant  creator i. 
magnum  igitur  incentiuutn  excitan- 
doe  nobis  deuotionis  amiseram.  qui 
enim  stnsum  hominis  gerens  non 
eruhescat  sine  psalmorum  celebritate 
diem  claudere,  cum  etiam  minutissi- 
mae  aues  sollemni  deuotiotte  et  dulci 
cannine  ortus  dierum  ac  noctium 
prosequantur  f 

10.  noctis  exortu]  an  unusual 
phrase,    almost   'at    the    dawn    of 


night ' ;  cp.  Hex.  v.  36  ortus  dierum 
ac  noctium ;  60.  1 1 .  Ambr.  brought 
up  upon  Verg.  would  remember 
Aen.  II.  250  ruit  oceanonox,  '  night 
speeds  up  from  ocean.' 

1 1 .  uoti  reos]  a  phrase  borrowed 
from  Verg.  Aen.  V.  237,  where 
Cloanthus  begs  for  the  sea-gods' 
help :  taurum  \  constituam  ante  aras, 
uoti  reus.  Festus  says :  reus  dictus  a 
re  quam  promisit  cu  debet.  With  the 
old  Romans  a  vow  implied  a  con- 
tract between  the  vower  and  the 
god  to  whom  the  vow  was  made. 
If  the  god  did  his  part,  the  vower 
was  bound  to  do  (reus)  his.  A  geni- 
tive was  used  of  that  in  which  a 
person  was  thus  bound. 

13.  For  the  rhetorical  repetition 
of  te  see  2.  9. 

cordis  ima]  '  the  depth  of  the 
heart.'  The  use  of  a  neuter  plu. 
adj.  followed  by  a  gen.  is  a  favourite 
usage  of  Ambr.,  cp.  26,  6.  27,  and 
the  many  examples  quoted  by  Steier 
64 1,  "  e.g.  mentis  (cordis)  occulta, 
cculi  alta,  etc. 

14.  concrepet]  an  emphatic  word 
which  has  lost  its  moredetinitemean- 
ing  '  rattle' (of  arms  etc.).  Horace 
Od.  I.  xviii.  5  uses  the  simple  cre- 
pare,  '  harp  upon.'  Cp.  72.  12,  116. 
28. 

1 5.  castas]   Cp.  4.  28  saluHs. 


48 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


diem  caligo  noctium, 
fides  tenebras  nesciat 
et  nox  fide  reluceat.  20 

dormire  mentem  ne  sinas, 
dormire  culpa  nouerit, 
castis  fides  refrigerans 
somni  uaporem  temperet. 

20  fidei  luceat  Ecdlsvx  Fkops  Hcde^  Id'en  Ver,  fideli  luc.  EK'  (fidelis 
S'')  Fb  Habce^fghi  Id%op.  21  sinat  Ec  Fb  Hh  Vr.  22  culpam 

Ad  Ehj  Fb  Id^n  Vr.  23  casti  Es,  castus  EX,  castos  Adh  Ecdlvx  Fbp 

Hacefi  Idh.     refrigeret  Ex0  Fb  (-rent  Es).  34  uapore  Vr. 


18.  caligo]  Cp.  2.  10  note,  and 
observe  the  shortened  a. 

noctium]  '  of  the  night '  ;  when 
no  particular  night  is  meant,  the 
plural  is  common  ;  cp.  Steier  643. 

19.  fldes  tenebras]  strongly  con- 
trasted as  often  in  Ambr.  e.g. 
3.  28. 

nesciat]  See  3.  20  note. 

20.  '  And  may  night  be  illu- 
mined with  the  light  of  faith.'  Faith 
is  as  it  were  a  torch  in  the  darkness ; 
cp.  6.  32. 

2 1 .  dormire]  Cp.  2.  30  note ;  de 
Inst.  Virg.  xvii.  1 1 1  uigilet  cor 
eius,  caro  doriniat ;  de  Nab.  63  f., 
in  Ps.  cxvill.  xii.  14. 

mentem]  '  the  soul.'  This  is  to  be 
kept  awake  (Cant.  v.  2) ;  sin  {culpa 
as  at  4.  1 2)  is  to  be  laid  to  sleep. 

ne  sinas]  'suffer  not.'  This  use 
of  the  2nd  pers.  of  the  pres.  subj. 
with  ne  is  very  rare  in  classical 
writers :  but  here  we  have  a  prayer, 
not  a  prohibition. 

22.  nouerit]  [Wal pole  had  count- 
ed sixteen  places  in  Ambr.'s  prose 
works  where  nosse  is  used  with 
infin. ;  e.g.]  Hex.  v.  6  ncmit  ulcisci, 
ib.  VI.  26  nouit  temptare ;  cp.  Steier 
572,  Verg.  Aen.  viil.  3(7. 

23.  Literally  '  may  faith  cooling 
the  chaste  allay  the  hot  fumes  of 
sleep.'  Ambr.  seems  to  be  thinking 
of  the  bodily  warmth  that  accom- 
panies sleep  rising  to  overpower  the 


soul  and  to  set  free  the  animal  im- 
pulses. Cp.  in  Ps.  XXXV.  25  node 
adtienit  iiiiniicus  et  aduersarius, 
quando  somno  sensus  tenetur,  in  Ps. 
XXXVI.  18  ne...ueniat  tile  qui  cale- 
factitm  corporis  somno  excitare 
consueuit.  The  evils  are  to  be 
counteracted  by  the  faith  which 
realises  even  in  sleep  the  presence 
of  God,  cp.  26.  28.  refrigerare  in 
classical  Latin  usually  has  a  bad 
sense,  'chill,'  'numb.'  But  cp.  Cic. 
de  Sen.  46;  57  umbris  aquisue  re- 
frigerari.  It  usually  takes  an  ace, 
as  de  Isacu  77  eos  refrigerabat  \  in 
Ps  CXVIII.  iv.  19  nos  Domini  crux 
refrigeret  \  sometimes  a  dat.  as  here 
and  at  Tertullian  ad  Scapulam  4 
indigenlibus  refrigeramus  \  Ambr. 
Epist.  LXiii.  69  quibus  refrigera- 
bat aeternae  spes  gratiae ;  see 
Rcinsch  378. 

24.  uaporem]  Cp.  Sen.  Hippol. 
(i\o  pectus  insanum  uapor  amorque 
torret. 

25.  i.e.  freed  from  the  dangers  of 
the  waking  state ;  cp.  Ambr.  de 
Res.  II.  21  quorum  (i.e.  of  sleepers) 
animi  ad  altiora  se  subrigunt  et  re- 
nuntiant  corpori.  Just  before  he 
has  spoken  of  the  soul  at  death  as 
depositis  proprii  setuus  repagulis  ex- 
pedita.  Not  that  sensus  is  to  be 
taken  in  the  physical  connotation: 
it  is  '  thought '  here  as  elsewhere. 
exutus  is  used  thus  in  metaph.,  in 


HYMN  V.   AMBROSE 


49 


27  ne  (pro  nee)  Va. 
Fabs  Hb  IcM  Vap, 


exuta  sensu  lubrico 
te  cordis  ima  somnient, 
nee  hostis  inuidi  dolo 
pauor  quietos  suscitet. 

Christum  rogemus  et  Patrem, 
Christi  Patrisque  Spiritum, 
unum  potens  per  omnia, 
foue  precantes,  Trinitas.    . 

29  rogamus  Abdh  Vap. 
32  faue  Hdf  Ih. 


25 


30 


31  unus  Echjv 


Luc.  X.  no  nodo  mortis  exuta.  Cp. 
Verg.  Aen.  iv.  319  exue  mentem. 

26.  somnient]  'dream  of,'  with 
ace,  cp.  Ter.  Eun.  194  me  somnies, 
me  exspectes,  Tertull.  de  Fuga  i 
scalae,  quas  somniat  Jacob. 

2  7  f.  '  Let  not  dread  by  reason  of 
the  craft  of  our  malignant  foe  (the 
devil,  as  at  3.  14)  arouse  us  from 
our  quiet  sleep.' 

bostis]  de  Int.  David  11.  28  sit 
porta  nostri  oris  et  cordis  clausa 
diligentius,  ne  hostis  introeat. 

pauor... suscitet]  Cp.  Prov.  iii. 
24  f.  si  dormieris,  non  timebis:  ...ne 
paueas  repcntino  terrore. 

29.  rogemus]  [Walpole  left  it 
doubtful  whether  to  read  rogamus 
or  rogemus.  The  surrounding  pre- 
catives  make  it  more  likely  that 
scribes  would  alter  a  to  f  than  the 
contrary;  and  the  indicative  seems 
to  give  the  better  sense.] 

30.  Christi... Spiritum]  Actsxvi. 
7,  Rom.  viii.  9,  Gal.  iv.  6,  Phil.  i. 
19 ;  Ambr.  de  Spir.  i.  54  idem  est 
Spirit  us  Dei,quicst  Spiritus  Christ  i\ 
ib.  56 ;  Epist.  xxi.  [Sei-m.  32), 
XXXVI.  3.  Ambr.  distinctly  teaches 
the  proce.ssion  of  the  Spirit  from  the 
Son  de  Spir.  i.  119  and  152;  cp. 
Swete  History  of  the  Doctrine  of 
the  Procession  p.  1 1 9  f. 


3r.  unum]  perhaps  agrees  with 
potens,  the  two  words  combining 
into  one  idea,  'one  power,'  these 
two  words  being  in  the  accusative, 
in  apposition  with  the  foregoing. 

potens  per  omnia]  '  all  powerful,' 
'almighty.'  Ambr.  often  uses  per 
omnia  thus,  de  Parad.  8  per  omnia 
malum;  ib.  ^6  per  omnia... coniunc- 
tissimus;  Epist.  LVlil.  ro  uirnudus 
per  omnia.  Cp.  the  Lat.  versions  of 
Acts  xvii.  22,  Heb.  iv.  15,  also  36. 
21. 

This  line  is  imitated  at  32.  23, 
44.  19,  48.  10. 

32.  foue]  a  beautiful  and  expres- 
sive word,  combining  the  ideas  of 
nursing,  as  a  mother  nurses  her  child 
in  her  lap,  and  of  keeping  warm,  as 
a  hen  keeps  her  brood  warm  by 
gathering  them  under  her  wings ; 
cp.  Eph.  v.  29  nutrit  et  fouet  earn, 
si  cut  et  Christ  us  ecclesiam  ;  i  Thess. 
ii.  7  tamquam  si  nutrix  foueat  ftlios 
suos;  30.  25.  It  lost,  however,  some 
of  its  original  delicacy  of  meaning 
and  is  used  in  the  more  general 
sense  of  'protecting,'  81.  7,  Aug. 
Conf.  VII.  20  fouisti  caput  tuscientis. 
For  the  interesting  reference  which 
Aug.  makes  to  this  line  see  the 
introduction  to  this  hymn. 


50  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

Hymn  6 

The  authenticity  of  this  hymn  is  more  widely  attested 
than  that  of  any  other  of  Ambrose's.  Caelestine  (Bp  of 
Rome  A.D.  422-432)  presiding  at  the  Council  of  Rome  A.D. 
430, in  his  speech  against  the  Nestorian  heresy  says(Mansi 
IV.  5  50) :  recorder  beatae  memoriae  A  mbrosium  in  die  na- 
talis  Domini  nostri  lesu  Christi  omttem  popiiliim  fecisse 
una  uoce  canere :  ueni  Redemptor  gentium,  ostende  par- 
tum  uirginis,  miretur  omne  saeculuni,  talis  decet  partus 
Deum.  numquid  dixit,  talis  decet  partus  hominem  ?  ergo 
sensus  fratris  nostri  Cyrilli  in  hoc,  quod  dicit  deoroKov 
Mariam,  ualde  concordat:  talis  decet  partus  Demn.  Deum 
partu  suo  uirgo  effudit. 

Faustus  (Bishop  of  Riez,  died  A.D.  492)  Epist,  Vll.  ad 
Graecum  Diaconum  (p.  203  ed.  Engelbrecht)  nos  uerum 
hominem  et  uerum  Deum.  nullo  modo  ambigimus  confiten- 
dum.  accipe  etiam  in  hymno  sacri  antistitis  et  confessoris 
Ambrosii,  quern  in  natali  Dominico  catholica  per  omnes 
Italiae  et  Galliae  regiones  persultat  ecclesia :  precede  de 
thalamo  tuo,  geminae  gigans  substantiae. 

Facundus  (Bishop  of  Hermiana  in  Africa,  fl.  450, 
Migne  LXVII.  540)  unum  de  Trinitate  credidi  Dominutn 
lesum  Christum... qui Patris  existens  unigenitus  f actus  sit 
unigenitus  matris,  ut  geminae  gigans  substantiae,  sicut  in- 
tellexit  et  cantauit  Ambrosius,  utriusque  uerae  natiuitatis 
proprietate  credatur. 

Cassiodorus  (died  about  570,  Migne  LXX.  79)  in  Ps. 
VIII.  II  ad  fin.:  beatus  Ambrosius  hymnum  natalis  Do- 
mini eloquejitiae  suae  pulcherrimo  fiore  compinxit,  ut  plus 
sacerdos  festiuitate  dignum  munus  offerret. .  .ait  enim :  pro- 
cedat  de  thalamo  suo,  pudoris  aula  regia,  geminae  gigans 
substantiae,  alacris  ut  currat  uiam  :  et  cetera,  quae  supra 
humanum  ingenium^  uir  sanctus  excoluit.    Again  in  Ps. 


HYMN  VI.   AMBROSE  51 

LXXI.  6  (ib,  509)  hinc  Ambrosiiis  ille,  quaedam  ecclesiae 
candela,  niirabili  fulgore  lampaiiit  dicens:  ueni  Redemptor 
gent  mm... 

Augustine  has  also  been  quoted  as  a  witness  Serm. 
T,y2  de  Nat.  Dom.  IV.  3  /tunc  nostri  gigantis  excursum  bre- 
uissime  et pulcherrmie  cecinit  beatiis  Atnbrosius  in  hymno, 
quern paulo  ante  cantastis;  loqiiens  enini  de  Christo  Domino 
sic  ait :  egressus  eius  a  Patre,  regressus  eius  ad  Patrem, 
excursus  usque  ad  inferos,  recursus  ad  sedeni  Dei.  Again 
Semi,  de  Symbol.  IV.  4  quis  enim  non  expauescat,  cum 
atuiit  Deum  natum  ?  audis  fiascentem,  uide  in  ipso  ortu 
miracula  facientem :  aluus  tumescit  uirginis,  claustrum 
pudoi'is  permanet.  But  it  is  not  quite  certain  that  these 
passages  are  the  genuine  work  of  Augustine.  It  is  perhaps 
against  them  that  Faustus  does  not  speak  of  the  hymn 
as  being  sung  elsewhere  than  in  Italy  and  Gaul.  How- 
ever Aug.  Tract,  in  Ev.  lo.  LIX.  3  quotes  the  phrase  ge- 
minae  gigans  substantiae,  without  mentioning  the  source. 
Cp.  also  Conf.  IV.  xii.  19. 

The  Benedictine  editors  also  quote  Hildephons.  de 
Partu  Virg. :  et  ideo,  quia  nonfuii  huiusmodi partus  sacra- 
tissimae  uirginis  Mariae . . .canit  et  orat  beatissimus  Am- 
brosius :  ucni,  ait,  Redemptor  gentium,  ostende  partum 
uirginis... non  enim  ait:  ostende  conceptum  uirginis,  sed 
partum.  See  Daniel  IV.  5  f. ;  but  it  is  now  allowed  that  the 
treatise  was  not  written  by  Hildephonsus.  Sedul.  Carm.U. 
44  f  gives  much  of  the  wording  of  our  hymn:  tunc  max i- 
mus  infans  \  intemerata  sui  conseruans  uiscera  templi  \  in- 
laesum  iiacuauit  iter:  pro  uirgine  testis  \  partus  adest, 
clausa  ingrediens  et  clausa  relinquens.  \  quae  noua  lux 
mundo,  quae  toto  gratia  caelo?  \  quisfuit  ille  nitor,  Mariae 
cum  Chris tjis  ab  aluo  \  processit  splendore  nouo?  uelut  ipse 
decoro  \  sponsus  ouans  thalamo. 

In  the  older  MSS  the  rubric  runs  in  {de)  natali  {tiati- 

4-2 


52  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

uitate)  or  ad  natale  Domini ;  in  the  most  ancient  MS  it 
runs  Hymtius  natali  Domini  dicendus.  Somewhat  later 
MSS  add  the  particular  office  at  which  it  was  to  be  sung, 
thus  e.g.  Rheinau  LXXXili  written  about  A.D.  looo  adds 
ad  noct.  uel  ad  uesp.  Mone  (l.  43)  notes  :  '  nach  den  Hss 
und  Ausgaben  wurde  das  Lied  theils  im  Advent  theils 
auf  Weihnacht  gesungen.' 

Aabcdefghik  Eacdhjsvx/tt^  Fbdhiprs  Gablm/x  HacefghjS 
Ibdeghmnv  Magkx  Vabceprs 

Intende,  qui  regis  Israel, 

super  cherubin  qui  sedes, 

adpare  Ephreni  coram,  excita 

potentiam  tuam  at  ueni. 

ueni,  redemptor  gentium,  5 

ostende  partum  uirginis, 

miretur  omne  saeculum, 

talis  decet  partus  Deo. 

8  deum  Acgh  Eacdvx^  Fip  G/a  Hgh  Ibgmnv  Mm  Vacp'^. 

I.  The  first  stanza  is  taken,  Prud.  Cath.  xu.  41  f.  hie  tile  rex 
almost  as  it  stands,  from  Ps.  Ixxix.  est  gentium  \  populique  rex  ludaici. 
(Ixxx.)  \{.  qui  regis  Israel  intetuk,...  When  elision  was  disused  the  lines 
qui  sedes  super  cherubin,  manifes-  would  become  hard  to  sing,  and 
tare  coram  Ephraim ..  .excita  poten-  may  thus  have  fallen  out  of  use;  or 
tiam  tuam  et  ueni.  This  passage  in  some  copyist  may  have  deliberately 
the  old  Galilean  use  and  in  others  omitted  them,  thinking  ueni  re- 
forms the  antiphon  for  Advent  demptor  gentium  a  finer  opening. 
Sunday;  and  excita  quaesutnus  Do-  In  any  case,  read  as  they  are  in  all 
mine  potentiam  tuam  et  ueni  was  the  Ambrosian  MSS  and  in  the 
(and  in  the  Roman  use  is)  part  of  ancient  Vat.  reg.  ti,  we  must  ac- 
the  collect,  which  we  now  use  for  cept  them  as  the  genuine  work  of 
the  fourth  Sunday  in  Advent.    The  Ambr. 

stanza  is   an   integral   part   of  the  3.    Eplurem]    This  (and  cherubin 

hymn,    Ambr.     incorporating     the  as  above)  appears  to  be  the  usual 

words  of  Scripture,  just  as  he  does  spelling  in  the  Old    Latin  version 

at  7.  17  f.   He  prays  that  Christ  may  and  in  early  writers, 

come  as  the  shepherd  of  Israel,  in  4  f.     ueni,    ueni]     repeated     in 

the  next  stanza  that  He  may  come  Ambr.'s  manner, 

as  Redeemer  of  the  Gentiles.   The  6.     i.e.    shew    all    men    that    a 

two   ideas   are   often   combined   in  virgin  has  brought  forth. 

IS'.T.  and  even   in   O.T.,    cp.    Ps.  8.    Aug.  5«r/«.  CLXXXVi.  i  Z>«<w 

xcvii.    (xcviii.)  2f.,   Mt.   x.    5,  xv.  sic  nasci  oportuit,  quando  esse  dig- 

22,    24,    Lk.   i.   33,    Ac.    xiii.  46.  natus  est  homo.   Leo  Serm.  XXI.  2 


HYMN  VI.  AMBROSE 


S3 


non  ex  uirili  semine, 
sed  mystico  spiramine 
Verbum  Dei  factum  est  caro, 
fructusque  uentris  floruit. 

aluus  tumescit  uirginis, 
claustrum  pudoris  permanet, 
uexilla  uirtutum  micant, 


lO 


15 


II  om.  est  Ag  Eacdsv/x  Fhs  Icdgv  Mm.  14  claustra... permanent 

Edsvx/t  Fihmp  Gab  Hce^/3  Ih.  15  uirtutis  Fs  Gab  Idehm  Vbs, 

uirtute  Mgk  Vapr.     micat  Ec  Hh. 


talis  natiuitas  dectiit  Dei  uirtutem 
et  Dei  sapientiam  Christum.  See 
also  Caelestine's  words  quoted  in 
the  introd.  to  this  hymn. 

decet]  usually  takes  an  ace. ,  "but 
is  found  with  a  dative  in  Terence, 
Sallust  and  other  writers ;  see 
Rdnsch.  p.  439.  Ambr.  de  Fug. 
Saec.  III.  16  twice  over  quotes  talis 
nobis  decebai  princeps  sacerdos. 

[9.  non  ex  u.  s.]  Ambr.,  like 
Tert.,  read  the  verb  in  Joh.  i.  13 
in  the  sing.,  as  applying  to  our 
Lord.  See  in  Ps.  xxxvii.  Praef.  5 
qui  non  ex  sanguinibus,  neqtie  ex 
uoluntate  carnis,  neque  ex  uoluntate 
uiri,  sed  de  Spiritti  sancto  natus  ex 
uirgine  est.'\ 

10.  spiramine]  the  Spirit  in  ac- 
tion ;  Lk.  i.  35.  Ambr.  uses  the 
word  de  Bono  Mortis  19 ;  cp.  4 
Esdras  xvi.  63  spiramen  Dei  omni- 
potentis  qui  fecit  omnia.  Juvenc.  I. 
340  abluet  ille  hominis  sancto  spira- 
mine mentem.  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  47, 
Apoth.  170,  758.  871,  Psych.  421, 
717,  Perist.  X.  985. 

11.  Joh.  i.  14,  often  quoted  by 
Ambr. 

12.  fructUB  uentris]  Ps.  cxxvi. 
(cxxvii.)  3,  cxxxi.  (cxxxii.)  11,  Lk.  i. 
42 ;    Ambr.    in    Luc.    11.    24    ipse 

fructus  uentris  esi...flos  Mariae 
Christ  us,   qui  ueluti  bonae  arboris 

fructus ..  .nunc  floret,  fr.  uentris 
is,  of  course,  predicate.    [The  word 

floruit  doubtless  contains  an  allu- 
sion to  Is.   xi.   I,  where  the  LXX 


has  aivdos  iK  t^s  ^^ff??  aKa/SiJffetot, 
though  the  Latin  versions  translated 
otherwise.] 

14.  claustrum  pudoris]  'the 
barrier  of  chastity,'  seems  to  be 
used  in  a  physical  and  literal  sense 
here  and  de  Inst.  Virg.  vill.  52 
quae  est  igitur  haec  porta  ?  [cp. 
Ezek.  xliv.  2]  porta  igitur  Maria, 
per  quam  Christus  intrauit  in  hunc 
mundum,  quando  uirginali  fusus 
est  partu  et  genitalia  uirginis 
claustra  non  soluit.  mansit  interne- 
ratuvi  septum  pudoris.  See  among 
many  like  passages  of  Ambr.  de 
Inst.  Virg.  52,  58,  60,  62,  in, 
Epist.  V.  9,  XLll.  6f.,  LXill.  33; 
c p.  31.  9,  39.  4,  88.  4,  and  contrast 
9.  10  (note). 

15.  uexilla]  The  word  usually 
means  a  military  '  ensign,'  '  flag,' 
and  in  a  Roman  legion  each  squadron 
of  horse  had  its  uexillum.  But  in 
particular  it  was  a  red  flag  hung  out 
over  the  general's  tent  as  a  signal 
for  battle ;  cp.  Caes.  Bell.  Gall.  ll. 
20  uexillum... quod erat  insigne,  cum 
ad  arma  concurri  oporteret.  Here 
uexilla  uirtutum  might  mean  '  the 
standards  of  the  heavenly  powers ' ; 
for  uirtutes  in  the  Latin  versions 
translates  Sucd/uety  of  the  Greek  e.g. 
I  Pet.  iii.  22  ;  cp.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  i. 
25.  But  other  passages  in  Ambr. 
point  decisively  to  another  meaning: 
de  Inst.  Virg.  35  egregia  igitur 
Maria,  quae  signum  scurae  uirgini- 
tatis    extulit   et    intemeratcu    inte- 


54 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


uersatur  in  templo  Deus. 

procedat  e  thalamo  suo, 

pudoris  aula  regia, 

geminae  gigans  substantiae ; 

alacris  occurrat  uiam.  20 

17  procedens  Aabcdefgh  Eadsvx/U0  Fips  Gabl  H/3  Ibdg'hmv  Mgkm  Vbs, 
procedit  G/t  Icg%  Vacp.     de  (pro  e)  Ecdvx^  Fi  Gb  Ih  Vbs.  20  ut 

currat  Ih  Va. 


gritatis...u€xillum  erexit ;  de  Vir- 
ginib.  II.  15  quantae  in  una  uir- 
gine  species  uirtutum  emicant  I 
secretum  uerecundiae,  tiexilltim 
fidei,  deuotionis  obsequium.  Although 
she  is  a  mother,  the  Virgin's  purity 
remains  inviolate  and  the  banners  of 
her  many  virtues  gleam  forth ;  and, 
as  the  flag  over  the  palace  announces 
the  prince's  presence,  even  so  these 
banners  of  purity  announce  the 
presence  of  God  in  His  mother's 
womb. 

16.  uersatur]  perhaps,  coming 
as  it  does  midway  between  tumescit 
and  procedat,  denotes  the  near  ap- 
proach of  birth. 

templo]  It  is  not  walls  that  give 
its  character  to  a  temple,  but  the 
presence  of  God,  and  therefore  this 
'  royal  court '  is  rightly  called  '  a 
temple,'  with  special  ref.  to  Ps.  x. 
(xi.)  5,  Hab.  ii.  20,  Mai.  iii.  i  ;  cp. 
Ambr.  de  Spir.  111.  80  Maria  erat 
temphim  Dei;  in  Ps.  XLV.  13  ad- 
mirabile  temphim  Dei  et  aula  cae- 
lestis;  de  Inst.  Virg.  33,  105,  etc. 

17  f.  Ps.  xviii.  (xix. )  6  ipse  tam- 
quam  sponsus  procedens  de  thalamo 
suo :  exsultauit  tit  gigas  ad  curren- 
dam  uiam.  Ambr.  quotes  this  verse 
in  Ps.  XLiii.  28,  cxviii.  vi.  6,  de 
Inst.  Virg.  6,  de  Incarn.  35. 

17.  Most  of  the  MSS  read/roc^- 
dens,  but  this  would  give  a  spondee 
in  the  2nd  foot  of  the  verse  and  is 
no  doubt  due  to  procedens  in  the 
psalm.  The  evidence  iox  procedat  is 
more  ancient  than  that  for  procedit, 
which  perhaps  comes  from  the  sur- 
rounding    indicatives     and     which 


would  clash  with  the  strongly  at- 
tested occurrat  in  20.  Note  that 
Ambr.  as  usual  (nee  Steier  582,  595, 
6 1 3 ,  63 3)  slightly  alters  the  Scripture 
quotation. 

18.  The  phrase  'the  royal  court' 
was  for  Ambr.  a  regular  synonym 
for  Mary;  e.g.  in  Luc.  X.  r32  quia 
cognouerat  per  Filii  mortetn  viundi 
redemptionem,  aula  regalis  putabat 
se  et  sua  morte  publico  muneri  ali- 
quid  addituram.  Cp.  de  Inst.  Virg. 
79,  105,  Epist.  XLii.  7,  Lxiii.  no; 
Hildebert  (quoted  by  Trench  in) 
intra  uirgineum  decus,  intra  clau- 
stra  pudoris,  colligit  angelicam  uir- 
ginis  aula  rosam. 

19.  Ambr.  regarded  the  giants  of 
Gen.  vi.  4  as  'of  two-fold  nature,' 
earthly  and  heavenly,  '  the  sons  of 
God'  being  the  angels.  Leporius 
(the  convert  of  Augustine,  fl.  425) 
alludes  to  this  stanza  in  his  retrac- 
tation (Migne  xxxi.  1 225 f. ) :  ideoque 
una  persona  accipienda  est  carnis  et 
uerbi,  utfideliter  sine  aliqua  dubita- 
tionecredamus  unum  eundemqiie  Dei 
Filium  inseparabilem  semper,  ge- 
minae substantiae  etiam  gigantem 
nominatuni. 

substantiae]  'nature.'  So  Ambr. 
Hex.  III.  32,  de  Incarn,  77. 

20.  alacris  answers  to  exsultauit 
of  Ps.  xviii.  6.  This  form  of  the 
masculine  is  found  in  Verg.  Aen.  v. 
380,  VI.  685.  The  Thesaurus  gives 
references  to  three  other  passages 
where  it  is  found.  The  ancient 
grammarians  discussed  the  correct- 
ness of  it. 

occurrat  u.]    If  this  reading  is 


HYMN  VI.   AMBROSE 


55 


egressus  eius  a  Patre, 
regressus  eius  ad  Patrem, 
excursus  usque  ad  inferos, 
recursus  ad  sedem  Dei. 

aequalis  aetemo  Patri 
carnis  tropaeo  accingere, 

26  cingere  (pro  ace.)  Aabdefg  E0  Gl/i  Hgh  Mm  Vapr. 


25 


right,  the  verb  appears  to  be  used 
in  the  sense  of  '  entering  upon  '  the 
course ;  but  it  would  not  be  easy  to 
find  a  parallel  to  it.  Ambr.  may 
have  taken  the  word  from  the  next 
verse  of  the  Ps.,  where  occursus 
represents  KaravTrjiMa,  the  arrival  at 
the  goal ;  if  so,  he  misunderstood 
it. 

21  f.  Still  from  Ps.  xviii.  a  summo 
caelo  egressio  eius:  et  occursus  eius 
usque  ad  suvimum  eius;  cp.  Joh. 
xvi.  28.-  This  application  of  the 
psalm  goes  back  to  Irenaeus  (see 
Haer.  iv.  xxxiii.  13,  d%  ivdei^iv  85) 
and  to  Justin  [Apol.  54,  Dial.  64, 
69).  Lines  21,  22  give  the  starting- 
point  and  the  end  of  the  course : 
33,  24  contrast  its  nadir  and 
zenith. 

23.  Ambr.  in  Ps.  XLlii.  84  Do- 
tninus  in  infernum  descendit,  ut  et 
illi  qui  in  inferis  erant  a  uinculis 
soluerentur.  The  clause  descendit 
ad  inferna  had  already  found  a 
place  in  the  creed  of  Aquiieia,  and 
was  probably  known  to  Ambr. ;  cf. 
Rufinus  in  Symbol.  14.  28. 

25.  Ambr.  often  recurs  to  this 
dogma  as  Epist.  viil.  37  Palladius 
dixit:  'Pater  tnaior  est  Filio.^ 
Ambrosius  episcopus  dixit:  '■secun- 
dum carnein  Filius  minor  est  Patre, 
secundum  diuinitatem  aequalis  est 
Patri' r  Epist.  XLViii.  4  Filium... 
coaetemum  Patri... aequalem  Patri 
secundum  diuinitatem. 

25  f.  '  Coequal  with  the  eternal 
Father  Thou  girdest  thyself  (or,  as 
in  V.  5,  'gird  thyself)  with  the 
trophy  of  flesh,   strengthening  the 


weakness  of  our  body  with  power 
that  shall  never  fail.' 

26.  The  flesh  is  here  regarded  as 
a  tropaeum,  because  it  is  the  ever- 
lasting monument  of  His  victory 
over  Satan  and  death  :  a  Tpbiraxov 
Kard.  daifi^vwv  answering  to  the 
Tpbiraiov  kclt'  ix^P^"  of  which  we 
read  so  much  in  Thucydides.  As 
the  ref.  here  is  to  the  moment  of 
the  incarnation,  it  is  only  by  antici- 
pation that  it  is  called  a  tropaeum. 
Clichtov.  says  Christus  per  camem 
assumptam  debellato  diabolo  victor 
euasit,  ipsamque  glorificatam  car- 
nem  caelo  tandem  intulit.  Cp.  Ambr. 
in  Luc.  X.  170  talem  (i.e.  in  corpore') 
sibi  Pater  ad  dexleram  heat  tropaea 
nostrae  salutis  amplectens.  Paulin. 
Nol.  Natal.  XI.  654  corporeum 
statuit  caelesti  in  sede  tropaeum  \ 
uexilluMique  crucis  super  omnia  si- 
dera  fixit.  Aug.  Serm.  CCLXIII,  i 
tropaeo  suo  diabolus  uictus  est. 
Prosper  de  Prouid.  444  et  de  carne 
nouuin  referentem  came  tropaeum. 
For  tropaeum,  of  that  which  appeared 
to  be  an  element  of  weakness,  but 
which  was  really  a  sign  of  victory, 
see  4.  17  note  and  33.  2. 

26.  accingere,  which  is  so  well 
attested  and  which  entails  an  elision 
that  in  the  course  of  time  would  on 
this  account  cause  trouble  in  the 
singing,  is  more  likely  to  be  the 
original  word  than  cingere.  Ambr. 
uses  accingi,  as  in  Ps.  cxviii.  x.  9 
in  adiumentum  cucingere,  qui  ac- 
ciuctus  es  ut  creares;  in  Luc.  \\. 
70  ;  de  Virginib.  I.  46  *,  but  he  does 
not  appear  to  use  the  simple  cingi. 


56 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


infirma  nostri  corporis 
uirtute  firmans  perpeti. 

praesepe  iam  fulget  tuum 
lumenque  nox  spirat  nouum, 
quod  nulla  nox  interpolet 
fideque  iugi  luceat. 


30 


28  perpetim  Ev  Gab  H/3  Mg. 
(-pellat  Fb)  Gb  Idh  Mg  Vbs. 
iugis  Ev  Fh. 

27,  28  reappear  at  118.  15,  16. 
Nostri  c.  seems  to  mean  'Thine, 
which  is  of  the  same  nature  as  ours.' 

29.  The  prayer  in  stanza  li  (re- 
peated in  stanza  v)  has  been  heard ; 
the  processes  of  stanzas  in  and  IV 
are  accomplished  :  Christ  lies  in  the 
manger.  That  He  was  born  in  the 
night  is  seen  from  Lk.  ii.  8.  Ambr. 
is  fond  of  alluding  to  the  manger,  as 
pointing  the  contrast  between  the 
humiliation  of  Jesus  as  man  and 
His  majesty  as  God  ;  e.g.  in  Luc. 
II.  42  quia  in  pannis  est  uides, 
quia  in  caelis  est  non  uides;  infantis 
audis  uagitus,  non  andis  bouis 
Dominum  agnoscentem  viugitus : 
agnouit  enim  bos  possessorem  suuin 
et  asina  praesepe  domini  sui,  immo 
praesepium  dixerim  ;..  .quanta  niagis 

nos  neglegere  uerba  debeinus,  spectare 
niysteria,  quibus  uincit  sermonis 
utilitas,  quod  operum  miracula  di- 
uinorum  nuUis  uenuslata  sermoni- 
bus  ueritatis  suae  luniine  refulse- 
runt !...  hie  est  Dominus,  hoc  praesepe, 
quo  nobis  dininum  niysterium  reue- 
latum  est;  cp.  8.  12  and  in  later 
hymns  31.  23,  33.  13,  38.  17. 

30.  lumen... nouum]  'an  un- 
wonted light,'  '  a  light  unknown 
before  ' ;  cp.  Ambr.  in  Ps.  xxxviii. 
1 8  uetus  dies  praeteriit,  nouus  uenit. 
alius  enim  dies  hominis,  alius  dies 
Christi...de  quo  et  Dauid  ait...sanc- 
tus  ergo  in  die  Domini  exsultat,  in 
die  nouo,  in  quo  Dew:  Dominus  in- 
luxit  nobis  et  dedit  nouam  lucem 
in  innoxiam  uitam  et  integram  re- 


31  interpolat  Eacdhjsv^u  Fh^rs 
32  fides  Ev  Fh  Gb  Mk,  fidei  Fs  Vaps. 


forntatis.  ideo  uir  iustus  securus 
nouae  lucis  et  gratiae  Dei  dicit : 
erit  mihi  caelum  nouum  et  terra 
noua  et  nouum  lumen;  referring  in 
these  last  words  to  Rev.  xxi.  1, 
xxii.  5.  So  too  Sedul.  Carm.  il. 
48  f.  (quoted  in  the  introduction  to 
this  hymn),  id.  Op.  11.  4  quae  nouae 
lucis  ilia  tunc  claritas  mundi  totius 
or  as  ifnpleuit!  quae  caelo  laetitia! 
quis  ille  nitor  effulsit,  cum  Christus 
splendore  sidereo,  uelut  sponsus 
procedens  de  thalamo  suo,  Mariae 
processit  ex  utero.  Trench  quotes 
Euangel.  Infant.  3  ecce  repleta  erat 
ilia  luminibus,  lucernarum  et  can- 
delarum  fulgoribus  excedentibus  et 
solari  luce  maioribus.  But  Ambr.  is 
hardly  thinking  of  such  a  light  as 
this.  Rather  cp.  in  Ps.  cxviii.  xii. 
1 3  ortus  ex  uirgine  processit  ex  aluo 
uniuersa  totius  orbis  irradians,  ut 
luceret  omnibus.  De  Isaac  31  in 
praesepi  erat  et  fulgebat  e  caelo  ;  in 
Luc.  II.  43  terreno  in  deuersorio 
iacet,  sed  caelesti  lumine  uiget. 

31.  'May  no  night  break  into 
(interrupt)  it,  and  may  it  shine  with 
a  continuous  stream  of  faith  ! '  the 
prayer  being  for  faith  in  this  life. 
interpolarc  is  a  favourite  word  with 
Ambr.,  cf.  Hex.  iv.  22  magna  lux 
diuinitatis,  quam  nulla  umbra  mor- 
tis interpolet;  in  Ps.  cxviii.  xii. 
X  3  fulgoris  perpetui  claritatem ,  quam 
nulla  nox  interpolat ;  xiii.  8  lumen 
...quod  nullae  tenebrae  noctis  in- 
ter polent;  Epist.  xxii.  6  dies,  quos 
nulla  caligo  noctis  interpolat. 


HYMN  VII.  AMBROSE  57 

32.   fide...luceat]   Ambr.  in  Ps.  de  Abr,   ii.  22,  with  ^a/«  ib.  57, 

xxxvii.    -21    ideo  fit  persecution  ut  with   exercitio   ib.    76,   with    labor 

fides  lucent;  cp.  3.  27,  8.  19.  Hex.  V.  52,  ^\\h /antes  ib.  VI.  71. 

iugri]   one   of  Ambr.'s   favourite  See  1.   29  (note),  8.  28,  49.  28,  92. 

words;  thus  he  joins  it  with /a^/iV/a  14;  Ronsch  ii8f. 


Hymn  7 

This  hymn  is  not  ascribed  to  Ambrose  by  any  ancient 
authority,  but  it  is  his.  It  is  in  the  Ambrosian  MSS  and 
above  all  the  manner  and  style  are  those  of  Ambrose 
himself.  Augustine  refers  to  it,  though  he  does  not  name 
the  writer:  cp.  Conf.  XI II.  29  quibus  iam  terra  non  indiget, 
quamuis piscem  manducet  leuatum  de  pro/undo  in  ea  mensa, 
quam  parasti  in  conspectu  credentium.  This  is  just  like 
Augustine's  manner  of  allusion.  And  leuare  is  not  a  very 
obvious  word  of  fishing :  the  word  used  in  Mt.  xvii.  27, 
for  example,  is  tolle. 

As  in  6  we  have  the  quotation  almost  verbal  of  a 
passage  of  Scripture,  so  here  (17  f)  we  have  the  verbal 
quotation  of  the  first  two  verses  of  St  John's  Gospel. 
At  the  same  time  two  passages  from  Ambrose's  prose 
show  the  supreme  importance  attached  by  him  to  the 
whole  of  the  words  thus  quoted.  See  in  Luc.  I.  13  tinea 
haereticus  est,  tinea  Photinus  est,  tinea  tua  Arrius  est. 
scindit  uestimentum  qui  separat  a  Deo  uerbum.  scindit 
Photinus,  cum  legit:  in  principio  erat  uerbum  et  uerbum 
erat  apud  Deum.  et  Deus  erat;  integrum  enim  uestimentum 
est,  si  legas :  et  Deus  erat  uerbum.  de  Fide  I.  56  f  omnes 
haereses  hoc  capitulo  breui  piscator  noster  exclusit.  quod 
enim  erat  in  principio  non  includitur  tempore ;  ergo  Arrius 
conticescat.  quod  autem  erat  apud  Deum,  non  permixtione 
confunditur,  sed  manentis  uerbi  apud  Patrem  soltda  per- 
fectione  distinguitur ;  ut  Sabellius  obmutescat.  et  Deus 
erat  uerbum  :  non  ergo  in  prolatione  sermonis  uerbum  est, 
sed  in  ilia  caelestis  designatione  uirtutis ;  ut  confutetur 


58  EARLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

Photinus.  quod  uero  erat  in  priticipio  apud  Deum,  sempi- 
terna  diuinitatis  in  Patre  et  Filio  inseparabilis  unitas 
edocetur ;  ut  erubescat  Eimomius,  postremo,  cum  omnia 
per  ipsum  facta  dicantur,  ipse  conditor  noui  utique  testa- 
menti  et  ueteris  designatur  ;  ut  Manichaeus  locum  tempta- 
tionis  habere  nan  possit.  ita  piscator  bonus  intra  unum 
omnes  rete  conclusit,  ut  faceret  inhabiles  fraudi,  quamuis 
essent  inutiles  captioni.  See  also  in  Luc.  II.  40,  X.  118; 
in  Ps.  CXVIII.  xiv.  23;  de  Interp.  lob  I.  31,  II.  15,  de 
Incarn.  15  f.  Line  21  is  separately  quoted  Hex.  I.  15,  in 
Ps.  XXXVI.  35. 

Aabdefghik  Fs  Vaps 

Amore  Christi  nobilis 
et  filius  tonitrui 
arcana  lohannes  Dei 
fatu  reuelauit  sacro. 

captis  solebat  piscibus  5 

patris  senectam  pascere ; 

1.  amore  Cliristi]  Joh.  xiii.  23,  reuelauit  mysterium  ;  often  used  by 
xix.  26,  xxi.  7,  20.  Ambr. 

2.  filius  tonitrui]  Mk  iii.  17.  For  the  sense  of  the  whole  stanza 
tonitrus  is  the  usual  form  of  the  cp.  de  Inst.  Virg.  46  (of  John)  iste 
gen.,  but  the  bye-form  from  toni-  dilectus  Domini.,  qui  e  pectore  eius 
trttumoT  tonitruus{Sed\\\.  Cartn.W  hauserat  secreta  sapientiae  et  piae 
15)  is  the  form  constantly  found  in  uoluntatis  arcana;  Epist.  Lxv.  4 
the  versions  of  the  N.T.  sapientia   autem   Dei   Christus,  in 

3.  arcana]  Cp.  Ambr.  Ap>ol.  cuius  pectore  recumhebat  lohannes, 
Dauid  58  secreta  et  arcana  sapien-  ut  de  prituipali  illo  secretoque 
iiae',  in  Ps.  CXVIII.  ii.  29  digtnis...  (1/onte)  sapientiae  hausisse  diuina 
cui  committerentur  arcana  sapien-  proderetur  mysteria.  denique  ipse 
tiae.    The  secret  which  Ambr.  has  conscius  muneris  hoc  scripsit. 

in  mind  is  already  the  doctrine  of  6.    patris  senectam]   '  his   aged 

Joh.  i.  1-14.  father.'     For  this  use  of  an  abstract 

4.  fatu]  'in  sacred  utterance,'  a  with  a  dependent  personal  gen.  cp. 
rare  and  solemn  word  suited  to  Phaedr.  11.  v.  23  turn  sic  iocata  est 
divine  oracles  ;  used  by  Ambr.  de  tanti  maiestas  ducis  ;  Sedul.  Carm. 
Fide  I.  106.  Cp.  Prud.  Apoth.  594  i.  267  coniugii  fidem,  '  a  faithful 
promite  secretos  fatus  (the  prophe-  wife.'  So  too  Propert.  HI.  xviii.  15 
cies  of  Isaiah).  patria   senecta,    'her  aged    father.' 

reuelauit]    Cp.  de  Noe  Vlil.  26       Fortunatus  has  in  like  manner  v. 


HYMN  VII.    AMBROSE 


59 


turbante  dum  natat  salo, 
inmobilis  fide  stetit. 

hamum  profundo  merserat, 
piscatus  est  Verbum  Dei, 
iactauit  undis  retia, 
uitam  leuauit  omnium. 


lO 


7  nautat  Fs^  Vs,  nutat  edd.     salum  Vap^  i  j  hominum  Abefgh. 


iii.  3  curua  senedus;  Vit.  Germ, 
XII.  41  pernoctabat  algida  senedus. 
The  phrase  pat  rem  pascere  is  found 
in  Luc.  VIII.  75,  Hex.  v.  55. 

7  f.  Though  John  was  tossed  on 
the  sea,  his  faith  stood  firm.  Lines  7 
and  8  are  thus  sharply  contrasted. 
See  de  Virg.  xx.  esp.  131  uide 
quid  piscator  etiam  iste  profecerit. 
dum  in  mart  lucrum  suum  quaerily 
uitam  inuenit  omnium ;  lembum 
deseruit,  Deum  repperit ;  scalmum 
reliquit,  uerbum  inuenit ;  Una  lax- 
auit,fidem  retiinxit ;  plicauit  retia, 
homines  eleuauit ;  mare  spreuit, 
caelum  adquisiuit.  hie  ergo  piscator, 
dum  ipse  turbato  agitatur  salo, 
mobili  mentes  statione  nutantes  fun- 
dauit  in  petra. 

turbante  is  used  intransitively, 
as  at  Lucr.  11.  126,  Verg.  Aen.  vi. 
800,  857. 

natatj  the  reading  of  the  MSS  is 
suitable  here,  natare  being  used 
both  of  physical  and  mental  dis- 
turbance;  cp.  Ov.  Met.  V.  72  oculis 
sub  node  natantibus  atra  \  circum- 
spexit ;  and  in  Ambr.  himself  de 
Bono  Mortis  12  leuior  fabulis  et 
fluitans  et  natans  uerbis.  Biraghi 
conjectures  nutat  to  match  the 
above  prose  passage,  and  is  followed 
by  Dreves  and  Steier. 

8.  inmobilis  contains  the  idea  of 
steadfast  perseverance.  Cp.  Tac. 
Hist.  IV.  2  tristes  et  truces  et  ad- 
uersus  plausus  cu  lasciuiatn  insul- 
iantis  uulgiinmobites.  Ambr.  Epist. 
II.  I  inter  tot  viundi  J  ret  a... in- 
mobilis mand...alluitur  undis,  non 


quatitur.  Ambr.  often  combines  it 
withyJiafej,  as  here,  in  Ps.  .XLVii.  6 
[apostolt]  inmobiles  Jidei  seruauet  unt 

fundamentum,  tie  ecclesia  tota  nu- 
taref,  in  Ps.  LXi.  18  inmobilis  ergo 

fide  Steplianus  inmobilem  Christum 
uidebat ;  and  fides  with  stare  e.g. 
in  Ps.    XXXV.   29  tton  corpore  sed 

fide  stabcU. 

10.  Ambr.  Hex.  v.  i"]  euangelium 
est  mare,  in  quo  piscantur  apostolt, 
in  quod  mittitur  rete ;  de  Isaac  40 
lohannes,  qui  uerbum  apud  Patrem 
inuenit;  c^.deVirg.  119.  Thesymbol 
IX9TC  with  the  representation  of  a 
fish  is  often  found  on  ancient  mo- 
saics etc.  and  is  explained  as  con- 
taining the  initials  of  iT/ffoCj  Xptarij 
9eou  Tidj  Cwrijp.  See  Brockhaus 
280  f. ;  Kraus  s.v.  Fisch  ;  Smith 
Did.  of  Christian  Antiquities  s.v. 
Eucharist  and  Fish.  Here  the 'fish' 
appears  to  be  the  doctrine  of  the 
person  of  Christ  rather  than  Christ 
Himself.  Cp.  Tert.  de  Bapt. 
uerbum  Dei  J  J  oh.  i.  i. 
12.  uitam... omnium]  Joh.  vi. 
57,  xi.  25,  xiv.  6;  10.  27  f.  See  <if 
Virg.  XX.  131  quoted  above  on 
V.  7. 

leuauit  is  a  word  carefully  chosen ; 
cp.  Hex.  V.  15  bonum  piscem  nee 
retia  inuoluunt,  sed  eleuant,  nee 
hamus  internecat  atque  interficit ; 
de  Virg.  119  ut . .  .Stephanum  de 
mari  elettet. .  .qui. ..non  reti  sed  hamo 
leuatur;  ib.  131  quoted  on  line  7. 
For  the  allusion  by  Aug.  Conf.  xiii. 
29  to  this  passage  see  the  introduc- 
tion to  this  hymn. 


6o 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


piscis  bonus  pia  est  fides 

mundi  supernatans  salum, 

subnixa  Christi  pectore,  15 

sancto  locuta  Spiritu : 

*  in  principio  erat  Verbum, 

et  Verbum  erat  apud  Deum, 

et  Deus  erat  Verbum,  hoc  erat 

in  principio  apud  Deum.  20 

omnia  per  ipsum  facta  sunt.' 

se  laudet  ipse,  se  sonet, 
et  laureatus  Spiritu 
scriptis  coronetur  suis. 

14  salo  Fs  Vs.  15  pectora  Aab^defgh.  16  sancta  Aab  Vap. 

22  se  laudet  ipse  sonet  Fs  Vs,  sed  laude  ipse  se  sonet  Vap,  sed  (et  Afh) 
laude  ipse  resonet  Aabdefgh. 

13.  The  mode  of  expression  re- 
minds us  of  quite  another  one  in  Luc. 
VII.  1 16  passer  bonus  est. 

pia]  displaying  the  duty  and  love 
due  from  child  to  parent  or  from 
parent  to  child  :— whether  our  duty 
towards  God  29.  40,  52.  2,  92.  1  ; 
or  His  love  towards  us,  31.  78,  36. 
3,  60.  3,  63.  5,  65.  13  etc.  It  will  be 
seen  that  the  latter  use  largely  pre- 
ponderates in  these  hymns.  It  often 
means  '  pious,'  '  sacred '  as  at  9.  4, 
11.  I,  12.  5  etc. 

14.  The  comparison  of  this  world 
to  a  troubled  sea  is  often  found  ; 
cp.  (ie  Virg.  1 1 8  naiiis  ecclesia  est, 
quae... in  hoc  bene  nauigat  mundo; 
33.  29  (note). 

salum  is  found  in  all  the  good 
MSS,  the  intransitive  natare  be- 
coming transitive  when  compounded 
with  the  prep,  super.  In  like  manner 
an  ace.  is  found  after  superambulare 
(Sedul.  Carm.  in.  226),  supercalcare 
(Prud.  Psych.  256),  supereminere 
(Verg.),  superiacere  (Paulin.  Nol. 
Carm.  xviii.  344),  superstare  (Ov.), 
superuenire  (Hor.),  superuolitare 
(Verg.).  At  Hex.  v.  32  we  find  a 
dative  supernatant  fluctibus. 


15.  Joh.  xiii.  23,  25.  The  ex- 
pression is  remarkable,  but  Ambr. 
is  speaking  of  the  orthodox  Christian 
faith  in  general,  of  which  John  was 
the  example  and  the  teacher. 

16.  Ambr.  Epist.  xi.  4  cum  et 
alius  uir  saticto  loctitus  Spiritu  dix- 
erit  declinaruias  huiusmodi  bestias ; 
with  special  reference  to  2  Joh.  10. 
Cp.  2  Pet.  i.  21. 

1 7  f.  Joh.  i.  I ;  cp.  the  passages 
quoted  from  Ambr.  in  the  introduc- 
tion to  this  hymn.  In  such  a  tourde 
force  the  metre  naturally  suffers. 

22.  The  Milan  MSS  read  sed  (or 
ei)  laude  ipse  resonet ;  but  this,  be- 
sides being  unmetrical,  hardly  gives 
the  required  sense.  The  two  Vatican 
MSS  of  the  Ambrosian  use  have  sed 
laude  ipse  se  sonet,  which  gives  a 
better  sense  but  is  still  spoilt  by  the 
harsh  hiatus.  Two  MSS  of  the  Xth 
cent,  read  se  laudet  ipse  soiut  which 
gives  the  clue  to  the  original  text  se 
laudet  ipse,  se  sonet.  The  abrupt- 
ness of  this  is  quite  in  Ambr.'s 
manner,  as  is  the  repeated  se,  which 
is  like  the  repeated  hoc  at  2.  9  f.,  or 
the  repeated  gallus  at  2.  18,  20,  21 
etc.    Ambr.  says  in  effect:  'instead 


HYMN  VII .   AMBROSE 


6i 


commune  multis  passio, 
cruorque  delictum  lauans ; 
hoc  morte  praestat  martyrum 
quod  fecit  esse  martyres. 
uinctus  tamen  ab  inpiis 
calente  oliuo  dicitur 
tersisse  mundi  puluerem, 


25 


30 


29  uictus  Aab. 

of  speaking  further  about  the  won- 
ders of  the  faith,  which  we  have 
learnt  from  John,  let  him  speak  for 
himself.'  Cp.  Ecclus.  xxiv.  i,  Prov. 
xxxi.  31.  Editors  have  generally 
adopted  the  transposition  sed  ipse 
laude,  which  does  not  seem  to  be 
likely. 

23.  The  Spirit  Himself  wreathes 
John,  whose  own  writings  form  the 
wreath.  The  laurel  was  to  a  Roman 
a  symbol  of  victory :  laureatae 
litterae  meant  a  laurel-wreathed  des- 
patch to  announce  a  victory,  and  in 
early  times  a  laurel  crown  was  held 
over  the  head  of  a  triumphing 
general ;  cp.  Aul.  Gell.  v.  vi.  5 
triumphales  coronae . .  .quae  impera- 
toribus  ob  honorem  triumphi  mithm- 
tur...haec  antiquittis  e  laurn  erant. 
So  Prud.  Perist.  XII.  6  superba 
morte  laurcatum.  Analecta  XXVII. 
cxi.  75  laureatus  sanguine.  The 
abl.  without  a  or  ab  is  found  in 
Cic.  Cael.  34  alienis  uiris  comitata, 
and  is  common  in  poets  no  doubt 
for  metrical  convenience.  Tacitus 
uses  it  freely,  e.g.  Ann.  11.  79,  iii. 
20  desertns  stiis. 

24.  corona  had  to  do  duty  for 
].wo  Greek  words :  ffTi<f>avos,  the 
wreath  with  which  victors  in  the 
games  were  crowned  ;  and  diddrj/xa, 
the  strip  of  jewelled  linen  which 
marked  royalty.  In  these  hymns  the 
athlete's  crown  is  the  one  meant ; 
cp.  13.  4,  14.  3  etc. 

26.  Ambr.  often  uses  the  phrase 
delictum  (delicto)  lauare;  see  de 
Joseph  59,  in  Luc.  ii.  41,  vi.  18, 
X.  89. 


30  ducitur  Aabd'efgh. 

27.  '  This  is  better  than  the 
martyrs'  death,  even  that  which 
caused  martyrs  to  be,'  or  perhaps 
(taking  quoda.?,  a  conjunction)  'even 
his  causing  martyrs  to  be.'  John 
wrote  that  Gospel  from  which  the 
martyrs  derived  their  faith.  See 
Hex.  V.  16,  where  Ambr.  makes 
Stephen  the  first  martyr  to  be  the 
fish  that  came  up  out  of  the  Gospel 
sea  where  the  hook  was  cast.  Cp. 
Cypr.  de  Lapsis  xx.,  Epist.  xxxvi.  2 
(Hartel). 

morte  is  abl.,  because  praestat 
{'is  better')  has  a  comparative 
force,  as  at  de  Abr.  20  ceteris  prae- 
stat metallis;  Epist.  XXII.  II  prcu- 
stare  maioribus.  Similar  are  Sallust 
lug.  XVI.  3  tit  faina  fide  comi}iodum 
regis  anteferret;  Apul.  Met.  LXVii. 
4  H  node  ista  nihil  antepono. 

28.  The  ace.  and  inf.  with  facio 
is  common  in  Ambr.  e.g.  in  Ps.  XL. 
35  fecisti  terrain  esse:,  cp.  1.  23, 
Draeger  11.  393,  Ronsch  366  f., 
Kaulen  236.  The  French  faire 
carries  on  the  construction. 

29.  John  was  not  a  martyr  (25- 
28)  and  'yet'  the  will  to  be  one  was 
shewn.  Tert.  de  Praescr.  36  is  the 
earliest  authority  for  the  tradition 
that  he  was  plunged  into  a  cauldron 
of  boiling  oil  before  the  Latin  Gate 
but  miraculously  preserved. 

3 1 .  teraisse] '  wiped  off, ' '  washed 
off,'  37.  28,  40.  28,  90.  20.  Ambr. 
in  Ps.  cxviil.  ii.  8  haec  igitur 
mirantibus  aliis  respondit  anima 
lohannis :  fusca  sum  et  decora,  filiae 
Jerusalem  ;  fusca  puluere  saeculari, 
quem   certando   conlegi,    decora   oleo 


62  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

stetisse  uictor  aemuH.  32 

spiritali,  quo  mundi  huius  puluerem  firstly  in  order  to  make  his  limbs 

squaloremque  deter  si;    de  Spir.  11.  supple,    then    to    remove    the   dust 

it^d  ungebat  athletam  suum  Spiritus  contracted    in    the    course    of    the 

et  pubiere  impietatis  excusso  debdla-  exercise. 

torem...offerebat;  in  Ps.cyMWi.im..  32.    stetisse]  Cp.  Eph.  vi.  13. 

28    ungamus    igitur    oleo    lectionis  aemuli]  according  to  Daniel,  ihe 

tiostrae  mentis  lacertoSy...ut  cum  ad-  philosopher  Crato.    But    Ambr.  is 

uersarius...puluere  nos  suae  tetnpta-  much  more  likely  to  mean  Satan. 

tiotiis  adsperserit,  stemus  intrepidi.  Cp.  i?iuidi  3.   14  note,  zelum  dra- 

An    athlete    was    twice    anointed,  conis  inuidi,  31.  89. 

Hymn  8 

This  hymn  is  one  of  the  twelve  given  to  Ambrose  by 
the  Benedictine  editors,  on  the  strength  of  a  statement 
by  Cassiodorus  in  Ps.  LXXIV.  8  uinum  in  diuinis  scrip- 
turis  significat  caeleste  mysterium,  sicut  in  illis  hydriis 
factum  est,  quas  Doniinus  aqua  fecit  impleri,  ut  latices 
fontium  ruborein  uini  niutata  qualitate  susciperent,  quern 
natura  non  habuit.  unde  beatus  Ambrosius  in  hymno 
sanctae  epiphaniae  mirabiliter  declamauit  splendidissima 
luce  uerborutn.  Apart  from  his  witness,  the  strong  concise 
style  and  the  frequent  use  of  characteristic  phrases  point 
decidedly  to  Ambrose  as  the  writer.  And  the  question 
is  settled  by  the  intimate  and  necessary  connexion  be- 
tween the  last  four  stanzas  of  the  hymn  and  a  passage 
from  an  undoubted  writing  of  his.  See  in  Luc.  VI.  84 
iam  illud  diuinum  quem  ad  modum  quinque panes  quinque 
milibus  populi  redundauerint ;  non  enim  exiguo  sed  multi- 
plicato  cibo  populum  liquet  esse  satiatum.  85  uideres  in- 
conprehensibili  quodatn  rigatu  inter  diuidentium  manus^ 
quas  non  fregerint  fructificare  particulas  et  intacta  fran- 
gentium  digitis  sponte  sua  fragmenta  subrepere.  qui  haec 
legit,  quem  ad  modum  iuges  aquaruni  miretur  meatus  et 
liquidis  fontibus  stupeat  continuos  fluere  successus:  quando 
etiam  panis  exundat  et  naturae  solidioris  rigatus  exuberatf 
86  at  uero  hie  panis  quem  frangit  Iesus...duin  diuiditur 


HYMN  VI  11.   AMBROSE  63 

augetitr ; . .  .dmn  frangitur,  dum  diniditiir,  dum  editiir  sine 
ulla  dispendii  conprehensione  ciivudatnr.  87  nee  dubites 
nel  quod  in  manibus  ininistrautiiim  uel  in  ore  edentinm 
cibus  crescat ; . .  .sic  in  nuptiis  ex  fontibus  uina  ministris 
operantibus  colorantur,  et  ipsi,  qui  inpleuerant  hydrias 
aqua,  uinum  quod  non  detulerant  hauriebant ; . .  .hie  eden- 
tibus  populis  erescunt  suis  fragmenta  dispendiis,...illie  in 
alienam  speciem  uertuntur  elementa  ; . .  .quin  etiam  melior 
est  inutati  uini  natura  quant  nati,  quia  in  arbitrio  crea- 
toris  est  et  quos  usus  uelit  adsignare  naturis  et  quas  na- 
turas  inpertire  gignendis  ;.. .dum  aquam  minister  infundit, 
odor  transfusus  inebriat,  color  mutatus  informat,  fidem 
quoque  sapor  haustus  adcumulat.  SS... ?iam  et  cibus  eden- 
tium  in  ore  crescebat. 

Here  neither  the  prose  nor  the  verse  is  a  copy  the 
one  of  the  other.  Both  are  the  works  of  the  same  man 
Ambrose,  and  it  is  natural  to  consider  the  hymn  to  be 
the  earh'er. 

Nevertheless  certain  modern  writers  refuse  to  allow 
this  on  account  of  the  contents  of  the  hymn.  Thus  it  con- 
nects the  visit  of  the  magi  with  the  Epiphany,  and  there- 
fore, says  Daniel,  it  cannot  have  been  written  by  Ambrose; 
inasmuch  as  the  Roman  church  did  not  include  the  mani- 
festation to  the  Gentiles  as  one  of  the  epiphanies  before 
the  middle  of  the  Vth  century.  But  Prudentius  (born  in 
348)  dwells  upon  the  visit  of  the  wise  men  throughout 
his  hymnus  epipha7iiae,  Cath.  XII.  It  is  also  connected 
with  the  Epiphany  by  Paulinus  of  Nola  (born  in  353) ; 
see  Carm.  xxvii.  45  {. 

ut  ueneranda  dies  cunctis,  qua  uirgine  natus 
pro  cunctis  hominem  sumpsit  Deus  ;  atque  detnde 
qua  puerum  stella  duce  mystica  dona  ferentes 
suppliciter  uidere  magi  ;  seu  qua  magis  ilium 
lordanis  trepidans  lauit  tingente  lohanne ; 


64  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

sine  dies  eadefn  magis  illo  sit  sacra  signo 
quo  primum  Deus  egit  opus,  cum  flumine  uerso 
permutauit  aquas  predulcis  nectare  uini. 
And  Dreves  notes  that  Augustine  (born  in  354)  in  all 
his  sermons  on  the  Epiphany  mentions  the  magi. 

Then  stanzas  IV  and  V  mention  among  the  Epiphany 
wonders  the  miracle  at  Cana.  Hereupon  say  Kayser  and 
Kraus,  not  before  the  time  of  Maximus  of  Turin  (7?.  c. 
A.D.  450)  was  this  miracle  connected  with  the  Epiphany 
in  the  western  church.  But  from  M.'s  own  words  it  is 
clear  that  the  connexion  was  already  of  long  standing 
when  he  wrote  {Horn.  XVII.  de  Epiph.  I,  Migne  LVll. 
260)  uerum  nee  minus  exsultandum  est,  eo  quod  in  hac 
sacratissima  die  huius  celebritaiis,  sicut  paterna  traditione 
instruimur,  ipse  Christus  Dominus  noster  ad  terrenas  in- 
uitatus  nuptias  aduenerat,  non  ut  illo  delectaretur  conuiuio, 
non  ut  se  uino  inebriaret,  sed  ut  nuptiarum  se  esse  demon- 
straret  auctorem.  So  Petrus  Chrysologus  (made  Bishop 
of  Ravenna  in  433)  Serin.  CLVII  dominicae  festiuitates 
causas  suas  suis  uocabulis  eloquuntur ;  nam  sicut  nascendo 
Christus  diem  dedit  ftatalem,...sic  lumine  signorum  diem 
suae  illuminationis  ostendit...Deus  ipse  apparuit  trino 
modo,  qui  homo  in  partu  patuit  singularis.  merito  ergo 
sollemnitas praesens  epiphaniae  uocabulo  nuncupatur,  in  qua 
inluxit  deltas,  quae  nostra  nostris  obscurabatur  in  came, 
ista  est...festiuitas,  quae . . .peperit  tria  deitatis  insignia... 
per  epiphaniam  Christus  in  nuptiis  aquas  sapor auit  in 
uinum.    So  too  Paulinus  of  Nola  as  quoted  above. 

Then  Kayser  and  Kraus  take  exception  to  the  refer- 
ence to  the  feeding  of  the  five  thousand  in  the  last  three 
stanzas :  this  miracle  being  not  as  yet  regarded  as  an 
epiphany.  But  does  Ambrose  so  speak  of  it  here?  A 
careful  reading  of  the  words  will  shew  that  he  does 
not  co-ordinate  it  as  a  fourth  manifestation,  but  that  he 


HYMN  VIII.   AMBROSE  65 

introduces  this  last  event  with  sic,  as  much  as  to  say: 
These  three  manifestations  recall  yet  another,  which 
illustrates  the  third  of  them.  And  just  so  does  Petrus 
Chrysologus  allude  to  it  {Serm.  de  Epiph.  v,  Migne  LVil, 
622)  aqiiavi  transfert  in  uinum ..  .qui panes  quinque  frag- 
vicnto  profluo  et  furtiuo  incremento  ad  quinque  ntilia  ho- 
minum  tetendit  et  dilatauit  saginam,  potuit  augmentis 
succrescentibus  ad  nuptiarum  festa  uini  ampliare  et  per- 
petuate men  suras. 

[But  see  Diet,  of  Christian  Antiquities  vol.  II  p.  619.] 

Aabdefghik  E0  Fikls  Gl  Habcdfg  Icdhn  Max  Vacprs 

Inluminans  altissimus 
micantium  astrorum  globes, 
pax,  uita,  lumen,  ueritas, 
lesu,  faue  precantibus ; 

seu  mystico  baptismate  5 

fluenta  lordanis  retro 

I.   inluminans  is  an  appropriate  git.   The  nom.  is  here  used  for  the 

word  with  which  to  begin  an  Epi-  vocative,  'the  Most  High.' 

phany  hymn.     In  Hke  manner  our  2.     Ambr.,    remembering  Vei^. 

I  St  morning  lesson  for  this  day,  as  Aen.  VI.    725    lucentemque  globum 

also  in  the  Roman  use,  Isaiah  Ix,  lunae  tttaniaque  astra  spiritus  intus 

begins  'Arise,  shine  for  thy  light  is  altt,  often  refers  to  this  line,  as  at 

come.'  And  Mone  notes  that  Atha-  Hex.  i.  28,  iv.  27,  de  Resur.  11.  10 

nasius    explains    Ps.    xxvi    (xxvii)  caelum   non   semper  stellarum   mi- 

of  the  baptism  of  Christ,  beginning  cantium  globis  fulget;  de  Spir.  n. 

with  the  words  'The  Lord  is  my  ^6  gentiles  homines... quod  cculum  ac 

light.'     In  the  eastern  church  the  terras   Ittnae    qtioqtu    stellarumque 

day  was  also  known  as  rd  ^wro,  or  micantium    globos    spiritus    intus 

7)  Tjfidpa  tQ)v  (jxirruv,  alat  suis  uersibus  indiderunt. 

altissimus]  of  Christ  as  is  shewn  3.    pax]    Eph.  ii.  14,  Ambr.  in 

by  line  4 ;  cp.  de  Fide  ni.  9  quis  Ps.  I.  33  bibe  Christum  quia  pax 

auiem   neget   Christum  esse  altissi-  est;  cp.  Epist.  xxix.  6,  LXiil.  4. 

mum  significatum?...hiTU  dubitari  uita... ueritas]    Joh.    xiv.   6,    to 

Twn  potest,  quod  altissimus  Christus  which  verse  Ambr.  constantly  re- 

sit...qui  altissimus?    Dei    Filius.  fers,  e.g.  de  Abr.  I.  22;  .see  esp.  in 

ergo  qui  altissimus  Deus  Christus  Ps.   xxxvi.  65  cum  de  pace  loqui- 

est.    Cp.  in  Ps.  XLV.  i6f.  uenite  ad  mur,   ipse  est ;   cum  de  ueritate  et 

me  omnes  qui  laboratis. .  .hanc  uocem  uita  et  redemptione  loquimur,  ipse  est. 

dedit  altissimus;    in  Luc.   viii.  46  lumen]    Cp.  3.  3. 

Christus... luminis  sui  globos  spar-  5  f.    Stanzas  ll-v  give  the  events. 

w.  5 


66 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


conuersa  quondam  tertio 
praesente  sacraris  die ; 

seu  Stella  partum  uirginis 
caelo  micans  signauerit,  lo 

et  hoc  adoratum  die 
.    ,v  •..'  .  praesepe  magos  duxerit ; 

uel  hydriis  plenis  aquae 
uini  saporem  infuderis ; 

7  quodam  tempore  Gl  Ha.  8  praesentem...diem  Ha^b^cf  Icdhn  Vs. 

lo  signaueris  Aabdefh  Vap.  ii  hac  Vap.     adorandum  Fs  Vs.     diem 

Ae  Gl  Habc^d  Ih.  12  duxeris  Aabdef  Va.  13  aqua  Ab  Fis  Gl 

Habcdg  Ichn  Vcs.  14  fuderis  {pro  inf.)  Gl,  fuderit  E^  Fis  Habcdfg 

Icdn  Vs,  fundere  Ihi  (inf.  Ih2). 


in  Christ's  life  which  are  especially 
regarded  as  His  '  manifestations.' 
The  classical  turn  seu,  seu,  uel,  im- 
plies a  choice  of  subjects  that  might 
be  commemorated  on  this  day.  As 
a  matter  of  fact  it  was  a  commemo- 
ration of  them  all. 

'Whether  by  Thy  mystical  bap- 
tism Thou  didst  on  this  day  sanctify 
the  waters  of  Jordan  thrice  turned 
back ' ;  cp.  the  prayer  in  the  Bap- 
tismal Service  : — '  by  the  Baptism  of 
thy  well-beloved  Son  Jesus  Christ 
in  the  river  Jordan  didst  sanctify 
water  to  the  mystical  washing  away 
of  sin.'  The  reference  in  the  hymn 
is  to  Ps.  cxiii.  (cxiv.)  3,  a  passage 
often  quoted  or  referred  to  by 
Ambr.  as  at  Hex.  ill.  2  mare  uidit 
et  fugit,  lordanes  conuersus  est 
retrorsum',  cp.  ib.  6,  in  Ps.  LXI.  32. 
The  three  occasions  were  when  the 
Jordan  was  passed  by  the  Israelites 
under  Joshua  (Jos.  iii),  by  Elijah 
(2  Kings  ii.  8),  by  Elisha  (ib.  14). 
They  are  here  specially  alluded  to 
as  indicating,  that  the  Jordan  was 
already  prepared  by  miraculous  in- 
terventions for  this  crowning  en- 
richment. See  Ambr.  in  Luc.  i.  37 
ilk  sub  Helta  diuiso  amnejluuialium 
rectirsus  undarum  in  originem  Jlu- 
minis, — siait  dixit  scriptura:  lor- 
danis    conuersus    est    retrorsum, — 


significat   salutaris   lauacri  futura 
mysteria. 

7.  tertio]  lit.  'for  the  third  lime.' 
It  is  often  used  instead  of  ter  by 
Ambr.,  in  Luc.  I.  36,  Apolog. 
David.  43,  Epist.  LXii.  i.  Cp. 
Num.  xxii.  32  cur  tertio  uerberas 
asiiiam  tuam ;  Sedul.  Op.  v.  36  et 
haec  tertio  repetit. 

8.  sacraris]  The  line  is  imitated 
Sedul.  Carm.  Ii.  161  gurgitis  et 
propriis  sacrauit  flumina  membris. 

9.  partam  uirginis]  4.  30,  6. 
6. 

1 1  f.  '  And  on  this  day  led  the 
magi  to  do  reverence  to  Thy  man- 
ger.' Ambr.  would  not  allow  that 
the  manger  could  be  worshipped  in 
the  strict  sense  ;  but  in  the  sense  of 
'  falling  down  to '  or  '  at '  it  would 
be  natural  and  harmless;  cp.  Ps. 
xcviii.  (xcix.)  5  adorate  scabellum 
pedum  eius ;  and  Ambr.'s  comments 
upon  it  de  Spir.  in.  xi.  Ambr.  often 
mentions  the  visit  of  the  magi.  See 
esp.  in  Luc.  11.  43  f. 

adoratum  is  the  supine,  a  form 
of  the  verb  seldom  used  in  late 
Latin,  but  cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  V.  36 
auium  qt^ae  cum  eunt  cubitutn ; 
Epist.  LXII.  3  misi  diaconutn... 
memoratum. 

12.  praesepe]  6.  29.  magos  has 
its  first  syllable  lengthened  by  the 


HYMN  VIII.   AMBROSE 


67 


hausit  minister  conscius,  15 

quod  ipse  non  impleuerat. 

aquas  colorari  uidens, 

inebriare  flumina, 

elementa  mutata  stupet 

transire  in  usus  alteros.  20 

sic  quinque  milibus  uirum 
dum  quinque  panes  diuidis, 
edentium  sub  dentibus 

15  auxit  (hauxit  Fs  Vs)  Abdfgh.  17  iubens  Fi  Ih,  iubet  Hbd. 

18  inebriari  Aabdefgh  E^  Fik  Hbcdfg  Icdn  Vacps.  19  mut.  elem. 

stupent  Aabdefgh  Fis  Ih  Vacps  (stupent  habent  etiain  E0  Gk   Ic  Vr). 
21  si  Vr,  hie  Ac.     uiris  Abefgh  Fs  Hd'  Ihn  Vaps.  22  diuidit  E^  Fi 

Gl  (?)  Habcdf  Ihn  Vacrs,  diuidunt  Abdfgh  {et  e  ut  uidetur)  Vp. 


stress  of  the  verse.  In  classical  au- 
thors it  is  always  short. 

13  f.  Joh.  ii.  6  f .  tiel,  'or  if,' 
answers  to  seu  in  9,  where  that 
word  really  is  equivalent  to  uel  si. 

hydriis]  by  a  natural  license  put 
for  their  contents. 

plems  aquae]  Ambr.  almost  al- 
ways uses  a  gen.  with  plenus,  three 
times  out  of  every  four.  The  abl.  is 
first  found  in  Lucr.,  then  used 
sparingly  by  Cic,  more  freely  by 
Verg.,  and  exclusively  by  Juv., 
Prud.,  Commodian.  See  Quint,  ix. 
iii.  I.  In  these  hymns  we  find  the 
gen.  at  45.  17,  49.  23,  the  abl.  at 
104.  34. 

15.  minister]  rhetorical  use  of 
the  sing,  for  plu. ;  cp.  Ambr.  in  Ps. 
cxviii.  xiii.  6  J tidaeiis . . .facere  con- 
stieiiit ;  XLVii.  11  eum  niagits  ado- 
rauit;  9.  8,  12.  15  and  often. 

conscius]  'sharing the  knowledge' 
of  the  fact  that  the  wine  had  but 
lately  been  water ;  Joh.  ii.  9  minis- 
tri  autem  sciebant,  qui  hauriebanl 
aquam.  'The  servant  drew  (from 
the  water-pot  into  the  cups)  that 
which  he  knew  that  he  had  not 
filled '  :  he  had  not  poured  in  the 
wine  that  he  drew  out.  With  re- 
ference to   the  Gospel  text  a  very 


natural  turn  is  given  to  impleuercU 
cp.  Eur.  Iph.  Taur.  953  0770$  fStoJ' 
laov  diraai.  /Sa/cx'w  nirprifia  irXripib- 
ffavres. 

17  f.  'The  servant  seeing.. .is 
amazed.'  aquas,  flumina,  elementa 
plural  in  form  are  sing,  in  meaning, 
as  mfluenta  in  6  above.  This  is  a 
common  classical  usage,  cp.  Drae- 
geri.  4f. 

colorari]  The  wines  of  Palestine 
were  mostly  red  ;  cp.  Prov.  xxiii. 
3r,  Is.  xxvii.  2,  31.  50,  90.  27,91. 

15- 

18.  inebriare]  [W.  left  it  doubt- 
ful whether  he  intended  to  read  the 
active  or  the  passive.  The  passive 
was  likely  to  come  from  assimilation 
to  colorari,  and  the  passage  from  in 
Luc.  VI.  87  given  in  the  Introd. 
seems  to  decide  for  the  active.] 

19.  Cp.  in  Ps.  CXVIII.  xix.  9 
elementa  mutaret;  de  Inst.  Virg. 
34  in  usus  alteros  mutaretur;  de 
My  St.  52  non  ualebit  Chrisli  sermo, 
ut  species  mutet  elementorum  ? 

21  f.  quinque... quinque]  in  Luc. 
VI.  79  non  oliosus  numerus...cur 
enim  plures,  id  est  quinqtu  milia, 
quinque  panibus,  hoc  est  numero 
minore,  satiahantur? 

23.    edentium... dentibuB]   Note 

5— » 


68 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


in  ore  crescebat  cibus. 

multiplicabatur  'magis 
dispendio  panis  suo. 
quis  haec  uidens  ihirabitur 
iuges  meatus  fontium? 

inter  manus  frangentiuni 
panis  rigatur  profluus ; 
intacta  quae  non  fregerant 
fragmenta  subrepunt  uiris. 

a6  sui  Vr.         28  faucium  E0  Fi  Gl  Hacfg  Icn. 
32  supersunt  Ha'^cd^.     uiri  Aabefgh  Fis  Idn  Vap. 


25 


30 


31  fregerat  Aef  Vp. 


the  play  upon  the  sound  of  the 
words,  an  artifice  used  elsewhere 
also  by  Ambr. ;  cp.  in  Ps.  cxvili. 
xviii.  29  Moyses  non  imperauit  sed 
impetraiiit;  10.  18  ut  abluat 
mundi  lue/n ;  Hex.  I.  35  caelum 
nubibus  texitttr  ut  sol  tegatur;  vi. 
1 3  oiia  congregauit  et  clamauit  quasi 
auans;  in  Luc.  II.  42  non  fuco  de- 
liciarum  sed  suco  natiiralis  ali- 
moniae ;  de  lacob  I.  \i  ut  tolus 
mundus  eius  mundaretiir  sanguine. 
25.  For  the  oxymoron  cp.  Sedul. 
Carm.  III.  269  epulas  nutriuit 
edendo  \  uulgus  et  adtritae  creue- 
runt  inorsibus  escae;  id.  Op.  iv.  2 
stibstantiam . .  .quae  detrimentis  ati- 
getur;  Ovid  Met.  vill.  879  infelix 
minuendo  corpus  alebat. 

27.  'Who. ..will  wonder?'  i.e.  no 
one  will  wonder.  Ambr.  is  fond  of 
making  a  statement  by  asking  a 
question,  cp.  10.  7,  21,  in  Luc.  vi. 
85  quoted  in  the  introd.  to  this 
hymn.  The  wonder  of  the  rivers  is 
dwelt  upon  by  Basil  Hex.  ill.  6 
imitated  by  Ambr.  Hex.  il.  11. 

28.  iuges]  Cp.  1.  29  (note),  6.  32. 

meatus  fontium]  '  the  never  fail- 
ing courses  of  springs ' ;  cp.  de  Fide 
II.  prol.  2  fontis  meatu;  de  Spir.  i. 
prol.  7  meatusque  suos  fons...deri- 
uauit;  ib.  i.  158;  in  Luc.  vi.  85 
quoted  in  the  introd.  to  this  hymn. 

29.  inter  manus]  '  in  the  hands,' 
more   idiomatic   than    /w    nianibus 


ministrantium  of  in  Luc.  vi.  87  ; 
cp.  Cic.  in  Verrem  v.  11  cdius 
inter  manus ..  .auferebatur  with  de 
Sen.  12  est  ui  manibits  laudatio 
('is  being  read  by  all'),  ib,  earn 
fabulam  quain  in  manibns  habebat 
('  the  play  which  he  had  in  hand '). 
So  Ambr.  de  Virg.  l.  7  inter  cruen- 
tas  carnificum  manus. 

30.  rigatur]  connected  with  our 
word  rain,  means  'pour'  any  liquid, 
then  in  general  'shed';  cp.  Lucr.  11. 
263  hinc  motus  per  membra  rigan- 
titr  ('  are  welled  ') ;  iv.  907  somnus 
per  membra  quietem  inriget  ( '  lets  a 
stream  of  repose  over  the  limbs'); 
imitated  by  Verg.  Aen.  i.  691.  Cp. 
rigatu  in  the  passage  from  in  Luc. 
V.  given  above  in  the  introd. 

profluus  is  constantly  found  in 
Ambr.'s  prose  iox  projluens;  in  Luc. 
w.dsitiefissitientibus,  profluus  abun- 
dantibus;  cp.  in  Ps.  xxxv.  i  sanguis 
. . .  Christi. .  .profluus  ad  lauandum 
omne  peccatum;  Epist.  XLVii.  i  ea 
quae  dictantur. .  .profluo  cursuferun- 
tur,  9.  23.  profluens  is  also  found, 
if  rarely,  as  in  Luc.  iv.  71. 

32.  uiris]  i.e.  the  disciples.  The 
final  couplet  refers  to  the  portions 
which  were  'over  and  above.'  Ambr. 
seems  to  conceive  of  the  process  of 
multiplication  as  continuing  in  the 
hands  of  the  disciples  (frangenlium), 
and  even  in  those  of  the  recipients 
{quae  non  fregerant,  sc.  discipuli). 


HYMN  IX.   AMBROSE  69 

Hymn  9 

Biraghi  and  Dreves  argue  that  the  Agnes-hymn  is 
Ambrose's  work,  because  it  is  in  his  style  and  abounds 
with  his  characteristic  phrases,  and  especially  because  it 
is  closely  connected  with  a  passage  in  the  treatise  de 
Virginibus,  which  he  wrote  in  A.D,  377  and  which  is 
made  up  from  a  series  of  sermons  the  first  of  which 
he  preached  on  St  Agnes'  day,  Jan.  21st,  of  that  year. 
However  it  is  just  here  that  Pio  Franchi  de'  Cavalieri 
joins  issue  with  them  {Romisch.  Quartalschrift,  1901, 
p.  3  f.).  For  he  roundly  asserts  that  the  hymn  cannot 
have  been  written  by  Ambrose,  inasmuch  as  according 
to  him  in  three  important  points  it  contradicts  this  de- 
tailed prose  account  of  the  martyrdom  of  Agnes  {de  Vir- 
ghiibus  I.  2). 

I.  He  objects  that  the  prose  story  states  that  Agnes 
was  beheaded,  whereas  the  hymn  represents  her  as  being 
stabbed  to  death.  No  doubt  the  hymn  does  admit  of 
this  interpretation  :  see  lines  25  and  30.  But  what  says 
Ambrose  in  his  sermon  ?  The  important  words  here 
on  which  Franchi  rests  his  argument  are  :  stetit,  orauit, 
ceruicem  infiexit.  According  to  him  the.se  last  two  words 
must  mean  *  she  bent  her  neck  forward '  in  order  to  re- 
ceive the  stroke  of  the  sword.  Their  real  force  may  be 
quite  different :  inflexit  may  mean  'bent  aside'  in  order 
to  admit  the  point  of  the  sword.  So  Catullus  LXIV.  56 
euhoe  bacchantes^  euhoe  capita  inflectentes ;  Propertius  IV. 
viii.  TJ  colla  caue  inflectas  ad  summum  obliqua  theatrutn  ; 
Verg.  Aen.  III.  631  ceruicem  infiexam  posuit,  where  the 
sense  is  determined  by  Horn.  Od.  IX.  372  kcIt  u-ko- 
Box/J-(^o-a<i  •jra-)(^vv  avykva.  Moreover  the  prose  account 
certainly  allows  the  reader  to  regard  Agnes  as  being 
stabbed.    If  she  was  not  stabbed  there  is  little  force  in 


70  EARLY  LA  TLN  H YMNS 

fuitne  in  illo  corpusculo  uulncri  locus  ?  or  in  quae  noil 
habuit  quoferrum  reciperet.  No  doubt  death  by  beheading 
was  more  general  than  by  stabbing.  But  stabbing  was 
fairly  frequent ;  cp.  Cic.  Phil.  ill.  4,  XIV.  25  ;  Prud. 
Perist.  X.  64  iugulos  retectos  obstinate  opponere ;  Fort.  II. 
xiv.  10  inuitant  iugulis  uulnera  cara  suis.  Jubaru  Sainte 
Agnes  (Paris  1907)  p.  20  suggests  that  the  stabbing  in 
the  case  of  Agnes  may  have  been  a  concession  to  her 
tender  years.  After  all  the  meaning  of  the  phrase  cer- 
uicem  inflexit  may  be  simply  '  she  gave  herself  up  to 
death ' ;  cp.  in  Ps.  CXVIII.  v.  25  [Chrisius']  ceruices  suas 
posuit  in  flagella  ;  in  Luc.  VII.  178  Felix,  A^abor  et  Victor 
. .  .colla  flexerunt  \  Damas.  Xlil.  4  militibus  missis  populi 
tunc  colla  dedere;  Prud.  Psych.  352. 

2.  Franchi  says  that  the  prose  passage  knows  nothing 
of  Agnes'  flight  from  her  parents'  house,  as  described  in 
the  third  stanza  of  the  hymn.  Now  this  prose  passage  does 
not  claim  to  give  the  complete  and  precise  account  of 
an  exact  historian,  but  is  the  recital  of  a  preacher  striving 
to  stir  his  hearers, — hearers  who  already  knew  the  whole 
story.  Why  then  give  all  the  details  .-*  And  Ambrose's 
words  elsewhere  {Epist.  XXXVII.  37  quid  Theclani,  quid 
Agnen...loquar,  quae... ad  mortem... festinauerunt?)  cer- 
tainly point  to  incidents  that  are  more  fully  narrated  in 
the  hymn.  In  much  the  same  way,  be  it  noted,  Ambrose 
does  not  at  Hex.  v.  88  insert  all  the  details  that  he  gives 
in  the  hymn  Aeterne  rerum  conditor  {s^e  the  introduction 
to  2) :  and  yet  no  one  doubts  the  fact  that  this  hymn  was 
written  by  Ambrose. 

3.  Franchi  says  that  the  words  of  Agnes  are  different 
in  the  two  accounts.  And  why  not  ?  As  a  preacher  before 
an  especial  audience  on  the  one  hand,  and  as  a  hymn 
writer  for  the  whole  church  on  the  other,  Ambrose  might 
well  feel  himself  at  liberty  to  choose  from  the  martyr's 


HYMN  IX.  AMBROSE  71 

dying  words,  so  far  as  he  knew  them,  those  which  would 
in  either  case  be  more  directly  suitable  for  his  immediate 
purpose. 

The  conclusion  to  which  we  are  entitled  to  come  by 
the  evidence  before  us  is  that  the  two  stories  agree  in 
substance,  but  with  a  freedom  of  treatment  and  a  variety 
in  detail  which  no  imitator  would  venture  upon,  however 
bold  or  clever  he  might  be.  And  it  is  noteworthy  that 
the  hymn  knows  nothing  of  the  additions  made  to  the 
story,  as  these  are  told  in  the  Gesta  sanctae  Agnes,  which 
were  compiled  A.D.  415-420. 

Jubaru  in  his  elaborate  history  of  the  saint  gives 
January  2 1st  A.D.  305  as  the  probable  date  of  the  death 
of  St  Agnes.  It  took  place  on  the  decline  between  the 
Pantheon  and  the  Vatican  where  a  church  dedicated  to 
her  now  stands. 

Other  accounts  of  her  martyrdom  were  current.  Da- 
masus,  the  son  of  a  Roman  notary,  became  the  priest  of 
St  Laurence's  church  and  at  last  Pope,  from  366-384. 
He  had  therefore  as  good  an  opportunity  as  any  one  of 
his  time  of  getting  at  the  truth,  and  he  wrote  the  fol- 
lowing inscription  for  the  other  church  of  St  Agnes  on 
the  Nomentan  Way  {Epigr.  XL.  ed.  Ihm). 

Fama  refert  sanctos  diidum  retulisse  parentes 
Agnen,  dum  lugubres  cantus  tuba  concrepuisset, 
nntricis  gremium  subito  liquisse  puellam^ 
sponte  tnicis  calcasse  viinas  rabiemque  tyranni; 
ur£re  ctan  flammis  uoluissei  nobile  corpus, 
uiribus  imnensum  paruis  siiperasse  timorem, 
nudaque  profiisum  crinem  per  membra  dedisse, 
ne  Domini  templum  fades  peritura  uideret. 
0  ueneranda  mihi,  sanctum  decus  alma  pudoris, 
tit  Damasi  precibus  faueas  precor,  inclyta  martyr. 


72  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

Here  the  punishment  is  burning,  and  Agnes  covers 
her  body,  not  with  her  clothes  but  with  her  hair.  See 
also  Aur. Legend.  SS.  XXIV  tunc  uicarius  Aspasius  nomine 
iussit  earn  in  copiosum  ignem  iactari,  sed  in  duas  partes 
flamtna  diuisa...eam  minime  contingebat . . .ignibus  iniecta^ 
sed  iis  per  orationem  eius  exstinctis  gladio  percussa  est. 

In  the  story  told  by  Prud.  Perist.  XIV  Agnes  is  thrust 
into  a  brothel  (25),  and  speaks  of  being  stabbed  {77  fer- 
rum  in  papillas  omne  recepero  \  pectiisque  ad  imuni  uint 
gladii  traham\  but  she  is  eventually  beheaded  (89  uno 
sub  ictu  nam  caput  amputat). 

Notice  that  the  epigram  of  Damasus  begins  with  the 
-words  fama  refert,  just  as  Ambrose  de  Virginib.  I.  7  uses 
the  word  traditur.  Already  in  the  fourth  century  there 
was  known  to  be  uncertainty  as  to  the  facts  concerning 
the  martyrdom  of  this  little  girl. 

Aabdefghik  Fis  la  Vacps 

Agnes  beatae  uirginis 
natalis  est,  quo  spiritum 
caelo  refudit  debitum 
pic  sacrata  sanguine. 

^  Agnis  Vap^,  Agnetis  Fs. 

I.   Ambr.  and  Prud.  Perist.  xiv.  ea  loqtii  possumus,  cuius  ne  nomen 

1 ,    31   etc.   and   the  writer  of  the  quidem  uacuum  luce  lattdisfuit  ? 

epigram  c.  364  Damasus  LXXXiv.  4,  -2.   natalis]  'birthday,'  i.e.  day  of 

14   (ed.    Ihm),    make   Agnes   both  martyrdom;  cp.  Ambr.  ^^ /V</.  A'^j-. 

nom.  and  gen.,  the  abl.  being  Agne  II.   5  nos  quoque  ipsi  natales  dies 

(Ambr.   de   Off.    i.   203).    Another  (here  used  in  the  natural  sense)  de- 

gen.  Agftetis  is  found  as  early  as  in  jfunclorum  obliuiscimur  et  eum  quo 

the   Feriale   ecclesiae    Romanae    of  obierunt    diem    celebri   sollemtiitate 

A.D.  354,  and  this  at  last  superseded  renouamus.    According   to  Servius 

the   shorter   form.     Mone   suggests  on  Verg.  ^r/.  in.  76  the  best  writers 

that  Ambr.  chose  the  Greek  gen.  used    natalis  as   a  subst.,  whereas 

(kfvrii)  to  avoid  confusion  with  the  later  writers  from  Juv.  onwards  said 

Latin  agna.  Anyhow  we  may  safely  ttatalis  dies.    But  Cic.  uses  natalis 

say  that  he  was  thinking  of  this  dies  and    Ambr.    natalis;    cp.    de 

meaning  for  the  name  in  view  of  his  Virg.    l.    5   natalis  est  uirginis,... 

y/oiis  de  Vi7g.  I.  i,  quid dignum  de  natalis    est    mar tyris,... natalis   est 


HYMN  IX.  AMBROSE 


73 


matura  martyrio  fuit, 
matura  nondum  nuptiis. 
nutabat  in  uiris  fides, 
cedebat  effessus  senex. 

metu  parentes  territi 
claustrum  pudoris  auxerant: 
soluit  fores  custodiae 
fides  teneri  nescia. 

8  et  fessus  Ae  Fi  Vacp.     cedebant  effessi  senes  Fs  Vs. 


sanctae  Agnes.  See  also  Ronsch 
104. 

3.  refudit]  2.  22  (note),  caelo  is 
to  be  taken  with  debilum. 

4.  sacrata]  perhaps  implies  that 
her  martyrdom  was  to  Agnes  what 
the  taking  of  their  vows  was  to 
other  'virgins.'  She  does  not  appear 
to  have  been  a  '  professed '  virgin  ; 
cp.  de  Virg.  I.  19  haec  probauit 
Dominum,  quern  quia  aetas  tton- 
ditm  poterat  conjileri,   natura  con- 

fessa  est.  Her  own  blood  was  the 
instrument  of  her  consecration,  as 
others  were  baptized  in  their  own 
blood. 

5.  Cp.  de  Virg.  i.  8  nondum 
idonca  poenae  et  iam  matura  me- 
moriae; Priid.  Perist.  xiv.  10  iugali 
uix  habilem  toro.  She  is  said  to  have 
been  only  twelve  years  old.  The 
phrase  in  the  hymn  comes  from 
Verg.  Aen.  vii.  53  iam  matuia 
uiro,  iam  plenis  nubilis  annis ;  cp. 
fDamasus]  Lxxix.  4  (of  a  boy 
martyr)  tempore  sub  paruo  matura 
laude  triumphans. 

7.  nutabat  is  contrasted  with 
Agnes'  firm  constancy,  as  often  in 
Ambr. ;  cp.  in  Ps.  xl.  22  latro... 
confessus  est  Dei  Filium,...iusti 
plerique  nutabant. 

Both  uiris  and  senex  are  em- 
phatic. The  faith  of  men  in  all 
their  strength  was  wavering  around, 
elders  with  their  wisdom  were  giving 
in,  but  this  little  girl  stood  firm. 
Similarly  de  Inst.  Virg.  49  stabat 
ante   crucem    mater    et  fugientibus 


uiris  stabat  intrepida;  in  Luc.  X. 
132. 

8.  effessus]  '  worn  out '  by  perse- 
cution. The  word,  being  well  at- 
tested by  the  MSS  and  duly  formed, 
should  be  read  in  preference  to  the 
et  fessus  of  editors.  Similar  forms 
are  edurus,  efferus. 

senex]  the  rhetorical  singular, 
like  minister  in  8.  15. 

gf.  Prud.  Perist.  III.  36 f.  gives 
the  like  precautions  taken  by  the 
parents  of  Eulalia  :  sed  pia  cura 
parentis  agit,  \  uirgo  animosa  domi 
ut  lateatt  \  ...ne  fera  sanguinis  in 
pretium  \  mortis  amore  puella  ruat. 

10.  'had  doubled  the  safeguard 
of  her  purity,'  viz.  the  lock  and  key 
and  similar  precautions  taken  to 
secure  the  sanctity  of  her  maiden- 
hood. Perhaps  Ambr.  has  in  his 
mind  the  language  of  Hor.  Od.  lit. 
xvi.  Cp.  Epist.  V.  9  erit,  im/uam, 
uel  maleuola  uel  imperita,  quam 
pudoris  claustra  praetereant.  Con- 
trast 6    14. 

11.  Like  Eulalia  (Prud.  Perist. 
III.  43)  Agnes  evaded  her  parents' 
restraint  and  voluntarily  offered 
herself  for  martyrdom.  See  the  in- 
troduction to  this  hymn. 

fores  custodiae]  'the  doors  of 
guard,'  i.e.  the  doors  which  guarded 
her — a  somewhat  Hebraic  turn. 

12.  fides]  de  Virg.  i.  7  magna 
uis  fidci,  quae  etiam  ab  ilia  testi- 
monium inuenit  aetate! 

For  the  use  of  nescia  cp.  that  of 
nescire  at  3.  20,  28,  8.  19.    Ambr. 


74 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


prodire  quis  nuptum  putet,- 
sic  laeta  uultu  ducitur, — 
nouas  uiro  ferens  opes, 
dotata  censu  sanguinis. 

aras  nefandi  numinis 
adolere  taedis  cogitur : 
respondet  '  baud  tales  faces 
sumpsere  Christi  uirgines  : 


15 


20 


15  uero  Aade  la  Vap,  uiros  Fs  Vs. 
authalis  facit  la. 

has  an  inf.  with  nescius,  as  here,  de 
Virg.  I.  7  mon...nescia\  ib.  11.  9 
prodire  domo  nescia;  ib.  il.  I'ifu- 
gere  nescia ;  cp.  Verg.  Georg.  n. 
467,  IV.  470,  Aen.  X.  502,  xii. 
527;  Draeger  11.  354.  Ennodius 
Hymn.  vni.  6  imitates  the  line  : 
uirtus  teneri  nescia, 

13.  'One  would  think  she  was 
coming  forth  to  be  wedded.'  Cp. 
de  Virg.  I.  8  non  sic  ad  thalamum 
nupta  properaret,  ut  ad  supplicii 
locum  laeta  successu,  gradu  festino 
iiirgo  processit;  ib.  iii.  ■3^^\^Pelagia'\ 

fertur  ornasse  caput,  miplialem  in- 
duisse  uestem,  ut  non  ad  mortem 
ire  diceres,  sed  ad  sponsum.  For 
the  form  of  the  line  cp.  13.  29,  and 
for  the  supine  nuptum  8.  1 1. 

1 4.  sic]  This  use  of  sic  ( =  tarn, 
adeo)  is  rare ;  but  the  dictionaries 
refer  to  Cic.  Rep.  11.  21  sic  er at  in 
omni  uel  officio  uel  sermone  sollers. 

ducitur]  '  She  is  led  off  to  exe- 
cution ' ;  cp.  1.  33,  Ambr.  de 
Nabuth  11,  de  Virg.  11 1.  34. 

15.  'Bringing  to  her  husband 
riches  of  a  new  kind,  being  dowered 
with  the  wealth  of  her  blood.' 
nottas  as  in  6.  30,  10.  24.  uiro  = 
Christ.  Cp.  de  Virg.  i.  22  Chris- 
tus  uirginis  sponsus.  So  Fortunatus 
IV.  xxvi.  97  hinc  mater,  hinc  sponsa 
Agnes,  Tecla  dulcis,  Agathe  \  et  quae- 
cumque  Deo  uirginitate  placet. 

16.  dotata]  Cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  iii. 
56  ecrlesia . . .  Christi  cruore  dotata  ; 


19  aut  Adefh  Fs  Vacp. 


de  Isaac  48  latcdant  etiam  munera 
animae,  quae  missa  sunt  a  sponso, 
quibus  dotata  ueniebaf,  Epist. 
XXXI.  7  misericordiae... dotata  pa- 
trimonio. 

censu]  originally  'rating,'  then 
'  that  at  which  one  was  rated,' 
hence  'income,'  'property, "wealth.' 
Ambr.  uses  the  word  metaphorically, 
de  lacob  11.  20  censu  jidei;  Epist. 
XXXI.  1  censu piodmes;  ib.  xxxviil. 
7  bonitatis  suae  censum ;  cp.  ib. 
II.  II. 

1 7.  '  They  would  compel  her  to 
kindle  with  the  torch  the  altar  of 
an  accursed  god ' :  according  to 
Prud.  Perist.  xiv,  that  of  Minerva. 
Ambr.  is  borrowing  from  Verg.  Aen. 
vil.  71  ado  let  dum  alt  aria  taedis:, 
as  he  does  de  Joseph  17  thymiama, 
quo  adolent  altaria  piae  mentis;  in 
Luc.  I.  28  adolentibus  altaria ;  de 
Off.  III.  100  ignis  quo  adolerent 
altaria.  Cp.  Prud.  Perist.  iii.  26 f. 
ast  ubi  se  furiata  lues  \  excitat  in 
f amnios  Domini  \  Christicolasque 
cruenta  iubet  \  tura  cretiiare,  iecur 
pecudis  I  mortiferis  adolere  dels. 

The  plural  forms  aras  and  taedis 
are  poetical.  Verg.  uses  of  a  single 
altar  the  plural  arae  more  than  60 
times,  the  sing,  some  18  times;  the 
plural  taedae  12  times,  the  sing. 
taeda  twice.  And  aras  is  here 
chosen  for  altaria  (which  is  vir- 
tually always  used  in  the  plural, 
but  cf.  Konsch  259,  265)  to  suit  the 


HYMN  IX.   AMBROSE 


75 


hie  ignis  exstinguit  fidem, 
haec  flamma  lumen  eripit. 
hie,  hie  ferite  !  ut  profluo 
eruore  restinguam  foeos.' 

24  extinguam  Ad,  restringam  Ah  Fs  Vs. 


metre.  Steier,  p.  628,  says  that 
Ambr.  always  carefully  distinguishes 
between  ara  a  heathen  and  altaria 
a  Christian  altar.  It  is  true  that  at 
in  Virg.  I.  7  Ambr.  says,  as  here, 
uel  si  ad  aras  inuita  rapereiur,  and 
in  Luc.  IX.  20  ara  deiciltir,  ut  al- 
taria eriganlur.  Cp.  Cyp.  Ep.  59. 18 
altare  reniouentibtis... simulacra  atq. 
iiiola  cum  arts  suis  transeant;  ib. 
65.  I  quasi  post  aras  diaboli  accedere 
ad  a/tare  Dei  fas  sit.  But  he  often 
uses  ara  as  the  altar  of  God ;  thus 
de  Abr.  I.  6  ubi  Bethel,  id  est  damns 
Dei,  ibi  et  ara:  ubi  ara,  ibi  et 
inuocatio  Dei  nostri;  Epist.  XVIII. 
10  numquid  impcrator  gentilis  aram 
Christo  leuauit  (cp.  just  above  sed 
uetera  inquit  [Symmachus]  red- 
denda  sunt  altaria  simulacris) ;  ib. 
XIX.  23  nee  aram  statuit  Deo  nee 
hostiam  immolauit ;  ib.  LV.  i  tecum 
is  qui  aedificauit  aram  Deo.  Nor  do 
others  make  a  sharp  and  constant 
distinction  between  the  two  words  ; 
cp.  Pnid.  Cath.  xii.  131  and  often, 
[Damas.]  LViii.  \  hanc  aram  Domini 
seruant;  Fort.  v.  v.  133,  vil.  xxv. 
8;  Vit.  Mart.  in.  54.  For  the 
difference  between  them  Obbar.,  on 
Prud.  Cath.  vii.  203  altaris  aram 
(cp.  Perist.  X.  49),  refers  to  Isid. 
Orig.  XV.  4,  Serv.  ad  Verg.  Aen. 
II.  515  superorum  et  arae  sunt  et 
altaria,  infer orum  tantum  arae. 
Dressel  says  ara  sanctior  augus- 
tiorque  altaris  pars  Prudentio  esse 
uidetur. 

18.  adolere  was  the  technical 
term  in  Roman  ritual  for  kindling 
the  sacrificial  fire  on  an  altar ;  but 
it  is  hard  to  say  haw  it  came  to 
have  this  meaning — the  later  Ro- 
mans themselves  seem  not  to  have 
known. 


19.  faces]  Agnes  is  referring  to 
the  use  of  torches  at  weddings. 
Propertius  uses  taedae  for  '  marriage ' 
I.  viii.  21  nam  me  non  ullae poterunt 
corrumpere  taedae. 

20.  sumpsere]  'are  wont  to 
take,'  the  perfect  of  repeated  ac- 
tion, rare  in  principal  clauses,  ex- 
cept in  poets  and  later  writers 
(Roby  §  £478  f.);  cp.  Verg.  Georg. 
IV.  213,  Hor.  Epist.  i.  ii.  ^1,  Ars 
Poetk  343,  1.  4  legimus. 

21  f.  Agnes  means  that  the  hea- 
then fire  is  not  true  fire,  the  heathen 
flame  not  true  flame. 

Mc.haec]  rhetorical  repetition, 
cp.  note  on  2.  11. 

exstinguit...  restinguam]  For  the 
oxymoron  in  ignis  exstinguit  cp. 
Sedul.  Carm.  I.  705  flammis  |  ar- 
dentis  fdei  restincta  est  flamma  (an 
echo  of  our  passage).  See  also  de 
Virg.  I.  30  quam  nulla  exstinguit 
aetas,  nulla  eripere  mors  potest. 

23.  [Hie,  hlc  may  indicate  the 
part  of  the  body  that  she  wished 
them  to  strike,  or  the  altar  in  the 
law-court  at  which  she  stood.] 
With  the  general  sense  cp.  Agnes' 
words  de  Virg.  I.  9  quid  percus- 
sor  moraris?  For  profluo  cp.  8. 
30. 

24.  de  Virg.  ill.  33  [Pelagia  is 
speaking]  sacrilegas  aras  praecipi- 
tata  subuertam  et  accensos  focos 
eruore  restinguam  ;  in  Luc.  ix.  33 
incendia  propria  eruore  restinxerit. 

focos  is  'the  altar  fire'  as  at  Pro- 
pert.  V.  xi.  54,  Prud.  Symm.  11. 
910,  971,  Perist.  II.  447,  X.  263. 
Cp.    Isid.    Orig.   xx.   x.    1     Varro 

focos  ait  dictos,  quod  foueant  ignes  ; 
...quidquid  autem  igtiis fouet,  focus 
uocatur,  sen  ara  sit  seu  quid 
aliud. 


76 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


percussa  quam  pompam  tulit! 
nam  ueste  se  totam  tegens 
curam  pudoris  praestitit, 
ne  quis  retectam  cerneret. 

in  morte  uiuebat  pudor, 
uultumque  texerat  manu, 
terram  genu  flexo  petit 
lapsu  uerecundo  cadens. 

26  tegit  Abdefgh  la  Vap. 


25 


30 


25.  'When  smitten  what  gran- 
deur she  displayed  ! '  pompa  seems 
to  have  lost  its  sense  oi  3^  procession, 
as  the  Greek  tto/jltt-^  sometimes  did, 
and  as  our  word  'pomp'  has  done. 
In  a  similar  prose  passage  (de  Virg. 
11.  17  quae  pompa  ilia,  quanta 
angelorum  laetitia  platidentiuni)  the 
pompa  may  refer  to  the  marriage 
procession,  or  possibly  to  the  funeral 
procession ;  cp.  Propert.  III.  v.  3 
nee  mea  tunc  longa  spatietur  ima- 
gine pompa. 

tulit]  Cp.  Cic.  Atl.  XIV.  xiii.  2 
laetitiam  apertissime  tulimus. 

26.  According  to  Damasus  XL. 
7,  quoted  in  the  introduction  to  this 
hymn,  Agiies  covered  her  naked 
body  with  her  hair,  even  as  Godiva 
'shower'd  the  rippled  ringlets  to 
her  knee.'  So  in  a  hymn  in  honour 
of  St  Agnes  quoted  by  Mone  ill. 
179  we  read  spoliata  uestimentis  \ 
densis  latet  capillis  ;  and  in  another 
hymn  (ib.  181)  gaude,  quod  cum 
nudabaris  \  crine  magis  tenebaris  \ 
quam  amictus  gloria. 

27  f.  Ambr.  has  in  mind  the 
death  of  Polyxena  as  Euripides 
depicts  it,  Hec.  568  f.  t\  Si  Kal  Ovr)- 
ffKovff  Sfius  I  ttoWtjv  irpbvoiav  elxef 
eiiffxri/ius  ireaeiv,  \  KpvvTOvc  a.  Kp{nr- 
T€iv  6nfjLaT  apaiywv  xp^^^i  imitated 
by  Ovid  Fast.  II.  833  turn  quoque 
iam  moriens  ne  non  procumbat 
honeste  \  respicit;  haec  etiam  cura 
cadentis  erat ;  Met.  xill.  479  tunc 
quoque  cura  fuit  partes  celare  tegen- 
das  I  cum  caderet  castique  decus  ser- 


uare  pudoris.  So  did  the  sisters  of 
Pelagia,  Ambr.  de  Virg.  in.  35, 
suspenso  paululum  in  cinctum  sinu, 
quo  pudorem  tegerent;  and  Pelagia 
herself,  Epist.  xxxvii.  38  quid 
autem  sublimius  sancta  Pelagia, 
quae...aiebat:  uoletts  morior,  nemo 
me  continget  manu,  tumo  oculo pro- 
tei-uo  uiolabit  uirginem ;  tnecum 
feram  pudorem,  mecum  incolumem 
uerecutuiiam.  So  did  Perpetua, 
Potamiaena,  and  other  Christian 
martyrs.  Cp.  Tac.  Hist,  III.  84  ej, 
cura  etiam  morientibus  decori  exitus 
fuit;  VVm.  Epist.  iv.  11. 

27.   praestitit]  See  note  on  4.  7. 

29.  morte  uiuebat]  an  oxymoron. 
Steier  quotes  Florus  1.  iS  et  in  ipsa 
morte  ira  uiuebat.  Cp.  Marius 
Victor  Aleih.  ill.  224  uiua  morte 
suos  referat. 

30.  '  even  her  face  she  had 
covered.'  This  emphatic  use  of  -que 
is  found  in  Catullus  and  Propertius, 
and  is  common  with  later  writers  in 
the  phr.  hodieque  {in  Luc.  l.  38); 
Schmalz  496.  For  the  sense  of  the 
line  cp.  de  Abr.  i.  93  discite  ergo 
uirgines  quemadmodum  seruetis  ue- 
recundiam  nee  intecto  capite  pro- 
deatis  ante  extraneos;  i  Cor.  xi.  6f. 

31.  Cp.  Lucr.  I.  92  [The  dying 
Iphianassa]  terram  genibus  sitm- 
missa  petebat ;  Verg.  Aen.  iii.  93 
submissi  petivius  terram. 

petit]  =/e/zVV ;  both  uiuebat  and 
texerat  being  in  past  time.  Vergil, 
Ovid  and  Lucan  use  this  shortened 
form. 


HYMN  X.  AMBROSE  77 

Hymn  10 

The  great  antiquity  of  this  hymn  is  proved  by  the 
mention  of  it  in  the  Rule  of  Caesarius  ad  uirgines, 
whose  direction-  is  qiiein  hymmim  to  turn  pascha  et  ad 
matiitinos  et  ad  uesperam  psallere  debetis.  The  Rule  of 
Aurelian  is  to  the  same  effect,  except  that  for  ad  uesperam 
he  writes  ad  lucernariuni.  As  to  its  being  one  of  Am- 
brose's genuine  hymns,  it  is  quoted  as  his  by  Hincmar 
of  Reims,  but  his  date  is  too  late  to  allow  him  to  be  a 
competent  witness  on  this  point.  Firmer  grounds  of 
belief  are  its  conciseness  and  strength,  its  quotation  of 
scripture  passages  slightly  modified,  its  close  resem- 
blance in  vocabulary  and  idiom  to  Ambrose's  prose. 

Dreves  would  add  a  further  proof  of  its  antiquity  in 
the  form  of  expression  of  the  first  words,  hie  est  dies 
uerus  Dei.  He  urges  that  not  until  after  Jerome's  re- 
vision did  Ps.  cxvii.  (cxviii.)  24,  to  which  these  words 
refer,  run  haec  est  dies,  and  that  the  hymn  must  therefore 
have  been  written  before  that  revision.  However  ac- 
cording to  Sabatier  {Vet.  Ital.  II.  230)  the  older  version 
also  read  haec,  so  that  we  cannot  use  this  argument.  But 
it  does  seem  to  be  the  case  that  Ambrose  when  quoting 
or  referring  to  the  psalm-verse  makes  dies  masculine, 
as  at  Epist.  XX III.  11  die  autem  dominica  exsultandum 
prop  he  ta  docet,  dicens:  hie  est  dies  quern  fecit  Domimis. 

In  other  places  also  Ambrose  brings  this  verse  into 
direct  reference  to  Easter.  Thus  in  Ps.  XLIII.  6  docet  nos 
scriptura  esse  aliquos  praeclaros  dies  in  quibus  refulserint 
facta  diuina. .  .in  ipso  enim  die  Christiis  hominibus  resur- 
rexit,  et  ideo  specialiter  de  ipso  dictum  est:  hie  est  dies 
quern  fecit  Dominus. .  .cum  igitur  omnes  dies  Deus  fecerit, 
hinc  tamen  diei  prae  ceteris  diuini  operis  praerogatiua 
delata,  quo  peccatum  omne  sub  la  turn  est...  hie  ergo   dies 


78  EARLY  LA  TLN  H YMNS 

quern  inluminaiiit  sol  ille  iiistitiae.  In  Luc.  VII  79  quis 
est  ille  alter  dies  nisi  forte  ille  dominicae  resurrectionist  de 
quo  dictum  est:  hie  est  dies  quem  fecit  Dominus. 

The  sense  of  Easter  must  not  be  unduly  restricted. 
The  present  hymn  is  as  much  on  the  Passion  as  on  the 
Resurrection.  In  early  times  the  Passion,  the  Death, 
and  the  Resurrection  of  Christ  were  regarded  as  one 
great  celebration;  cp.  de  Resur.  II  46  mors  eius  annua 
sollemnitas  mundi  est;  and  see  Feltoe's  note  on  Dionysius 
Alex.  p.  94. 

Easter  was  the  chief  season  for  Baptism,  and  the 
thought  of  this  underlies  the  hymn,  especially  the  first 
two  stanzas,  as  also  the  conclusion  of  36,  the  whole  of 
37,  and  the  first  part  of  109  and  no. 

Aabcdeghik  Eo  Fis^  Haci  Icefn  Mx  Vacprs 

Hie  est  dies  uerus  Dei 
sancto  serenus  lumine, 
quo  diluit  sanguis  sacer 
probrosa  mundi  crimina ; 

fidem  refundens  perditis  5 

caecosque  uisu  inluminans. 

2  sanctus  sereno  Vr,  sanctus  serenus  Eo  F"^.  3  quod  Vrs.  5  per- 
fidis  Haci  (perfides  Vr).         6  uisus  Vap. 

1.  Ps.  cxvii.  (cxviii.)  24;  see  est  enim  aqua  sine  criice  Christi? 
introduction.  eletnentum  commune  sine  ullo  sacra- 

2 .  sancto . . .  lumine]  that  of  Christ,       tnenii  effectu. 

cp.  3.  3,  8.  3.  4.    Ambr.    Carm.   i.   9  [Biraghi 

serenus]  'bright,'  from  the  same  p.   136]  hie  (i.e.  in  the   font)  qui- 

root  as  sol,  sirius.  cuvique    uolunt  probrosae   crimina 

3.  de  Bened.  Patr.  24  in  passione  uitae  \  poiure,  cor  da  laiient,  pec  tor  a 
. .  .diltiit  gentes  suo  sanguine ;  in  Ps.  mu7ida  gerant. 

XXXIX.  17  ut  in  sanguine  suo  cm-  mundi]   probably  with  reference 

niumpeccatadilueret;  inPs.Cxwil.  to  Joh.  i.  29. 

prol.  3  passio  Domini... quae  mun-  5.    perditis]  'to  the  lost.'   per- 

dum  hunc  diluit.  ditus   is   the   only  passive   part    of 

For  the  consecration  of  the  bap-  perdere  found  in  good  writers,  with 

tismal    water    by    the    passion    of  the  one  exception  oi perditur,  Hor. 

Christ  cp.  Ambr.  de  Myst.  20  quid  Sat.  11.  vi.  59,  some  part  of  perire 


HYMN  X.   AMBROSE 


79 


quern  non  graui  soluit  metu 
latronis  absolutio  ? 

qui  praemium  mutans  cruce 

lesum  breui  adquisit  fide  lo 

7  soluat  Eo  Fi^  Haci  Icefn  Vcs,  soluet  Vr.  9  praemio  Eo  Vr. 

crucem  Eo  Ic  Vr.  10  lesu  le  Vs.   adquisiuit  F^  Hci  Vr,  quaesiuit 

Aabdgh  Eo  Ha  Vap,  querit  Fi  Icefn  Vacps. 


taking  the  place.  The  variant  per- 
Jidis  makes  a  pointed  contrast  with 
fi-deni  (as  does  caecos  with  inlutni- 
nans),  but  this  very  fact  may  have 
commended  it  as  a  correction  to 
some  copyists.  For  refundens  cp. 
2.  22  note. 

6.  The  enlightenment  is  partly, 
but  not  wholly,  that  of  Baptism. 

7  f.  Lk.  xxiii.  39  f.  The  penitent 
robber  is  often  alluded  to  in  Ambr.'s 
prose;  as  in  Ps.  xxxix.  17  latro 
critcifixus  absoluitur,  quia  ilk 
Christum  in  suppliciis  agnouit  suis, 
...et  peccatum  suum  confesius  est 
Christo  ; . .  .quia  in  cruce  sua  regnum 
Domini  mente  conspexit....Ideo  pre- 
cationem  latronis  uox  secuta  est  cae- 
lestis  huiusmodi:  amen,  amen,  dico 

tibi,  hodie  mecum  eris  in  paradiso 

nemo  est  qui  possit  excludi  quando 
receptus  est  latro.  See  the  like  pas- 
sages de  Fide  iii.  99,  in  Luc.  x.  121, 
Epist.  LXXi.  8. 

In  such  questions  as  this  the  in- 
dicative may  stand,  as  in  21,8.  27 
(see  the  note  there) ;  or  the  sub- 
junctive, as  at  12.  13.  Mone  reads 
soluet,  to  match  mirabitur  8.  27, 
but  here  the  present  is  better  at- 
tested and  gives  at  least  as  good  a 
sense. 

9  f.  'Who  changing  his  cross  into 
his  heaven  gained  Jesus  by  a  moment 
of  faith.'  The  variants  in  9  are  ac- 
counted for  by  the  two  constructions 
oi  tnutare.  Horace  could  say  Od.  i. 
xvi.  25  mitibus  \  mtitare  quaero 
tristia  ('give  up  bitter  for  sweet'), 
and  ib.  xvii.  i  uelox  amoenum  saepe 
Lucretilem  \  mutat  Lycaeo  Faunus 


('takes  in  exchange  for').  Ambr. 
uses  the  former  construction  in  Ps. 
XL.  22  IcUro  ipse  nequitiam  suam 
proposito  meliore  mutauit ;  Epist. 
1.\1.  3  patriam  peregrino  mutabant 
solo;  in  Luc.  vii.  i  arduuvi  quippe 
est  crucem  tollere...raroque  quamuis 
excelsa  uirtus futuris  conmutat  prae- 
sentia. 

praemium]  Cp.  in  Ps.  xxxvil. 
18  dicamus  quern  ad  modum  in  re- 
munerando  \^Dominus'\  praeueniat 
nostram  precationem  et  doceamus 
exemplo....tardius  uotum  precantis 
[latronis]  qtiam  remiinerantis  est 
praanium;  de  Fide  v.  125  vierita 
latronis  extdt,  praemia  innocentis 
emeruit. 

10.  breui... fide]  Cp.  in  Luc.  x. 
121  pulcherrintum  adfectandcu  con- 
uersionis  exemplum,  quod  tarn  cito 
latroni  uenia  relaxatur.  The  phrase 
also  occurs  in  Luc.  vi.  58  Dei 
munus  est  congregatio  nationum, 
quae  etiam  breui  Jide  miser icordiam 
inclinat  aeternam  :  cp.  Epist.  XVI. 
4  Jacob... breui  somno...impetrauit, 
quod  magno  labore  postea  adquisiuit 
hereditas  eins.  Ambr.  uses  breitis  in 
a  like  pregnant  sense  in  Luc.  iv.  54 
aeterno  siipplicio  et  breui frtictu.  Cp. 
Horace's  breues Jlores  Od.  Ii.  iii.  13, 
breuem  dominum  ('  their  short  lived 
lord  ')  II.  xiv.  24. 

adquisit]  =  atf'^?/m«//.  A  copyist 
who  found  quaerit  or  quaesit  would 
not  be  likely  to  change  it  into 
the  longer  word,  which  would  be 
awkward  in  the  singing  at  a  time 
when  elision  was  no  longer  in 
use. 


8o 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


iustosque  praeuio  gradu 
praeuenit  in  regno  Dei. 

opus  stupent  et  angeli 

poenam  uidentes  corporis 

Christoque  adhaerentem  reum  15 

uitam  beatam  carpere. 

mysterium  mirabile  ! 
ut  abluat  mundi  luem, 

II  iustus  Abeg'h^  Eo  F^  Ha^c  Vapr.  12  peruenit  Aab'd'g  Fi  Ic 

Vap.  13  obstupent  {pro  opus  s.)  Eo  F^  Hac,  obstupeant  Ic,  hoc 

obstupent  Hi.  15  Chnstumq....reo  Eo  F^. 


1 1 .  iustos  . .  praeuenit] '  preceded 
the  righteous';  the  iusti  of  Lk.  xv. 
7  are  meant.  There  is  a  further 
reference  to  Mt.  xxi.  31  praecedent 
uos  in  regnum  Dei,  a  passage  quoted 
by  Ambr.  in  Ps.  xxxv.  23.  He 
uses  praeuenire  transitively  de  Abr. 
I.  33,  in  Ps.  XXXVII.  18,  as  it  is 
used  also  in  the  Latin  of  i  Thess. 
iv.  14.  praeuius  is  used  by  Ambr. 
Hex.  IV.  27,  in  Luc.  vii.  122,  de 
Off.l.  Ill,  Epist.-LXIU.^T,  LXXVIII. 
8.  The  variant  iustus  would  mean 
'justified'  'made  just'  and  is  used 
thus  of  the  robber  de  Nab.  38  auaro 
nox  semper  est,  dies  iusto.  But  early 
MSS  are  most  untrustworthy  on  this 
point,  Vat.  reg.  11  in  this  same 
hymn  writing  corpuris  at  14.  The 
reading  in  regnum  of  most  MSS  may 
be  right,  but  more  probably  comes 
from  Lk.  xxiii.  42. 

12.  For  the  pleonasm  praeuio... 
praeuenit  cp.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  vil.  96 
ante  praecessit. 

13.  Ambr.  often  alludes  thus  to 
the  angels ;  d^  Fide  IV.  5  obstupue- 
runt  et  angeli  caeleste  mysterium... 
cum  resurgeret  Dominus . .  .praeibant 
angeli  mirantes  spolium  ex  hoste 
quaesiium  ;  ib.  26grande  mysterium 
Christi,  quod  stupuerunt  et  angeli ; 
13.  30.  Perhaps  there  is  in  these 
passages  a  recollection  of  i  Pet.  i. 
12,  which  Ambr.  quotes  with  the 
.same  et  in  Epist.  L?^.>iJX.  3. 


14.  poenam... corporis]  'the  bo- 
dily sufferings '  might  be  those  of 
the  robber,  but  the  passage  de  Incarn. 
39  erat  inter  supplicia...et  regnum 
caeleste  donabat  makes  it  probable 
that  Ambr.  means  the  sufferings  of 
Christ  amidst  which  He  was  able  to 
do  such  miracles  of  grace. 

15.  Christo  adhaerentem  is  a 
biblical  phrase,  cp.  Ueut.  iv.  4, 
Jos.  xxiii.  8,  Ps.  Ixxii.  (Ixxiii.)  28 
etc.  Ambr.  repeatedly  uses  it,  as  in 
Ps.  cxviii.  i.  5,  ii.  9,  xi.  5  ;  cp.  de 
Cain  I.  5  Christianus  adhaerens 
Deo. 

1 6.  in  Luc.  X.  121  uita  enim  est 
esse  cum  Christo  ;  idea  ubi  Christus, 
ibi  uita,  ibi  regnum.  That  passage 
(concerning  the  dying  robber)  and 
the  present  tense  here  used  shew 
that  carpere  means  '  was  then  en- 
joying '  and  does  not  directly  refer 
to  the  life  after  death.  This  obser- 
vation favours  the  reading  regno  in 
12.  Ambr.  often  has  the  phrase 
uitam  carpere ;  de  Lnterp.  lob  in. 
19,  in  Ps.  CXVIII.  iii.  17,  in  Luc. 
VII.  39 ;  cp.  in  Ps.  XXXVI.  20,  in 
Ps.  XLVII.  23. 

17.  'O  wondrous  mystery  that 
flesh  should....'  For  the  construc- 
tion cp.  de  Exc.  Fratris  4  magnum 
pietatis  Jiiysterium  ut  mors  corporis 
nee  in  Christo  esset  excepta. 

18.  For  the  intentional  assonance 
oi abluat... luem  cp.  8.  23. 


HYMN  X.   AMBROSE 


peccata  tollat  omnium 
carnis  uitia  mundans  caro  ! 

quid  hoc  potest  sublimius, 
ut  culpa  quaerat  gratiam 
metumque  soluat  caritas 
reddatque  mors  uitam  nouam, 

hamum  sibi  mors  deuoret 
suisque  se  nodis  liget, 
moriatur  ut  uita  omnium, 


25 


20  mundet  Fi  Icefn.         ^^  culpam... gratia  F^  Va.        17,  28  ut  inserui. 


19.  Joh.  i.  29,  cp.  4.  31. 

20.  The  use  of  *  the  flesh '  per- 
sonified is  common  in  the  N.T., 
especially  in  St  Paul's  epistles,  e.g. 
Rom.  iii.  20;  cp.  de  Ituarn.  56 
nam  quae  erat  causa  incarnationis, 
nisi  ut  caro  quae  peccauerat  per  se 
redimeretur?  This  is  imitated  113. 

15- 

mundans]  Cp.  de  Jacob  i.  17  ut 
totus  miindus  eius  mundaretur  san- 
guine ;  de  Betted.  Fair.  24  twstra 
delicta  mundauit. 

caro]  Cp.  de  Bened.  Patr.  24 
bona  stola  est  caro  Christi,  quae 
omnium  peccata  operuit . . .lauit  ergo 
lesus  stolam  stiam . .  .ut . .  .nostram 
sordem  ablueret. 

2 1  f.  '  What  can  be  grander  than 
this,  that  guilt  should  win  grace  ? ' 

potest]  sc.  esse,  meaning  almost 
'is  possible';  Ambr.  Hex.  v.  19 
potest  et  sic,  as  at  Ter.  Pkorm.  303 
7ion  sic  futttrumst :  non  potest. 
Lofstedt  Spdtlat.  Studien  44  quotes 
Tertull.  adv.  Marcion.  i.  25  noti 
poterit  ea  bonitas  sine  suis  dotibus. 

ut]  as  in  18.    It  explains  the  hoc. 

22.  quaerat]  'win,'  as  in  Luc. 
V.  76  ita  erit  ut  et  iniuriam  repelled 
et  gratiam  quaeras  ;  de  Fide  IV.  5 
spolium  ex  hoste  qucusitum.  The 
word  looks  back  to  adquisit  in  10, 
as  soluat  in  23  to  soluit  in  7. 

For  the  question  cp.  8.  27  note. 

24.  mors  ultam  thus  standing 
together  form  an  oxymoron.    The 


pointed  contrast  of  life  and  death  is 
common  in  hymns  of  all  ages.  But 
we  may  compare  the  well-known 
Easter  sequence,  Daniel  II.  95  mors 
et  uita  duello  confiixere  mirando : 
dux  uitae  mortuus  regnat  uiuus; 
and  34.  3  r  f. 

nouam]  as  in  6.  30. 

25  f.  '  that  death  should  swallow 
his  own  hook  and  tie  himself  in  his 
own  knots.'  The  subjunctives  still 
depend  upon  ut  in  22. 

hamum]  Cp.  Amphilochius  (Holl 
p.  98)  oOt (iK  Ko.'^ij)  Tip  a.yKl<rTp<f>  ttjs 
debrrirbs  fiov  wffWfp  <rKti)\r]Ka  irepi- 
Oels  rb  (TQfjM...i\KU>  tov  davarov,  32. 
10  ;  and  for  the  general  sense  of  the 
passage  Hos.  xiii.  14,  i  Cor.  xv.  54, 
Ambr.  Epist.  XLIV.  7  in  nouo  testa- 
mento  suauis  morsus  est  uitae,  quae 
mortem  absorbuit.  propterea  aposto- 
lus ait:  deuorataest  mors  in  uictoria 
sua.  Ambr.  uses  the  phrase  hamum 
uorare,  de  VirginitcUe  119. 

27  f.  'for  the  life  of  all  to  die 
that  it  may  rise  again  the  life  of  all': 
the  splendid  climax  and  conclusion 
of  all  the  dependent  clauses  which 
have  preceded.  Cp.  in  Fs.  xxxvi. 
36  ipsius  mors  uita  est...ipsius  re- 
surrectio  uita  est  uniuersorum ;  in 
Ltu.  X.  126  caro  moritur  ut  re- 
surgat;  de  Fid.  Resur.  11.  46  mors 
eius  uita  est  omnium.  Ambr.  would 
never  have  written  such  a  line  as 
moriatur  uita  omnium,  which  brings 
a   spondee   into  the  2nd  foot  and 

6 


82  EARLY  LA  TIN-  H YMNS 

resurgat  ut  uita  omnium  ; 

cum  mors  per  omnes  transeat, 

omnes  resurgant  mortui,  30 

consumpta  mors  ictu  suo 

perisse  se  solam  gemat  ? 

38  hominum  Acdhi^  Fi  lefn  Vc.         29  dum  Hci.         30  resurgunt  Fii/' 
Hac  len  Vc.        32  sola  Aabdehi  Ifn  Vcs. 

leaves  a  final  unaccented  d  unelided  omnium.    Et  would  do  almost  as 

before  0.    See  Munro's  note  Public  well. 

School   Latin    Grammar   p.     523 :  28.     The  ut,  this  time  found  in 

'  Virgil's  two   examples  of  such  a  the  oldest  of  our  MSS,  is  necessary, 

hiatus  with  a  short  syllable,  addam  or   here  again   we   should    have  a 

cerea  prund- honos  anA  patuit  dea'  spondee  in    the   2nd  foot  and  the 

ilk,  may  be  defended  by  the  pause ;  open  d.     The   meaning  of  the  ut, 

...the.  mali  ominatis    assigned   by  however,  is  different. 

some   to    Hor.,   and    the    male,   0  29.    Rom.  v.  12.    Ambr.  in  Luc. 

miselle  passer  given   by  others   to  iv,    67  quotes   the  verse   thus :    et 

CatuU.  are  impossible.'  There  would  ita  in  omnes  homines  pertransivit 

be  every  temptation  for  a  copyist  to  {mors). 

omit   the   ut  after  its  omission    in  31.    Cp.  25,  Ambr.  </<? /^^'^  III.  84 

the  preceding  lines,  more  especially  mortis  enim  viorsfcuta  est  susceptio 

before   ui  (VTVIT).    Therefore   I  mortis  in  Christo. 

insert  ut  and  read  moriatur  ut  uita 

Hymn  ii 

Except  for  the  important  fact  that  this  hymn  is 
contained  in  the  Ambrosian  MSS  the  evidence  for  the 
authorship  of  Ambrose  is  merely  internal.  But  this 
evidence  is  convincing. 

It  was  written  by  a  poet  of  Milan,  where  these 
martyrs  were  especially  honoured;  see  line  4  terrisqtte 
nostris  aduenae\  Ambr.  in  Luc.  VII.  178  granunt  sinapis 
martyres  nostri  sunt  Felix,  Nabor  et  Victor;  habebant 
odorem  fidei  sed  latebant ;  uenit persecutio,  arma posueriint, 
colla  flexerunt,  contriti  gladio  per  totius  terminos  mundi 
gratiani  sui  sparsere  martyrii.  Paulin.  Vit.  Ambr.  14 
sancti  martyres  Nabor  et  Felix  celeberrime  frequenta- 
bantur.  The  omission  of  any  mention  of  Victor  by 
Paulinus  is  due  to  the  fact  that,  whereas  Nabor  and 
Felix  were  buried  side  by  side  (cp.  Ambr.  Epist.  XXII.  2 


HYMN  XL  AMBROSE  83 

eo  loci,  qui  est  a7ite  cancellos  sanctorum  Felicis  et  Naboris\ 
Victor  was  buried  elsewhere,  namely  in  the  basilica  of 
Fausta,  where  Ambrose  also  laid  the  remains  of  his 
brother  Satyrus;  see  the  epitaph,  probably  written  by 
Ambrose  himself:  Uranio  Satyro  supremum  fecit  hono- 
rem,  \  martyris  ad  laeiiam  detiilit  Ambrosius;  and  the 
Panegyric  of  Satyrus,  ascribed  by  Biraghi  to  the  Vlth 
century  [Ambrosius  Satyri  corpus^  lacrimariim  riimlis 
irroratum  ad  laeuain  martyris  Victoris  propriis  manibus 
sepeliuit. 

The  thoughts  of  the  hymn  and  the  words  in  which 
they  are  expressed  constantly  recur  in  Ambrose's  un- 
doubted prose  works. 

The  negative  witness  of  Ennodius  is  of  great  weight. 
He  expressly  says  that  he  owed  his  recovery  from  a 
dangerous  illness  to  Victor,  to  whom  he  purposes  to  pay 
special  honour  {ingeiiioli  sui  adipem  litare).  Yet  he 
wrote  no  hymn  for  his  festival,  evidently  because  his 
master  Ambrose  had  already  composed  one. 

The  wording  of  stanza  V  shews  that  the  three  martyrs 
had  served  in  the  imperial  army  at  Milan.  According 
to  the  martyrologies,  they  were  martyred  at  Lodi  on 
May  8th,  A.D,  304,  or  according  to  the  Hieronymian 
martyrology,  Victor  on  the  8th  and  the  others  on  the 
1 2th,  and  their  bodies  were  carried  back  to  Milan  on 
May  14th.    Nothing  more  is  certainly  known  of  them. 

Victor  and  Felix  were  especially  common  names  in 
Africa;  and  a  Numidian  bishop  Nabor  attended  the 
Donatist  council  of  Cirta  A.D.  305. 

Ambrose  evidently  has  in  mind  an  epigram  of  Da- 
masus  {Epigr.  XLVI.  ed,  Ihm),  which  he  may  recently 
have  seen.    The  first  four  lines  of  this  run: 

hicola  nunc  Christi,  fuerat  Carthaginis  ante, 
tempore  quo  gladius  secuit  pia  uiscera  matris, 

6-1 


84 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


sanguine  mutauit  patriam,  nomenque  gemisque ; 
Romanum  ciiieni  sanctorum  fecit  origo. 
(Cp.  also  Epigr.  VIII.  5  ducis  iittpia  castra  relinqimnt.) 


Abcdeghik  Vap 

Victor,  Nabor,  Felix,  pii 
Mediolani  martyres, 
solo  hospites,  Mauri  genus, 
terrisque  nostris  aduenae. 

torrens  harena  quos  dedit, 
anhela  solis  aestubus, 
extrema  terrae  finium, 
exsulque  nostri  nominis. 


1 .  pii  qualifies  martyres ;  the 
predicate  probably  begins  at  this 
point. 

2.  Mediolani]  'of  (not  'at') 
Milan' ;  as  to  this  see  introd.  The 
usual  scanning  is  Mediolattum  (or 
-turn).  All  poets  take  licence  in  the 
pronunciation  of  proper  names, 
which  otherwise  would  often  be 
excluded  from  verse. 

3.  BOlo  hospites]  'strangers'  or 
'guests  to  the  soil.'  So  in  Ps. 
cxviii.  XX.  44  (Sebastian,  who  was 
brought  to  Rome  and  there  put  to 
death)  illic,  quo  hospes  aduenit, 
domic ilitun  inimortalitatis  perpetuae 
collocatiit. 

Mauri  genus]  *  Moors  by  race,' 
cp.  Verg.  Aen.  v.  285  Cressa  genus 
Pholoe.  Elsewhere  Ambr.  appears 
always  to  use  the  abl.,  which  was 
much  commoner  in  prose  until  quite 
late  times;  as  Epist.  xxiv.  8  trans- 
rhenanus  genere. 

5.  harena]  '  the  scorching  desert,' 
viz.  Mauretania.  Several  touches  in 
this  hymn  suggest  that  Ambr.  has 
in  his  mind  Hor.  Od.  i.  xxii. 

dedit]  '  produced  '  as  at  Hor.  Od. 
Jii.  vi.  47,  or  perhaps  strictly  'has 
given  us.' 


6.  anhela]  'panting,'  strictly  of 
the  inhabitants,  by  an  easy  transi- 
tion applied  to  the  land.  The  line  is 
imitated  by  Ennodius  Hymn.  I.  3 
anhela  lucis  aestibus. 

7 f.  'at  earth's  outermost  border 
(lit.  outermost  of  the  borders  of  the 
earth)  and  that  shares  not  our  name.' 
At  the  edge  of  the  earth  ran  the 
surrounding  ocean,  beyond  which 
there  was  no  more  land.  '  Our 
name '  is  the  Latin  name :  the  mar- 
tyrs were  not  Roman  citizens ;  cp. 
Hor.  Od.  IV.  xiv.  7  (the  Vindelici) 
legis  expertes  Laiinae,  and  the  fre- 
quent use  oi  nomen  as  in  Od.  III.  v. 
10,  IV.  XV.  13. 

ezsul...  nominis]  Ambr.  often 
uses  a  gen.  after  exsul;  e.g.  in 
Luc.  IV.  66  paradisi  exsules ;  cp.  in 
Luc.  V.  108  regni  caeleslis  extorres. 
At  62  b.  13,  73.  10  it  takes  an 
abl. 

Magistretti  {Mon.  tut.  lit.  Ambr.) 
points  extrema  terrae,  finium  ex- 
sulque n.  n.,  i.e.  'at  the  edge  of 
earth,  having  no  share  in  our 
territories  and  our  name.'  But  the 
supplying  oi  nostrorum  \f'\\.h fimu?/i 
is  harsh,  and  the  construction  of  the 
words  unnatural. 


HYMN  XL  AMBROSE 


85 


suscepit  hospites  Padus 
mercede  magna  sanguinis : 
sancto  repleuit  Spiritu 
almae  fides  ecclesiae ; 

et  se  coronauit  trium 
cruore  sacro  martyrum, 
castrisque  raptos  impiis 
Christo  sacrauit  niilites. 

profecit  ad  fidem  labor, 
armisque  docti  bellicis 
pro  rege  uitam  ponere, 
decere  pro  Christo  pati, 

non  tela  quaerunt  ferrea, 
non  arma  Christi  milites. 


10 


15 


20 


9.  Padns  here  means  its  basin, 
for  neither  Mihin  nor  Lodi  is  actu- 
ally on  that  river. 

10.  mercede  ...  sanguinis]  The 
price  they  (ultimately)  paid  for  their 
new  citizenship  was  their  blood. 
Ambr.  uses  the  phrase  de  Jacob  i.  22 
sanguinis  sui  niercedetn  ;  de  Off.  III. 
19  vtercedein  sanguinis;  cp.  Dama- 
sus  XLVi.  3  (quoted  in  the  intro- 
duction) sanguine  tnutauit  patriain 
nomenque  genusque ;  ib.  LII.  2 
sanguine  niutasti  patriani ;  Priid. 
Perist.  V.  3  quo  sanguinis  uierces 
iibi  I  corona  Vincent i  da/iir. 

1 1.  Cp.  Epist.  I.X.WI.  1 1  replctos 
Spiritu  sancto;  4.  15.  This  line 
seems  to  imply  that  they  were  con- 
verted to  Christianity  in  north  Italy. 

12.  fides  ecclesiae  is  a  phrase 
often  used  by  Ambr. ;  e.g.  de  Abr. 
I.  87,  ib.  II.  74  ;  cp.  14.  4.  This 
faith  led  them  to  the  gift  of  the 
Spirit. 

13.  The  subject  of  coronauit  is 
fides  m.  12.   Note  the  alliteration  in 

this  stanza. 

15.  Cp.  Damasus  viii.  5  ducis 
inipia  castra  relinquunt.  For  the 
simple  abl.  castris  of  the  place 
from    which    they    were    torn     cp. 


the  use  of  caelo  12.  9,  and  Fort.  IV. 
xxiv.  10  hoc  rapuit  mundo.  It  may 
however  be  dat.  like  Hor.  Od.  I.  ix. 
pignus  dereptum  lacertis. 

16.  The  immediate  reference 
seems  to  be  to  their  conversion,  not 
without  thought  of  their  martyrdom. 

sacrauit]  Cp.  14.  4. 

1 7  f.  Their  previous  discipline 
told,  now  that  they  were  the  sol- 
diers of  Christ. 

i8f.  'Having  learnt  by  military 
service  to  lay  down  life  .for  a  king, 
that  it  is  comely  to  suffer  for  Christ.' 
Taken  thus  the  two  clauses  are 
parallel.  But  in  the  former  the  rex 
is  abstract,  including  both  the  Em- 
peror and  Christ.  Devotion  to  the 
earthly  sovereign  prepared  them  for 
devotion  to  a  higher. 

21.  Cp.  2  Cor.  ix.  4.  The  arms 
that  a  Christian  needs  are  spiritual, 
cp.  Ambr.  in  Ps.  XLIII.  9  non  ergo 
pugnauit  rnilitaribus  armis  et  ferreis 
telis  populus  ecclesiae  ;  de  Off'.  I.  201 
isti  [martyres]  sine  armis  uicerunt ; 
Ennod.  Hymn.  I.  6  qui  bella  Christi 
militat  \  ntidus  tiinetur  ensibus. 

22.  Christi  niilites  is  a  favourite 
expression  of  Ambr.,  based  on 
2    Tim.    ii.    3 ;    cp.    e.g.    in    Ps. 


86 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


munitus  armis  arnbulat, 
ueram  fidem  qui  possidet. 

scutum  uiro  sua  est  fides  25 

et  mors  triumphus,  quem  inuidens 
nobis  tyrannus  ad  oppidum 
I^audense  misit  martyres. 

sed  reddiderunt  hostias 

rapti  quadrigis  corpora,  30 

reuecti  in  ora  principum 

plaustri  triumphalis  modo. 


25  uero  Abde  Va. 

xxxviii.  35,  Epist.  xxn.  10  non 
saecuii  viilites  sed  milites  Christi. 

23.  Cp.  de  Helta  16  munitus  ar- 
mis ieiunii;  in  Ps.  cxviii.  i.  n 
munitus  es  spiritalibus  turmis. 

arnbulat  tlius  used  is  based  on 
such  Bible  passages  as  Ps.  cxviii. 
(cxix.)  I  etc.  and  is  often  found  in 
Ambr.  as  ?«  Ps.  i.  24,  in  Ps.  cxviii, 
i.  8. 

25.  Eph.  V.  16  sumentes  scutum 
fidei.   See  among  many  like  passages 

Ambr.  Hex.  V.  3r  armis  fidei  semper 
et  sen  to  deuotioiiis  accinctus  ;  in  Ps. 

XXXVI.  24,  XLV.  22. 

26.  mors  tiiumplius]  a  truly 
Ambrosian  , combination  ;  cp.  de 
Fid.  Pes.  11-45  (^'i^  martyrs)  uiee- 
rttnt  morttii,  and  the  note  on  4.  17. 
So  at  13.  20  '  Peter  suffered  death ' 
is  represented  by  the  triumphal 
mortem  subegit  aspcram.  So  Dama- 
sus  XII.  4  expresses  'who  suffer 
martyrdom  '  by  portant  qui  ex  hoste 
tropaea. 

27.  t3rrannus]  Anulinus,  accord- 
ing to  the  worthless 'Acts.'  TheGreek 
rdpavvos  was  an  absolute  despot,  the 
word  referring  rather  to  the  way  in 
which  the  power  was  obtained  than 
to  the  way  in  which  it  was  exercised ; 
but  it  soon  came  to  have  the  bad 
meaning  implied  in  our  'tyrant.' 
Ambr.  uses  it  of  those  in  power  and 
especially  of  persecutors;  cp.de  Off. 


30  raptis  Ab'deg. 

I.  206  cum  [Laurentius]  inluso  ty- 
rauno,  impositus  super  craticulam 
exureretur ;  and  in  the  plural  in 
Ps.  CXVIII.  xiv.  35  ;  ib.  xx.  46. 

oppidum  Laudense]  Laus  Pom- 
peia,  21  miles  S.S.E.  of  Milan, 
close  to  the  modern  Lodi. 

30.  corpora  is  probably  the  ace. 
after  the  passive  rapti,  used  almost 
like  a  Greek  middle,  a  very  common 
usage  in  Verg.  e.g.  Aen.  11.  57 
manus  reuinctum,  'having  his  arms 
bound ' ;  cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  v.  57 
pulli...caecitate  suffossi  oculos  with 
Aen.  I.  228  lacrimis  oculos  suffusa, 
'  having  her  eyes  suffused  with  tears. ' 
Or  corpora  may  be  in  apposition 
with  hostias,  hostias  being  like  an 
adj.  or  predicate  to  corpora;  ov  cor- 
pora may  be  in  apposition  with  rapti, 
according  to  the  sense  and  not  to  the 
strict  grammar.  For  hostias  cp.  12.  5. 

31.  principum]  i.e.  the  perse- 
cutors, whom  Ambr.  calls  principes 
mundi  in  Ps.  I.  37,  principes  saecuii 
in  Luc.  II.  3.  The  rapti  refers  to 
the  story  that  the  pious  Sabina  of 
Lodi  got  hold  of  the  bodies  and 
carried  them  back  to  Milan,  at  that 
time  the  capital  city  and  imperial 
residence. 

32.  plaustri]  the  triumphal  car. 
The  bringing  of  the  martyrs'  bodies 
reminds  Ambr.  of-  the  triumphal 
procession. 


HYMN  XII.  AMBROSE  87 

Hymn  12 

This  hymn,  like  11,  is  given  to  Ambrose  only  on  internal 
evidence,  but  here  again  this  is  overwhelming.  Clearly  the 
hymn  and  Epist.  XXII,  a  letter  written  by  Ambrose  to 
his  sister  Marcellina  at  the  time  of  the  discovery  of  the 
martyrs'  relics,  were  written  by  one  and  the  same  man. 
The  most  important  parallels  are  pointed  out  in  the 
notes. 

And  in  the  hymn  itself  no  one  but  Ambrose  could  have 
used  the  first  person  :  '/sing,  /  the  discoverer'  (stanza  l); 
'■we  cannot  be^  martyrs,  but  ii)e  discover  martyrs'  (stanza 
III);  'e£^^  have  seen' (stanza  VIII).  Who  else  could  have 
claimed  to  be  a  contemporary  and  an  eyewitness : '  Severus 
/j  the  man's  name' (stanza  v)? 

Augustine  was  then  teaching  rhetoric  at  Milan  and  he 
tells  the  story  thus  {Serm.  CCI.XXXVI.  4):  celebramus  ho- 
dierno  die,fratres,  niemoriani  in  hoc  loco  positam  sanctorum 
Protasii  et  Geruasii,  Mediolancnsiuni  martyrum.  non  eum 
diem  quo  hie  posita  est,  sed  eum  diem  celebramus,  quando 
inuenta  est  pretiosa  in  conspectu  Domini  mors  sanctorum 
eius  per  Ambrosium  episcopum,  homincm  Dei,  cuius  tunc 
sanctae  gloriae  martyrum.  etiam  ego  testis  fui.  ibi  eram, 
Mediolani  eram,  facta  miracula  noui,  adtestante  Deo  pre- 
tiosis  mortibus  sanctorum  suorum  ;  ut  per  ilia  miracula 
iam  non  solum  ifi  conspectu  Domini,  sed  etiam  in  conspectu 
hominum  esset  mors  ilia  pretiosa.  Caecus  notissimus  uni- 
2iersae  ciuitati  inluminatus  est.  cucnrrit,  adduci  se  fecit, 
sine  duce  reuersus  est.  nondum  audiuimus  quod  obierit ; 
forte  adhuc  uiuit.  in  ipsa  eorum  basilica,  ubi  sunt  eorum 
corpora,  totam  uitam  seruiturum  se  esse  deuouit.  nos  ilium 
gauisi  sumus  uidoitem,  reliquimus  seruientem. 

Compare  also  his  account  in  Cotif.  IX.  vii.  16. 

Gibbon  in  ch.  XXVII  gives  a  clear  if  prejudiced  account 


88.  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

of  the  circumstances  under  which  this  hymn  was  written. 
*  While  he  [Ambrose]  maintained  this  arduous  contest 
[against  Justina],  he  was  instructed  by  a  dream  to  open 
the  earth  in  a  place  where  the  remains  of  two  martyrs, 
Gervasius  and  Protasius,  had  been  deposited  over  three 
hundred  years.  Immediately  under  the  pavement  of  the 
church  two  perfect  skeletons  were  found,  with  the  heads 
separated  from  their  bodies  and  a  plentiful  effusion  of 
blood.  The  holy  relics  were  presented  in  solemn  pomp 
to  the  veneration  of  the  people ;  and  every  circumstance 
of  this  fortunate  discovery  was  admirably  adapted  to  pro- 
mote the  designs  of  Ambrose.  The  bones  of  the  martyrs, 
their  blood,  their  garments  were  supposed  to  contain  a 
healing  power;  and  their  preternatural  influence  was  com- 
municated to  the  most  distant  objects  without  losing  any 
part  of  its  original  virtue.  The  extraordinary  cure  of  a 
blind  man  and  the  reluctant  confessions  of  several  de- 
moniacs appeared  to  justify  the  faith  and  sanctity  of 
Ambrose.  And  the  truth  of  these  miracles  is  attested 
by  Ambrose  himself,  by  his  secretary  Paulinus,  and  by 
his  proselyte  the  celebrated  Augustine,  who  at  that  time 
professed  the  art  of  rhetoric  in  Milan.... Their  effect... on 
the  minds  of  the  people  was  rapid  and  irresistible.' 

Gibbon's  tone  of  incredulity  is  not  surprising.  But  no 
one  can  read  the  letter  to  Marcellina  and  connect  Ambrose 
with  any  fraud  however  pious. 

Mone,  using  only  XVth  century  MSS,  came  to  the  ex- 
traordinary conclusion  that  the  hymn  was  written  by  a 
humanist  of  the  XVth  century;  who  in  style,  prosody 
and  treatment  of  the  subject,  copied  the  old  writers.  But, 
apart  from  the  fact  that  it  is  contained  in  early  MSS,  the 
style  is  that  of  Ambrose  and  of  no  one  else,  incisive  and 
terse.  If  the  hymn  is  rather  more  rhetorical  in  colouring 
than  others  of  his,  this  may  well  be  put  down  to  the 


HYMN  XII.   AMBROSE 


89 


nature  of  its  subject  and  the  circumstances  under  which 
it  was  written. 

The  finding  of  the  martyrs'  bodies  was  celebrated  on 
June  19. 


Abcdeghk  Fs  le  Mx  Vaps 

Grates  tibi,  lesu,  nouas 
noui  repcrtor  muneris 
Protasio  Geruasio 
martyribus  inuentis  cano. 

piae  latebant  hostiae, 
sed  non  latebat  fens  sacer : 
latere  sanguis  non  potest, 
qui  clamat  ad  Deum  patrem. 

caelo  refulgens  gratia 
artus  reuelauit  sacros : 

3  et  G.  Vs. 


I  f.  Cf.  Ambr.  Epist.  xxii.  10 
gratias  tibi,  Domine  lesu,  qttod  hoc 
tempore  tales  nobis  sanctorum  mar- 
tynim  spiritus  excitasti;  ib.  i  scias 
eliam  sanctos  martyres  a  nobis  re- 
pert  os ;  ib.  3  cum...considerarem... 
munera  qtuie  itt  Sanctis  martyribus 
re/ulserunt,  imparem  me,  fateor, 
hiiic  inuneri  iudicabam. 

2.  repertor  might  be  in  apposi- 
tion with  lesu;  '  tlie  real  gianter' 
or  '  discoverer  of  a  new  kind  of  gift 
to  give.'  Christian  writers  freely 
used  repertor  in  the  sense  of 
'cieator,'  imitating  Verg.  Aen.  Xii. 
829;  cp.  e.g.  Juvenc.  i.  35,  ir.  405, 
IV.  479;  [Uamas.]  Lxviii.  11, 
LXix.  2.  But  in  view  of  12  it  .seems 
better  to  make  it  nominative. 

4.  inuentis]  Cp.  Epist.  xxii.  1 1 
inuenimus  unuin  hoc,  quo  uidea- 
mur  praestare  maioribus.  See  the 
epigram  of  Damasiis  on  finding  the 
relics  of  the  martyr  Eutychius 
(x.wii.  9  f. )  nocte  sopor  if  era  turhant 
insomnia  tnentem,  I  osteiuiit  latebra 


ittsontis  quae  membra  teneret;  \  quae- 
ritur,  intientus  colitur. 

5.  hostiae]  Cp.  Epist.  xxii.  13 
succedant  uictimae  triumphales  in 
locum,  ubi  Christus  hostia  est.  11. 29. 

6.  tons  sacer  is  explained  by  the 
next  line  and  by  Epist.  XXII.  2  ossa 
omnia  Integra,  sanguinis  plurimum ; 
ib.  12  sanguine  tumulus  model,  ad- 
p'arent  cruoris  triumphalis  notae. 

8.  ib.  13  sed  non  ego  ad  stiff ra- 
gium  martyrum  usurpo  uocem  dae- 
monum mclior  uox  est  quam  san- 
guis emittit.  habet  enim  sanguis 
uocem  canoram,  quae  de  terris  ad 
caelum  peruenit,  dicente  Deo:  san- 
guis fratris  tui  clamat  ad  me.  et  hie 
saui^'uis  clamat  colon's  indicio,  san- 
guis clamat  operationis  praeconio, 
sanguis  clamat  passionis  triumpho. 
Ambr.  often  refers  thus  to  Gen.  iv. 
10,  as  at  in  Ps.  cxviii.  xix,  44,  in 
Luc.  I.  41,  de  lob  32,  de  Off.  i.  201, 
Epist.  II.  10.  Cp.  also  Job  xvi.  19, 
Is.  xxvi.  21. 

y.  caelo  refulgens] '  shining  from 


90 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


nequimus  esse  martyres, 
sed  repperimus  martyres. 

hie  quis  requirat  testium 
uoces,  ubi  factum  est  fides  ? 
sanatus  inpos  mentium 
opus  fatetur  martyrum. 

caecus  recepto  lumine 
mortis  sacrae  meritum  probat : 
Seuerus  est  nomen  uiro, 
usus  minister  publici. 

1 2  reperimus  Abdgh  Vap.  1 4  fide  Ab^g  le  Vap. 


15 


heaven.'  It  was  a  dream  which  led 
to  the  discovery.  For  the  abl.  cp. 
castris  raptos  H.  5.  But  perhaps 
caelo  may  mean  in  the  martyrs 
themselves;  cp.  Epist.  xxil.  5  cae- 
lum erat  Pauhis  etc. 

11.  Cp.  ib.  ii  quia  ipse  martyr 
esse  non  mereor,  hos  nobis  martyres 
adquisitii.  For  Ambr.'s  yearning  for 
the  honour  of  martyrdom  see  in  Ps. 
ex VII I.  xxi.  9  utinam  ego  talis  [sc. 
martyr\  esse  merear. 

12.  repperimus]  present.  This 
spelling  is  found  in  the  best  Mss 
also  of  Ambr.  passim,  Nicet.  <ie 
Psalm.  Bon.  3,  Sedul.  Carm,  v.  142, 
Fort.  VII.  xxrt,  4;  and  Lofstedt  on 
Aetheria  p.  235  gives  several  other 
examples.  We  must  remember  that 
the  prefix  re-  stands  for  red-,  which 
fact  accounts  for  the  similar  forms 
rel-latus  (Ter.  Phorm.  21),  rel-li- 
quiae,  redduco,  renmio  (98.  9)  be- 
sides red-eo,  red-do  ;  cp.  Munro  on 
Lucr.  I.  228,  II.  looi  ;  Brix  on 
Plant.  Capt.  gif)reclusit. 

13.  For  the  question  cp.  8.  27 
(note). 

14.  fides]  'the  proof;  cp.  Hex. 
II.  1  fidem  eins  disputationis,  I  v.  15 
ridiculttm...hinc /idem suae  disputa- 
tionis arcessere. 

15.  Several  persons  needing  ex- 
orcism were  healed,  as  we  know 
from    Epist.    xxii..  9    cognotiistis. 


imtno  uidistis  ipsi  multos  a  dae- 
moniis  purgatos,  from  Paulinus'  Life 
of  Ambr.  14  obsessa  etiam  corpora  a 
spiritibus  inmundis  curata,  and 
from  25  f.  below,  inpos  therefore 
stands  rhetorically  for  inpotes;  cp. 
8.  15  note. 

mentiiim  seems  to  be  used  in  the 
plural  partly  for  the  sake  of  the 
rhyme,  which  Ambr.  occasionally 
affects,  for  he  generally  uses  the 
singular  of  mens,  as  at  2.  30,  3.  17, 
28,  4.  3  etc. 

16.  fatetur]  'declares.'  Cp. 
Damas.  Llll.  i  quid  loquar  aut 
sileam  ?  prohibet  dolor  ipse  faleri. 

17.  A  second  miracle  was  the 
recovery  of  sight  by  a  blind  man, 
which  Ambr.'s  Arian  opponents 
denied  ;  Epist.  XXll.  17  negant 
caecum  inluminatum,  sed  ille  non 
7iegat  se  snitatum. 

18.  mortis  sacrae]  Cp.  in  Ps. 
CXVIII.  XX.  10  (of  a  martyr)  taeti- 
antis  animi  quod  diutius  aifferaiur 
sacrae  mortis  corona,  15.  11,  18.  7. 

meritum]  'virtue,'  'power';  cp. 
Epist.  XXII.  19  martyribus,  quortim 
merita  iam  dudu?n  uigent. 

19.  Cp.  ib.  17  notus  homo  est, 
ptiblicis  cum  ualeret  fnancipatus  ob- 
sequiis,  Seuerus  nomine,  lanius 
minister io.  deposuerat  officium ,  post- 
quam  inciderat  impedimentum.  So 
Paulinus    {Vit.     Ambr.     14)    caecus 


HYMN  XII.   AMBROSE 


91 


ut  martyr um  uestem  attigit 
et  ora  tersit  nubila, 
lumen  refulsit  ilico 
fugitque  pulsa  caecitas. 

soluta  turba  uinculis, 
spiris  draconum  libera, 
emissa  totis  urbibus 
domum  redit  cum  gratia. 

uetusta  saecla  uidimus, 
iactata  semicinctia, 

24  fuit  Ab.         26  spumis  Vs.     draconis  Vs.         27  et  missa  Ab. 


30  ■ 


etiam,  Seuerus  nomine,  qui  nutu 
usqice  in  eadem  basilica,  quae  dicitur 
Ambrosiana,  in  quant  niartyruni 
corpora  sunt  translata,  religiose 
seruit. 

20.  'an  officer  of  the  public 
service  ' ;  cp.  Dill  Roman  Society 
p.  232  :  '  Of  all  departments  of  ad- 
ministration, probably  none  caused 
the  Emperor  greater  anxiety  than 
that  concerned  with  the  food-sup- 
plies of  the  capital An   army  of 

public  servants  incorporated  in  here- 
ditary guilds... were  charged  with 
the  duty  of  bringing  up  supplies 
and  preparing  them  for  consump- 
tion.' 

21  f.  Epist.  xxn.  17  claniat  quia, 
ut  contigit  fimbriam  cU  ueste  mar- 
ly rum,  qua  sacrae  reliquiae  iiesti- 
untur,  redditum  sihi  lumen  sit. 

23.  Cp.  in  Ps.  XXXVI.  30  [Deus] 
tetigit  caecorum  oculos  et  caecitate 
depuha  lumen  refulsit  oculorum ; 
cp.  Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  ii.  40  (of 
Martin's  restoring  sight  to  a  blind 
eye)  serena  dies  deter sa  nube  re- 
fulsit. 

25.  uinculis]  the  plagues  spiritual 
and  bodily  from  which  they  were 
released. 

26.  draconum]  i.e.  of  evil  spirits ; 
cp.  in  Luc.  IV.  61  quis  est  ille,  qui 
in  synagoga  spiriium  dacmonii  habe- 
bat  inmundum  nisi  populus  ludae- 


orum,  qui  quasi  serpentinis  spiris 
reuincttis... ;  de  Laps.  Virg.  18  qtii- 
bus  te  spiris  serpens  ille  nequissimus 
obligauit !  The  devil  is  draco  at 
Rev.  xii.  16  f.,  and  often  in  Ambr. 

27.  Xo\\&\=  omnibus,  like  the 
Italian  tutti  and  the  French  tous. 
This  use  was  at  first  confined  to 
expressions  of  time,  beginning  with 
Plaut.  Miles  112  quoi  bini  custodes 
semper  totis  horis  occubant,  and  to 
military  language,  as  Caes.  Bell. 
Civ.  III.  xliv.  6  totis  copiis.  The 
poets  Verg.,  Propert.,  Juv.,  Stat, 
used  toti  more  freely,  but  we  do 
not  find  the  u.se  in  prose  writers 
before  Seneca.  After  his  time  it  is 
common,  especially  in  Gallic  Latin 
and  in  jurists.  Prud.  has  Perist.  iv. 
7 1  Christ  us  in  totis  habitat  plateis, 
and  even  uses  totus  in  the  singular ; 
thus  Psychom.  217  latum  hominem, 
' every  man, '  450  totus  miles.  Ambr. 
de  Nab.  117  has  totis  diebus;  cp. 
Schmalz  628,  Rcinsch  338. 

28.  gratia]  '  thankfulness ' ;  cp. 
Paulin.  I.e.  14  obsessa  etiam  corpora 
a  spiritibus  inntundiscurata,  summa 
cum  gratia  domum  repetebant. 

29.  '  We  have  seen  the  ages  of 
old,'  i.e.  miracles  and  enthusiasm 
like  those  of  the  earliest  church  ; 
cp.  Epist.  xxn.  9  re  par  at  a  uctusti 
temporis  miracula.  The  reference  .is 
to  Acts  v.  15  and  xix.  12. 


92  EARLY  LA  TLN  H YMNS 

tactuque  et  umbra  corporum  31 

aegris  salutem  redditam. 

31.   umbra]    Cp.  Epist.  xxii.  9  St  Peter;  c^.  Hex.  iii.  71;  in  Ps. 

\tiidistis\plurimos  etiam^ubi  uestem  XL.   30;  in  Ps.  cxviii.  xix.  5;  de 

sanctorum  manibtis  contigerunt,  eis  Off.Wl.  3  transibant  apostoli  et  um- 

quibus  laborabatit  debilitatibtis  abso-  bra  eorum  cufabat  infirmos.    tatige- 

lutos,...uf?ibra    quadam    sanctortun  ban  fur  uesti>iienta  eorum  et  sanitas 

corporum  plerosqiie  sanatos  cernitis.  deferebatur.  Paulinus  Vit.  Ambr.  48 

quanta  oraria  icutitabantur  !  quanta  tells  us  that  at  the  funeral  of  Ambr. 

indumenta  super  reliquias  sacratis-  himself  iactabant . . .turbcu   uirotum 

simas  et  tactu  ipso  medicabilia  re-  ac  vndierum  oraria  uel  semicinctia 

posctmtur!   More  than  once  Ambr.  sua,   ut  corpus  sancti  aliquatenus 

refers  to  this  passage  in  the  life  of  ab  ipsis  contingeretur. 


Hymn  13 

This  hymn  is  not  ascribed  to  Ambrose  by  any  early 
writer,  but  it  is  certainly  his.  It  is  contained  in  the  series 
of  the  Ambrosian  MSS  and  is  replete  with  Ambrose's 
words  and  phrases.  Thus,  to  give  one  example,  in  line  7 
praesul  is  used  as  an  appellation  of  God,  as  Ambrose 
almost  always  uses  it.  See  de  Isaac  1 1  ciii praesttl  Domi- 
nus  adest ;  ib.  18  stimmum  Deum  praesidem  poscat  \  ib.  65 
cui  Pater  Dens  praesul  sit]  and  many  like  passages. 
Other  writers,  especially  later  ones,  generally  use  the 
word  to  denote  the  leaders  of  the  church;  cp.  123.  2. 

Besides  the  many  other  coincidences  of  thought  and 
expression  which  are  pointed  out  in  the  notes,  one  brought 
forward  by  Steier  (p.  614)  is  of  a  subtle  and  convincing 
character.  In  line  19  f  we  read  sed  nolens  mortem  siibegit 
asperam.  What  is  the  special  force  here  of  z/^/^^j- ?  This 
is  shewn  by  a  passage  from  Ambrose's  sermon  against 
Auxentius  1 3  [Peter]  quamuis  esset  cupidus  passio7iis,  ta- 
men  contemplatione  populi  precantis  inflexus  est.  rogabatnr 
enim  ut  ad  instituendum  et  confirmandum  popttlum  se  re- 
seruaret.  quid  mnlta  f  node  muris  egredi  coepit,  et  uidens 
in  porta  Christum  occurrere  urbemque  ingredi  ait :  Domine, 
quo  uadis  ?   respondit  Ckristus :    uenio  iterum  crucijigi. 


HYMN  X III.  AMBROSE  93 

intellexit  Petrus  ad  suam  crucem  pertinere  responsum... 
intellexit  ergo  Petrus  quod  iterum  crucifigendus  esset  in 
seruulo.  itaque  sponte  renieauit.  These  last  words  of  the 
sermon  spotiie  remeauit  answer  to  uolens...asperam  of  the 
hymn.  It  is  noteworthy  that  this  appearance  to  Peter  is 
not  related  by  any  earlier  author  than  Ambrose. 

Apart  from  these  indications  of  Ambrose's  workman- 
ship Biraghi  and  Dreves  bring  forward  another  proof  of 
the  great  antiquity  of  the  hymn.  Cp.  Benson  Cyprian 
p.  484  f  In  stanza  VII  three  lines  of  procession  are 
mentioned,  whereas  Prudentius  at  his  visit  to  Rome  c.  403 
already  knew  of  only  t%vo\  cp.  Perist.  Xll.  57  f 

adspice  per  bifidas  plebs  Romula  funditiir  plateas, 

lux  in  duobus  feruet  una  festis. 
nos  ad  utrumque  tamen  gressu  properemus  incitato, 

et  his  et  illis  perfruamur  hymnis, 
ibimus  ulterius,  quafert  uia  pontis  Hadriani 
•       laeuam  deinde  Jluminis  petemus. 

transtiberina  prius  soluit  sacra  peruigil  sacerdos, 

mox  hue  recurrit  duplicatque  uota. 

The  two  places  of  celebration  were  the  grave  of  St  Peter 
on  the  Vatican  and  that  of  St  Paul  outside  the  walls. 
The  two  roads  would  be  the  uia  Aurelia  and  the  ida 
Ostiensis.  The  third  sacred  spot,  disused  in  403,  would 
probably  be  the  catacomb  of  Callistus,  the  third  road  being 
the  uia  Appia.  It  is  likely  enough,  as  Dreves  suggests 
{Aurelius  Ambrosius  76),  that  it  was  on  the  omission  of 
the  celebration  in  the  catacomb  that  the  inscription  was 
set  there  by  Damasus  {Epigr.  XXVI.)  which  begins :  Hie 
habitasse  prius  sanctos  cognoscere  debes,  \  nomina  quisque 
Petri  pariter  Paulique  requiris. 


94 


EARLY  LA  TLN  HYMNS 


Aabcdfgh  E^  Fl  Gm  Habcdfi/3  ladeno  Maehkx  Vacps 

Apostolorum  passio 
diem  sacrauit  saeculi, 
Petri  triumphum  nobilem, 
Pauli  coronam  praeferens. 

coniunxit  aequales  uiros 
cruor  triumphalis  necis, 
Deum  secutos  praesulem 
Christi  coronauit  fides. 

primus  Petrus  apostolus, 
nee  Paulus  inpar  gratia; 


lo 


2  saeculis  Vap^.  3  nobilis  Va. 

Abdegh  Vap. 

1.  It  is  to  denote  that  Christ  is 
the  true  day  (cp.  3.  4)  that  saeculi"\% 
added  to  dies  to  denote  a  day  in  the 
usual  sense  of  the  word ;  cp.  Cypr. 
de  Oral.  Dom.  35  Chrishis  dies  est 
uerus,  sole  ac  die  saeculi  recedente. 
Ainbr.  often  uses  the  phrase,  as  in 
Ps.  XXXVI.  32  dies  saeculi  viali 
sunt ;  cp.  Ecclus.  i.  2  dies  saeculi quis 
dinumerauit.  Ambr.  constantly  uses 
saeculi  almost  in  an  adjectival  sense 
though  he  also  says  dies  saecularis 
as  at  in  Luc.  iv.  40. 

3.  triumpliuin]  again  definitely 
used  as  a  description  of  martyrdom ; 
see  4.  17  note. 

4.  Pauli  coronam]  alluding  to 
2  Tim.  iv.  8,  where  the  preceding 
words  shew  that  the  athlete's  wreath 
is  meant,  cp.  7.  24  note.  Among 
many  similar  references  in  Ambr.'s 
prose  writings  see  in  Ps.  xxxvi.  42 
Paulus ..  .coronam  imienit  \  ib.  54 
Paulus... qui  esset  iam  proximus  ad 
coronam  ;  ib.  56  qui  etiam  coronam 
cucepit. 

6.  cruor  triumphalis]  an  Am- 
brosian  expression,  cp.  Epist.  xxii. 
12  cuiparent  cruoris  triumphalis 
notae ;  ib.  1 3  uictimae  triumphales. 
But  as  necis  would  be  a  little  bald 
by  itself,  triumphalis  may  be  geni- 


4  proferens  Hd.         7  praesules 


tive  agreeing  with  it.  In  either  case 
triumphalis  answers  to  triumphum 
in  3,  and  coronauit  to  corormm  in  4, 
for  the  purpose  of  equalizing  the 
two  martyrdoms. 

7.  praesulem]  'leader,'  a  word 
formed  like  consul,  exsul;  see  in- 
troduction. Dirksen  quotes  from 
the  Code  of  Justinian  auctor  et 
praesul  totius  operis. 

8.  Christi... fides]  'their  faith  in 
Christ.' 

9.  Ambr.  in  Ps.  XLlil.  40  Petrus 
ecclesiae  praeponitur  postquam  temp- 
tatus  a  diabolo  est.  ideoque  ante 
signtficat  Dominus  quid  sit  illud, 
quod  postea  eum  pastorem  elegit 
dotninici  gregis.  Ambr.'s  view  of 
Peter's  primacy  is  expressed  de 
Incarn.  32  primatum  confessionis, 
utique  non  honoris  ;  primatutnjidei, 
non  ordinis. 

Petrtls]  see  4.  28. 

10.  nee  qualifies  inpar :  '  and 
Paul  not  unequal.'  See  2  Cor.  xi.  5. 
Cp.  de  Spir.  11.  158  nee  Paulus 
inferior  Petro,  quamuis  ilk  eccle- 
siae fundamentimi,  et  hie  sapiens 
architectus...nec  Paulus,  inquam, 
indignus  apostolorum  collegio,  cum 
primo  quoque  facile  conferendus  et 
nulli  secundus.  nam  qui  se  inparem 


HYMN  XIII.   AMBROSE 


95 


electionis  uas  sacrae, 
Petri  adaequauit  fidem. 

uerso  crucis  uestigio 
Simon  honorem  dans  Deo 
suspensus  ascendit,  dati 
non  inmemor  oraculi. 

praecinctus,  ut  dictum  est,  senex 
et  eleuatus  ab  altero 
quo  noUet  iuit,  sed  uolens 


15 


17  ut  iam  d.  Fl,  iam  ut  d.  Id. 
est  ductus  senex  ab  a.  len  Vc. 
19  quod  Ab'  Gm  la  Vap^    ibat  lad. 

nescit,facit  aequalem.  Reference  to 
1  Cor.  iii.  10  is  also  made  by 
Ennod.  (p.  122  ed.  Hart  el)  uene- 
runt  cum  eo  caelorum  radii... Petrus 
et  Paulus.  qui  enim  in  restaura- 
tionem  aedis  essent  necessarii  nisi 
architectus  et  petra,  nisi  lapis  et 
superaedificans,  nisi  fundamentum 
et  opifex. 

II.  Acts  ix.  15  uas  electionis  est 
niihi.  Ambr.  constantly  uses  this  as 
an  appellation  of  St  Paul,  even 
without  mentioning  his  name,  as  in 
Ps.  XLViii.  7  cum  aptum  organum 
sibi  et  uas  electionis  ijiuenerit.  And 
he  often,  in  his  own  way,  modifies 
it  (as  here  by  adding  sacrae)  thus 
de  Abr.  27  uas  electionis  dominicae  ; 
in  Ps.  CXVUI.  xiv.  24  zias  electionis 
diuinae. 

13.  Nearly  three  stanzas  are  now 
devoted  to  St  Peter. 

uestigio]  '  the  foot '  of  the  cross. 
Elsewhere  Ambr.  applies  the  word 
more  naturally  to  the  Apostle's 
own  feet;  de  lob  i.  2  de  Petro 
quid  loquar?  qui  crucem  suam 
futura  reinufieratione  indignmn  ar- 
bitratus  inuerso  suspendi  poposcit 
uestigio,  ut  aliquid  passioni  suae 
adderet;  in  Ps.  cxviii.  xxi.  21  non 
fuit  opprobrio  Petro  crux  Christ i, 
quae  tanlutn  ei  gloriae  dedit,  ut  in- 
uersis  Christum  honoraret  uestigiis; 


17,  18  iam  ut  (ut  iam  Vc)  dictum 
18  om.  et  E^  Gm  Hdf/S  Id  Mhk  Vs. 


'  Hegesippus '  in.  2  poposcit  ut  in- 
uersis  uestigiis  cruci  adfigeretur. 

14.  honorem  dans  Deo]  a  Bible 
phrase  (Rom.  iv.  20)'  used  by  Ambr. 
to  represent  Joh.  xxi.  19  'he  should 
glorify  God.' 

15.  'not  unmindful  of  the  pro- 
phecy vouchsafed  to  him ' ;  Joh.  xxi. 
18,  2  Pet.  i.  14. 

16.  oraculi]  a  word  especially 
used  by  Ambr.  to  denote  Bible 
utterances,  perhaps  in  imitation  of 
Philo's  use  of  xpj/trytiis,  as  the  Bene- 
dictine editors  suggest :  see  their 
note  on  Ambr.  de  Fuga  19.  But 
Juvencus  l.  237  has  oracula  uatum. 

There  is  no  need  (with  Biraghi) 
to  rewrite  oraculi  non  inmemor. 
The  -or  is  in  Ambr.'s  prosody 
sufficiently  lengthened  by  the  stress 
of  the  metre.    Cp.  v.  30. 

17.  praecinctus]  'girt  up.' 
Flowing  eastern  robes  had  to  be 
girt  up,  especially  in  front  (prae),  to 
give  the  limbs  free  play  ;  cp.  i  Kings 
xviii.  46. 

ut  dictum  est]  sc.  in  that  oracu- 
lum.  Senex  vcfers  \.ocum...senueris. 

18.  eleuatus]  answers  to  the 
words  'and  shall  carry  thee,'  Joh. 
xxi.  18.  Ab  altero  is  joined  to  prae- 
cinctus as  well  as  to  eleuatus. 

19.  nollet]  subjunctive,  because 
in  virtual  oratio  obliqiia  :    '  whither 


96 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


mortem  subegit  asperam.  20 

hinc  Roma  celsum  uerticem 
deuotionis  extulit, 
fundata  tali  sanguine 
et  uate  tanto  nobilis. 

tantae  per  urbis  ambitum  25 

stipata  tendunt  agmina, 
trinis  celebratur  uiis 
festum  sacrorum  martyrum. 

10  subiecit  la.        21  hie  lo  Mh.         24  nobili  Ab'dg  Fl  Hbd^  Id'n  Vs. 


he  would  not,  as  the  Lord  had 
said.' 

See  Antibr.  in  Luc.  X.  177  f. 
Petrus  etsi  paratus  erat  animo 
subire  mariyrmm,  tatiien,  ubi  peri- 
culum  aduenit,  constantiam  mentis 

injlexit Petrus  uidetur  nolle,  sed 

parat  nincere ;  and  for  the  special 
force  of  uolens  see  the  passage  from 
the  Sermon  against  Auxentius  quoted 
in  the  introduction. 

20.   See  11.  26  note. 

21-24  dwell  first  upon  St  Peter, 
and  then  on  St  Paul,  Ambr.  seizing 
the  most  salient  point  in  the  life  of 
either  Apostle :  Peter's  death,  Paul's 
writings.  Hinc,  then,  will  refer  not 
only  to  the  two  preceding  stanzas, 
but  to  the  whole  of  the  foregoing 
verses. 

uerticem... extulit]  Cp.  iti  Ps. 
XLVII.  6  Petro,  Paulo. ..qui  graues 
et  excelsi  uiri  uelut  fundamenta  et 
culmina  sunt  ecclesiae...praecelsi 
quasi  culmina,  qui  uerticem  eius 
turribus  suae  uirtutis  erexerint; 
de  Virg.  50  hi  excelsum . .  .cacumen 
fidei  extulerutit. 

deuotio  is  a  favourite  word  of 
Ambr.,  usually  combined  w'lih  Jides, 
e.g.  Hex.  IV.  7  ecclesia  maius  deuo- 
tionis suae  et  Jidei  toto  orbe  lumen 
effundat ;  ib.  I.  21,  V.  31  and  68. 

23.  Eph.  ii.  20.  Cp.  the  passages 
from  de  Spir.  and  Ennodius  quoted 
on  10,  and  that  from  in  Ps.  XLVii 


quoted  on  21.    Note  that  Rome  is 
now  Christian  Rome. 

24.  uate  tanto]  'such  a  pro- 
phet '  viz.  St  Paul.  For  ttate  cp.  14. 
6.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  Ii.  29  tanti  uatis 
(of  St  John  the  Baptist).  Biraghi 
gives  examples  of  the  use  of  the 
■^oxA  =  sacerdos,  but  that  meaning 
seems  unlikely  here. 

nobilis]  'ennobled,'  as  at  7.  i. 

25.  tantae... urbis]  'the  great 
city,'  here  of  course  Rome :  at 
Epist.  XX.  9  Ambr.  uses  the  same 
words  of  Milan. 

urbis  ambitum]  Cp.  Hex.  vi.  2 
toto  eos  circumdiicit  wbis  ambitu ; 
in  Ps.  cxviii.  xxii.  37  ambitum 
totius  urbis. 

26.  'The  serried  crowds  take 
their  way.'  For  stipata  cp.  Verg. 
Aen.  XI.  12  omnis  eum  stipata  tege- 
bat  I  turba  ducum  ;  Ambr.  Hex.  III. 
30  (of  a  prosperous  man)  stipatus 
clientibus. 

agmina]  as  at  14.  22 ;  cp.  in  Ps. 
LXi.  20  uidet  agmina  per sequentium ; 
Epist.  XXIV.  8  barbarorufn  stipatus 
agminibus. 

27.  trinis... uiis]  See  the  intro- 
duction to  this  hymn. 

29.  '  One  would  think  that  the 
whole  world  was  coming  forth.' 
mundus  in  classical  Latin  meant  the 
universe,  as  Lucr.  1.  "j^Jiammantta 
moenia  mnndi.  But  cp.  Propert.  V. 
vi.    19   hue   mundi  coiere   manus ; 


HYMN  XIV.   AMBROSE 


97 


prodire  quis  mundum  putet, 
concurrere  plebem  poli : 
electa  gentium  caput, 
sedes  magistri  gentium. 
32  sedet  Gm,  sedens  Vs,  fides  H/3  lo  Mk.     magistra  Mk. 


30 


Lucan    vil.    234   sanguine   tnundi 
fuso  (in  both  cases  of  a  single  battle), 
quis... putet]  Cp.  9.  13. 

30.  plebem  poli]  i.  e.  the  angels ; 
cp.  de  Virg.  11.  \i  quanta  angelorum 
laetitia  plaudentiuin,  quod  habitat e 
inereatur  in  caelo  !  For  the  scansion 
cp.  V.  16. 

31.  electa]  'O  elect  lady,'  cp. 
I  Pet.  V.  13,  2  Joh.  I,  13.  Ambr. 
regarded  the  ^/cXe/cr^  Kvpla  as  the 
Roman  church.  It  gives  point  to 
the  appellation  that  it  is  taken  from 
St  Peter's  own  epistle.  Possibly 
electa  caput  are  to  be  taken  together, 
as  2.  15  ipse  petra. 

g^entlum  caput]  '  the  head  of  the 
peoples  of  the  world,'  cp.  Epist. 
XI.  4  totius  orbis  Romani  caput  Ro- 
vianam  ecclesiam ;  Prosper  Aqui- 
tanus  de  Ingratis  51  f.  sedes  Roma 
Petri,  quae  pastoralis  honoris  \  facta 
caput  tnundo,  quidquid  non  possidet 
armis  \  religione  tenet',  Fortunat. 
III.  vii.  19  (of  Peter  and  Paul)  a 
facie  hostili  duo  propugnacula  prae- 
sunt,  I  quos  fidei  turres  urbs,  caput 
orbis,  habet;  id.  Vlil.  iii.  140  hi  quo- 
rum cineres  urbs,  caput  orbis,  habet. 

32.  magistri  gentium]  'the 
teacher  of  the  Gentiles  '  (the  nations 
in  their  religious  aspect),  viz.  St 
Paul.  The  phrase  comes  from  i  Tim. 
ii.  7,  2  Tim.  i.  11.    Biraghi,  Steier, 


and  others,  not  unnaturally,  interpret 
it  to  mean  St  Peter.  In  itself,  it 
might  appropriately  be  applied  to 
him,  and  Ambr.  felt  no  difficulty  in 
speaking  of  Rome  as  the  secies  Petri. 
But  it  had  become  a  special  title  of 
St  Paul, — as  special  as  uas  electio- 
nis, — and  in  a  poem  which  is  as 
much  on  St  Paul  as  on  St  Peter  it 
would  be  impossible  to  apply  it  to 
St  Peter  without  some  qualification. 
It  is  true  that  the  Vulg.  at  i  Tim. 
ii.  7  has  doctor  gentium  ;  but  Saba- 
tier  gives  magister  as  the  reading  of 
the  Vetus  Ital. :  at  2  Tim.  i.  11 
(where  iBvthv  gentium  is  an  addition 
to  the  true  text,  and  borrowed  from 
X  Tim.)  both  versions  have  magister. 
It  is  true  also  that  in  his  prose 
writings  Ambr.  uses  the  word  doctor 
in  referring  to  these  passages :  in 
Ps.  XXXVII.  28  gentium  doctor 
electus.  But  he  must  have  been 
quite  familiar  with  the  equivalent. 
Cp.  Niceta  de  Rat.  Fid.  7  idem 
magister  gentium  docet ;  Leo  Serm. 
in  Nat.  Petri  et  Pauli  LXXX  beatus 
coapostolus  tuns,  uas  electionis  et 
specialis  magister  gentium  ;  Faustus 
Rei.  de  Spir.  S.  1 2  loquitur  magister 
gentium ;  Vincent.  Ler.  Comm.  9 
ille  uas  electionis,  ille  magister  gen- 
tium. Of  course  sedes  is  le.ss  tech- 
nical than  our  'see.' 


Hymn  14 
That  this  hymn  was  written  at  a  very  early  date  is 
proved  by  a  reference  to  it  on  the  part  of  Maximus  of 
Turin  (c.  450)  Horn.  LXXIV  nee  inmerito  enm  \^Lanrentium\ 
apostolorum  supparem  praedicamus.  He  then  goes  on  to 
paraphrase  the  wording  of  the  hymn.  It  is  also  alluded 
to  by  Petrus  Chrysologus  (c.  450)  Serm.  CXXXV  irrisum 


98  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

se  dolens  tyrannus  auarus . . .flammas  parari  praecepit... 
tarn  me  uersate  et  si  una  pars  coda  est  uorate. 

That  the  hymn  was  written  by  Ambrose  is  proved  by 
the  many  parallels  in  points  of  phrase  and  style  with  his 
other  works;  but  more  decisively  by  the  fact  that  the 
passages  in  the  tract  de  Officiis  Ministrorum  which  ^\\& 
a  detailed  account  of  the  martyrdom  of  St  Lawrence 
were  obviously  written  by  the  composer  of  the  hymn.  See 
de  Off.  I.  204  non  praetereamus  etiani  sanctum  Laurefitium, 
qui  cum  uideretXystum  episcopum.  suum  admartyriumduci^ 
flere  coepit,  non  passionem.  eius  sed  suam,  remansionem.... 
205  ttmc  Xystus  ait :  non  ego  te,  fili,  relinquo  ac  desero... 
mox  uenieSy  Jlere  desiste,  post  triduum  me  sequeris . .  .quid 
consortium  passionis  fneae  expetis  ?  totam.  tibi  hereditatem 
eius  dimitto. .  .tibi  ergo  mando  ?tostrae  uirtutis  successioneni. 
ib.  II.  140  tale  aurum  sanctus  Laurentius  Domino  reser- 
uauit,  a  quo  cum  quaererentur  thesauri  ecclesiae,  promisit 
se  demonstraturum.  sequenti  die  pauperes  duxit.  interro- 
gatus  ubi  essent  thesauri,  quos promiserat,  ostendit pauperes, 
dicens :  hi  sunt  tJiesauri  ecclesiae ;  et  uere  thesauri  in  quibus 
Christus  est.  Cp.  ib.  I.  206  hie  Laurentium  sanctum  ad 
hoc  nullus  urgebat,  nisi  amor  deuotionis.  tamen  et  ipse  post 
triduum,  cum  inluso  tyranno  impositus  super  craticulam. 
exureretur:  assum  est,  inquit,  uersa  et  manduca.  Epist. 
XXXVll.  37  quod  ille  uerbis gloriatus  est,  sanctus  Laurentius 
factis  probauit;  ut  uiuus  exureretur  et  Jlammis  superstes 
diceret:  uersa,  manduca. 

So  runs  the  story  as  given  by  Ambrose,  and  also  by 
Prudentius  Perist.  V,  and  by  Augustine  in  Euang.  loh. 
XXVII.  12,  both  of  whom  may  have  derived  it  from  Am- 
brose. The  true  account  of  the  martyrdoms  of  Xystus 
and  Lawrence  seems  to  be  different \ 

'  I  hive  made  large  use  of  Pio  Franchi  de'  Cavalieri's  S.  Lorenzo  e  il 
supplizio  delta  graticola  \a  the  Romisch,  Quartahchrift,  1900,  159  f. 


HYMN  XIV.  AMBROSE  99 

In  A.D.  258  the  emperor  Valerian,  then  on  the  point  of 
starting  for  his  disastrous  expedition  against  the  Persians, 
issued  an  edict  that  all  bishops,  priests  and  deacons  should 
be  summarily  executed.  On  August  6th  of  this  year 
Xystus,  or  Sixtus,  who  had  been  Bishop  of  Rome  for 
about  a  year,  was  seized  by  the  soldiers  in  the  cemetery 
or  catacomb  of  Praetextatus,  whither  he  had  gone  with 
his  faithful  flock  in  spite  of  the  law  of  A.D.  257  that  the 
Christians  were  not  to  assemble  in  the  cemeteries.  Here 
he  was  at  once  beheaded  with  six  of  his  deacons.  Cp. 
Lib.  Pontif.  I.  1 5  5  capite  truncatus  et  cum  eo  alii  sex  diaconiy 
Felicissintus  et  Agapitus,  lanuarius,  Magnus,  Vincentius  et 
Stephanus. 

This  tale,  it  will  be  seen,  differs  widely  from  the  later 
tradition  as  given  below.  Note  that  no  mention  is  made 
of  the  crucifixion  of  Xystus,  a  point  which  Cyprian  (who 
writes  Epist.  LXXX  Xistum  autem  in  cimeterio  animad- 
uerstim  sciatis  Vlll  id.  A  ug.  die  et  cum  eo  diacones  quattuor) 
would  certainly  not  have  omitted.  This  part  of  the  later 
story  may  have  arisen  from  misunderstanding  a  line  of  the 
inscription  which  Damasus  wrote  in  honour  of  Xystus' 
deacons  Felicissimus  and  Agapetus:  Epigram  XXIII  (ed. 
Ihm)  hi  cruets  inuictae  comites  pariterque  minis tri  \  rectoris 
sancti.  It  would  be  eagerly  taken  up,  because  it  would 
supply  a  link  between  the  death  of  Xystus  and  that  of 
Lawrence,  the  only  one  of  his  deacons  who  escaped  the 
slaughter  in  the  cemetery  of  Praetextatus.  For,  if  Xystus 
was  at  once  beheaded,  Lawrence  would  have  had  no 
opportunity  of  speaking  to  him,  whereas  crucifixion  meant 
a  lingering  death. 

In  this  case  the  pathetic  conversation  mentioned  by 
Ambrose  and  others  cannot  have  taken  place.  And  in 
fact  some  of  the  details  of  it  are  in  themselves  most 
unlikely;  for  Lawrence  (as  well  as  Xystus)  must  have 

7— a 


lOO  EARLY  LA TLN  HYMNS 

known  from  the  terms  of  the  edict  that  he  could  not  be 
disappointed  of  martyrdom. 

Then,  to  turn  to  the  death  of  Lawrence,  he  was  not 
roasted  upon  a  craticula  or  gridiron,  of  which  the  earlier 
and  more  trustworthy  story  knows  nothing,  and  which 
was  a  form  of  torture  almost  or  quite  unknown  to  the 
Romans,  at  least  of  the  third  century. 

The  later  tradition  goes  on  to  say  that  this  cruel  form 
of  death  was  inflicted  by  the  judge  in  his  chagrin  at  not 
being  able  to  obtain  the  treasures  of  the  church.  But 
here  again  we  come  across  a  difficulty.  For  after  the  law 
of  A.D.  257  above  mentioned  no  judge  would  have  ex- 
pected any  accumulated  treasure ;  nor  is  there  any  hint 
of  search  after  this  in  the  days  of  the  persecution  by 
Valerian. 

Between  A.D.  258  and  380,  at  about  which  date  Ambrose 
was  writing,  there  was  ample  time  for  the  legend  to  grow. 
Franchi  suggests  that  the  roasting  on  the  gridiron  may 
have  been  brought  in  owing  to  a  misreading  of  the  con- 
temporary account  of  Lawrence's  martyrdom: — the  word 
passus  est  (which  is  used  about  him  in  the  Lib.  Pontiff 
becoming  assus  est  by  the  loss  of  its  initial  letter;  cp.  the 
expression  assiim  est  used  by  Ambr.  de  Off.  I.  206  quoted 
above.  Or  it  may  have  arisen  from  a  misunderstanding 
of  Damasus  Epigr.  XXXII.  i  f  uerbera  carnificis,flammas, 
tormenta,  catenas  \  uincere  Laurenti  sola  fides  potuit;  where 
flammas,  coming  where  it  does  in  the  order  of  the  words, 
cannot  refer  to  Lawrence's  death  but  only  to  a  particular 
form  of  torture  to  which  he  was  subjected. 

Cp.  however  P.  Allard  Dernieres  Persecutions  du  III"'' 
Siecle  pp.  "jZ  foil. 


HYMN  XIV.  AMBROSE 


lOI 


Abcdeghik  Fis  la  Vaps 

Apostolorum  supparem 
Laurentium  archidiaconem 
pari  corona  martyrum 
Romana  sacrauit  fides. 

Xystum  sequens  hie  martyrem 
responsa  uatis  rettulit : 


I  suppar  est  Vs. 
martyris  la,  parit  Vs 
Syxtuni'Systum  Sixtum  varii. 

1.  supparem] 'almost  equal,' one 
of  Ambr.'s  favourite  words;  cp.  in 
Ps.  XXXVII.  54  quoniam  subsecutus 
sum  iustitiam.  quanta  uis  uerbi  in 
unius  syllabae  adiectione,  ut  subse- 
cutum  se  diceret  iustitiam,  non  se- 
cutum  !  propior  est  enim  qui  subse- 
quitur  quam  ille  qui  sequitur,  et 
suppar  quam  impar,  et  successio  he- 
redis  magis  quam  accessio  nuncu- 
patur;  de  Incam.  26  uirginis  enim 
[CAristum]  supparem  negasti  esse 
non  temporis.  ego  autem  et  supparem 
uirginis  secundum  susceptionem  cor- 
poris non  negabo ;  de  Cain  I.  15  ;  de 
Fide  Res.  T15;  Epist.  xv.  5,  xi.  11, 
12. 

2.  archidiaconem]  the  form  used 
by  Jerome  Epist.  cxxv.  15,  CXLVI. 
I,  Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  in.  38,  cp.  iv. 
XV.  3  Bobolenus  honor e  dicuon. 
Ronsch  p.  262  gives  several  ex- 
amples of  diacon.  Bayard  [Cyprian 
p.  56  f.)  says  that  Cyprian  uses 
generally  the  o  form  of  diaconus, 
never  the  nom.  diacon,  which  is 
found  in  Greek  inscriptions  of  the 
Ilird  century;  he  refers  to  Ramsay 
Church  in  the  Roman  Empire  p.  442, 
Lightfoot  Ignatius  I.  501. 

3.  '  With  equal  wreath  of  martyr- 
dom ';  /ar/is  intentionally  contrasted 
with  supparem  :  in  office  less,  in  mar- 
tyrdom he  was  their  equal.  So 
Damasus  Xiv.  i  f.  (where  the  martyr 
Tarsicius  is  compared  with  St  Ste- 
phen) par  meritum,  quicumque  legis, 
cognosce  duorum.   For  the  gen.  mar- 


2  Laurentius  arch-us  Vs.  3  parem  coronam 

4  Romanam  Vs.    fidem  la.  5  Xistum 


tyrum  cp.  4.  2 1  nuptae foedera.  With 
corona  martyrum  cp.  Ambr.  de  Off. 
II.  141  Laurentius... scuram  martyrii 
accepit  coronam;  in  Ps.  cxvill.  xx. 
^^ibipassusest,  hoc  est,ibi coronatus', 
de  Virg.  II.  35  corona  martyrii  \ 
Epist.  LXiil.  5  stabat  [/<?j«j]  quasi 
paratus  ut  coronaret  suum  milttem. 

4.  Romana... fides]  'a  truly  Ro- 
man faith '  i.e.  that  of  the  Roman 
Church,  not  of  L.  himself.  The 
phrase  is  derived  from  St  Paul's 
words,  Rom.  i.  8 ;  cp.  Cypr.  Epist. 
LV  quorum  fides  apostolo  praedicante 
laudata  est ;  Ambr.  Epist.  XI.  4  totius 
orbis  Romani  caput  Romanam  ec- 
clesiam  atque  illam  sacrosanctam 
apostolorum  fidem  ;  Jer.  c.  Ruf.  I.  4 

fide  Romana  pollet  ecclesia. 

For  the  way  in  which  Lawrence 
was  singled  out  from  other  Roman 
martyrs  and  ranked  with  the  Apostles 
(j<7fra«?V),  see  Aug.  Servi.  CCXCVI.  vi. 
9  iacet  Petri  corpus  Romae,...  iacet 
Pauli  corpus  Romcu,  Laurentii  cor- 
pus Romae;  Alcuin  Carm.  Lxxxviil. 
16  (p.  311  ed.  DUmmler)  Johannes, 
Paulus,  pariter  Laurentius  atque  \ 
consertient  aram  hanc  miserante  Deo. 
lb.  ex.  r  f.  hanc  pius  Andreas  meritis 
tutabitur  aram,  et  leuita  simuluictor 
Laurentius  ignis. 

5.  sequens]  following  to  the  place 
of  execution,  which  in  the  case  of 
crucifixion  would  be  without  the  city. 
Cp.  Lk.  xxiii.  27. 

6.  uatis]  'prophet'  in  reference 
to  line  8.  But  Ennodius  {Hymn.  iii. 


I02 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


lO 


'  maerere,  fili,  desine, 
sequere  me  post  triduum.' 
nee  territus  poenae  metu 
heres  futurus  sanguinis 
spectauit  obtutu  pio, 
quod  ipse  mox  persoluerat. 
iam  tunc  in  illo  martyre 
egit  triumphum  martyris, 
successor  aequus  syngraphum 
uocis  tenens  et  sanguinis. 

7  mereri  Adgh  Vp.     deside  Va.  8  sequeris  Vs. 

{pro  metu  heres)  Vs.  lo  fusurum  sanguinem  Vs. 

persolueret  Va.  13  nam  Vs.  15  syngrapham  (singrafam)  Adgh  la 

Vap.  16  uocem  t.  e.  sanguinem  Vs. 

tunc  petit  absolui  Peirus,quidq7iaestio 
uellet,  I  ipse  Pharisaeis  quam  mox 
scribisque  dedisset.  Arnob.  adu.  JVa- 
tiones  il.  21  mox  natum,  IV.  21  mox 
traditam . . .  uitam. 

ipse  is  used  as  in  the  Pythagorean 
a.\)jo%  ^<f>a,  ipse  dixit,  '  the  master 
said';  cp.  Cic.  Nat.  D.  i.  5.  Plautus 
often  uses  ipse  to  denote  the  master 
of  the  house. 


15 


9,  10  metueris 
1 2  ipsa  mors  Vs. 


I  uaiis  Cypriant)  and  other  later 
writers  quoted  by  Ducange  use  the 
word  in  the  sense  of  'bishop';  cp. 
'Hegesippus'  l.  16  obsequia  uatum, 
apparently  translating  twi*  Upiasv, 

rettulit]  'received,'  as  in  the 
phrase  acceptum  referre. 

9  f.  '  but  unscared  by  the  fear  of 
torture,  he  beheld.' 

territus... metu]  as  at  9.  9. 

10.  heres]  Cp.  Xystus'  words  to 
Lawrence  de  Off.  I.  205  quoted  in 
the  introduction  ;  in  Ps.  cxvili.  i.  9 
qui  heredes  futiiri  sunt promissorum 
caelestium ;  ib.  xiv.  40  heres  sum 
mandatorum  tuorum,  successionem 
tuam . . .quaesiui.  heres  means  'in- 
heritor '  rather  than  '  heir. ' 

sanguinis]  Cp.  9.  16. 

11.  obtutu]  one  of  Ambr.'s  fa- 
vourite words,  got  from  his  master 
Vergil ;  see  Hex.  iv.  i,  vi.  4  and  51, 
de  Noe  1 7,  in  Luc.  I.  5 ;  Verg.  Aen.  I. 
495  etc. 

pio  answers  to  fili  in  7  and  to 
heres  in  10;  cp.  7.  13  note. 

12.  'what  his  master  had  just 
accomplished. '  The  evidence  of  the 
Mss  compels  us  to  read  persoluerat, 
and  with  this  reading  it  is  simplest 
and  best  to  take  max  as  meaning 
'lately,'  a  sense  which  it  often  bears 
in  late  writers  ;  cp.  Juvenc.  III.  160 


13.  'even  then  in  the  person  of 
that  martyr.'  Lawrence  watching  the 
martydom  of  Xystus  '  celebrated  his 
own  martyr-triumph '  (martyris  like 
martyrum  in  3)  as  being  already 
rightfully  assured  of  it. 

in]  '  in  the  person  of,'  cp.  Ambr. 
de  Nab.  67  reddite  [munera]  in 
paupere,  in  egeno  soluite;  in  Ps. 
CXViiI.  xiv.  38  in  Henoch  rapt  us 
ad  caelum  es,  in  Helia  leuatus  es 
curru;  16.  25. 

15.  successor]  C^.  de  Off.  l.  20t) 
tibi  ergo  mando  nostrae  uirtutis  suc- 
cessionem ;  de  Excessu  Fratris  1 5 
quid  agam  mei  successor  htredis  ? ;  de 
Inter  pell.  III.  22  ilia  uera  posteritas, 
quae  non  terris  sed  in  caelo  est. 
huiusmodi  ergo  uiris  hereditas  inopia 
est  et  mors  successio. 

aequus]  '  not  inferior '  to  his  pre- 
decessor. 

sjmgraphum]  'bond, "covenant,' 


HYMN  XIV.   AMBROSE 


103 


post  triduum  iussus  tamen 
census  sacratos  prodere 
spondet  pie  nee  abnuit, 
addens  dolum  uictoriae. 

spectaculum  pulcherrimum ! 
egena  cogit  agmina 
inopesque  monstrans  praedicat: 
'  hi  sunt  opes  ecclesiae.' 

uere  piorum  perpetes 
inopes  profecto  sunt  opes, 
auarus  inlusus  dolet 
flammas  et  ultrices  parat. 

fugit  perustus  carnifex 
suisque  cedit  ignibus : 


25 


18  prodire  la,  prodidit  Vs. 
dicans  Vap. 

uttered  by  Xystus'  voice  and  ratified 
by  his  blood  ;  cp.  cU  Tob.  29  haec 
debitor  is  stullitia . .  .pro  emolumento 
hereditatis  syngrapham  obligationis. 
The  form  syngrapha  is  the  usual 
one,  but  ff(rfypa<t><K  is  found  in  an 
inscription,  and  (at  de  Paenit.  II.  80) 
tamquam  ex  syngrapho. 

17.  tamen]  '  however,'  with  little 
adversative  force,  as  in  the  parallel 
passage  de  Off.  1.  206  quoted  in  the 
introduction.  So  in  Luc.  X.  145 
cum  uiri  fiigarentur,  solae  tamen  ab 
angelo  ne  timeant,  admonentur. 

18.  census]  'treasures,' cp.  9.  16 
note. 

19.  spondet...  nee  abnuit]  Ambr. 
repeatedly  expresses  thus  by  a  ne- 
gative what  he  has  already  stated 
positively  as  e.g.  de  Fide  il.  122 
delictum  faleor,  peccatum  non  abnuo ; 
an  idiom  derived  from  O.T.,  see  e.g. 
Ps.  XXX.  12  (Bible  version). 

pie]  '  as  in  duty  Ixjund' to  Xystus, 
see  II  and  7.  13  note. 

21.  recalls  in  form  10.  17. 

22.  agmina]  as  at  13.  26. 


22  cedent  Vs. 


30 
23  monstrat  prae- 


23.  Note  the  repeated  play  on  the 
words  opes,  inopes. 

24.  Cp.  Ambr.  Serm.  c.  Aux. 
33  habeo  curarios  :  aerarii  met  pau- 
per es  Chris ti  sunt,  hunc  noui  con- 
gregare  thesaurum. 

25.  26  are  Ambr.'s  comment,  not 
the  words  of  Lawrence.  They  come 
in  somewhat  as  do  7.  13  f.  piscts 
bonus,  etc. 

The  parallel  de  Off.  ii.  140  is  in 
favour  of  our  reading  uere  rather 
than  uerae : — et  uere  thesauri  in 
quibus  Christus  est.  profecto  is  used 
much  in  the  sense  of  ^«/w.  perpetes, 
cp.  6.  28. 

27.  dolet]  'chafes  with  anger.' 
The  passage  is  borrowed  in  a  Moz- 
arabic  hymn  Anal,  xxviu  cxi.  61 
inlusum  ita  se  dolens  Fabric i us. 

28.  flammas  ultrices]  Cp.  in  Ps. 
XXXVI.  26  minis tr OS  autem  impie- 
tatis  III  tor  ignis  exuret ;  Epist.  XXXIV. 
10 poenis  uUricibus.  Cp.  Verg.  Aen. 
II.  587  ultricis  flammae. 

30.  Similarly  of  the  martyrdom 
of  the  Maccabees ;  Ambr.  de  Off.  I. 


104  EARLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

'uersate  me,'  martyr  uocat, 

*  uorate,  si  coctum  est,'  iubet.  32 

201    defecerunt  supplicia,  cesserunt  iugiter\  etfac  periclum,  quid  tuus\ 

tortores,    non    defecerunt   martyres.  Vulcanus  ardens  egerit.  \  praefectus 

Cp.  Dan.  iii.  22.  inuerti  iubet.  \  tuncille :  coctum  est, 

31  f.    The  grim  jest  is  drawn  out  deuora  \  et  experimetttum  cape,  \  sit 

by  Prud.  Perist.  il.  401  f.  conuerte  crudum  an  assum  suauius. 
partem    corporis   \   satis    crematam 

Hymn  15 

The  antiquity  of  the  oldest  Martyr-hymn,  Hke  that  of 
the  foregoing,  is  proved  by  the  allusion  to  it  in  a  sermon 
of  Maximus  of  Turin,  who  writes  Serm.  LXVI  elegerunt 
itaque  ecclesiarum.  principes  quorum.  Dominus  ipsum  mundi 
principem  triumphauit.  This  of  course  does  not  establish 
the  fact  of  Ambrose's  authorship,  but  it  points  in  that 
direction. 

Nor  is  the  more  definite  statement  of  the  Venerable 
Bede  decisive  on  this  point,  though  he  writes  de  Arte 
Metrica  1 1  sed et ambrosiani eo  maxime  currunt. ..in  quibus 
pulcherrimo  est  decore  compositus  hymnus  beatorum  mar- 
tyrum,  cuius  loca  inparia  spondeus,  iambus  tenet  paria ; 
cuius  initium.  est:  Aeterna  Christi  munera.  For,  as  was 
pointed  out  on  p.  20,  Bede  elsewhere  uses  the  term  am- 
brosianus  of  hymns  which  cannot  have  been  written  by 
the  great  bishop  of  Milan. 

So  once  more  we  have  to  rely  on  the  presence  of  the 
hymn  in  the  MSS  of  the  Ambrosian  use,  and  above  all  on 
its  intimate  correspondence  in  vocabulary,  phraseology 
and  thought  with  the  prose  works  of  Ambrose.  And  these 
proofs  are  strong  enough  to  settle  the  question. 

More  than  any  other  of  Ambrose's  hymns  this  one  has 
in  the  course  of  time  been  changed  and  mutilated.  It 
was  transferred  from  its  use  in  natali  martyrum  to  cele- 
brate that  of  the  apostles,  and  it  then  of  course  became 
necessary  to  omit  certain  stanzas  which  were  no  longer 


HYMN  XV.  AMBROSE  105 

suitable,  and  in  line  2  instead  of  martyrum  to  read 
apostolorum,  and  in  30  either  apostolorum  or  ipsorum. 
This  modification  of  the  original  hymn  began  to  be 
made  about  the  Xth  century,  and  it  soon  became  almost 
universal.  Daniel  truly  says  (I.  29) :  hymnum,  ex  Clich- 
touaei  sententia  oppido  suauem  et  elegantem,  ab  ecclesia 
misere  dilaceratum  uidemus.  nam  illae  strophae,  quae 
martyrum  laudibus  aptisshne  conueniunt,  prima,  tertia, 
quarta,  quinta,  octaua  cantari  solitae  sunt  in  communi 
plurimorum  martyrum. :  reliquae  et  prima,  mutato  uersu 
secundo,  in  communi  apostolorum. 

Aabcdefghik  Ecdhjov/i<^  Fbn^  Gam  Habcdfghi/SST; 
lacdhnop  Mk  Vabclp 

Aeterna  Christi  munera 
et  martyrum  uictorias, 
laudes  ferentes  debitas, 
laetis  canamus  mentibus. 

ecclesiarum  principes,  5 

belli  triumphales  duces, 
caelestis  aulae  milites 
et  uera  mundi  lumina, 

1  apostolorum  gloriam  Ev/t  Gm  Vc.     uictoriam  Hd"  la,  uictoria  Ab'd^ 
Eo  F^  Ga  Ip  Vap^.  3  canentes  Ecdv^  Fn  Gam  Hbe'  Mk  Vbhl. 

4-7  omit.  Idh  VI.        6  et  b.  Eo  Haci;  In.      -lis  lo.        8  uere  F^. 

1.  'The  eternal  gifts'  are  pro-  ecclesiarum]   the  plural  is  used 
bably  the  martyrs  themselves  (cp.       also  at  4.  16. 

12.  2,  Eph.  iv.  8,  11),  rather  than  6.   tarlumphales]   Cp.  4.  17,  11. 

the  grace  which  enabled  them  to  26  (notes). 

persevere  to  the  end,  or  the  rewards  7.    milites]    Cp.  11.    22    (note), 

bestowed  upon  them  afterwards.  The  phrase  caelestis  aula  recurs  in 

2.  11.  26  note.  Luc.  v.  108. 

5f.    'Chieftains of  the  churches...  8.    As  Christ  is  the  tme  light  of 

they  conquered... and  possess.'  This  the   world    (3.    3,    6.   30),    so    His 

iseasier  than  taking  ^r»W?^^j  as  ace.  martyrs  are  also  'true  lights,'  in  a 

in  loose  apposition  to  munera.    For  different  and  yet  in  a  real  sense;  cp. 

the  phrase  cp.  Ambr.  Epist.  XXII.  7  Mt.  v.  14,  Phil.  ii.  15,  Ambr.  Epist. 

principes populiquos  alios  nisi sanctos  xxn.  6  (of  the  martyrs)  ecce  ueri 

martyres  aestimare  debemus  ?  dies  pleni  luminis  etfulgoris  aetemi ; 


io6 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


terrore  uicto  saeculi 
poenisque  spretis  corporis, 
mortis  sacrae  conpendio 
lucem  beatam  possident. 

traduntur  igni  martyres 
et  bestiarum  dentibus  : 
armata  saeuit  ungulis 
tortoris  insani  manus. 

nudata  pendent  uiscera, 
sanguis  sacratus  funditur, 
sed  permanent  inmobiles 
uitae  perennis  gratia. 


15 


20 


9  uictor  Ab^  Fn^  Ga  Ih..  12  uitam  Ab  Ec  Fbf  Gm  Hg/3  Mk. 

15  saeuis  Aa  F^  Ga  Hac.     ungula  He  (ungulas  Ec).  16  insanit  He. 

17  pendens  Eo,  pendunt  Fn  Hbd  Id  Va.  ao  gloria  Hd'  (gloriae  Hb). 


in  Ps.  cxviii.  xiv.  27  Christo  luce- 
bat  martyrum  lucerna. 

9.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  X.  12  indicium 
est  uictores  saeculi  priticipibus  ante- 

ferri. 

10.  poenis  corporis]  Cp.  10.  14. 
Note  that  -que  remains  short  before 
spretis,  as  in  22  the  -a  of  inuicta 
before  spes.  Lucretius  and  Horace 
in  his  Satires  take  the  same  license. 

11.  conpendlo]'ashortcut.'  What 
others  must  attain  by  a  long  life  is 
theirs  by  a  swift  death.  Cp.  de  Nab. 
30  quaerit  mortis  conpendia ;  de  Off. 
III.  121  aut  conpendium  mortis  erit 
aut  salutis;  Prud.  Perist.  II.  335 
praestetur  ut  mortis  citae  \  conpen- 
diosus  exitus.  Orosius  vii.  v.  11 
Pilatus  autem  praeses...tantis...an- 
goribus  coartatus  est,  ut  sua  se  trans- 
uerberans  manu  ttialorum  conpen- 
dium mortis  celeritate  quaesierit. 

mortis  sacrae]  Cp.  12.  18  note, 
and  18.  7. 

13  f.  Ambr.  in  Ps.  cxvill.  ix.  2 
quam  pulchre  etiam  de  martyribus 
dicitur,  qui  uere  militant  Christo... 
qui  persecutiones,  ungulas,  gladios, 
incendia    nvn    timentes   infestis    se 


regibus  obtulerunt;  ib.  xil.  30  in 
martyrio  plurima  flagella  sustinuit, 
equuleo  et  ungulis, plumbo,  lammtnis 
ardetitibus,  gladio  comprobatus ;  cp. 
Heb.  xi.  36  f.  Ambrose  wishes  here 
to  mark  a  climax  :  the  fire  is  lifeless, 
the  beasts  do  but  obey  the  instincts 
of  their  nature,  man  indulges  in  re- 
finements of  cruelty. 

15.  ungulis]  iron  'claws'  or 
' hooks '  for  tearing  the  flesh.  Ambr. 
in  Ps.  CXVIII.  XX.  10  exaratum 
ungulis ;  Prud.  Perist.  i.  44  bisukas 
ungulas ;  Cod.  Theod.  xv.  7  ungulis 
sulcantibus  latera. 

saeuit]  Ambr.  de  lacob  11.  47  (of 
persecutors)  pardalicis  feritatibus 
saeuiebant. 

16.  iusani]  'mad  with  rage';  cp. 
Prud.  Perist.  II.  47  minister  insani 
ducis 'yY-naoA. Hymn.wii.  i^uesane 
tortor;  24.  1 1  aniens  ;  116.  26  ;  Hor. 
Od.  I.  xvi.  15  insani  leonis . 

17  f.  It  is  probably  not  an  inten- 
tional disembowelling  that  is  here 
alluded  to,  but  such  a  ripping  up  of 
the  body  that  the  inwards  protrude. 
Such  things  are  common  in  the  Atta 
Martyrum. 


HYMN  XV.  AMBROSE 


107 


deuota  sanctorum  fides, 
inuicta  spes  credentium, 
perfecta  Christi  caritas 
mundi  triumphal  principem. 

in  his  paterna  gloria, 
in  his  uoluntas  Spiritus, 
exultat  in  his  Filius  : 
caelum  repletur  gaudio. 

te  nunc,  redemptor,  quaesumus, 
ut  martyrum  consortio 


25 


30 


21-24  omit.  Idh  VI.  21-28  omit.  E<^.  24  principes  Eo  H)3. 

26  filii  (pro  spir.)  He,         27  spiritus  (pro  fil.)  He.         28  gaudiis  Haf  Ih. 
30  ipsoram  Ed  Haf  In,  illorum  Ea. 


19.  permanent  InmoMlesJAmbr. 

often  combines  these  words  as  at 
Hex.  I.  22,  in  Ps.  xxxvii.  21,  ib. 
cxviii.  V.  21,  Episl.  II.  I ;  so  Tob. 
II.  14  inmobilis  in  Dei  timore  per- 
mansit ;  cp.  7.  8  note. 

2 1  f.  '  The  devoted  faith  of  the 
Saints,  the  unconquered  hope  of 
believers,  the  perfect  love  of  Christ 
lead  in  triumph  the  prince  of  this 
world.'  In  a  Roman  triumph  the 
captured  leader  of  the  enemy  walked 
before  the  general's  chariot ;  Ambr. 
in  Luc.  X.  1 1 1  solet praecedere pompa 
uictores.  For  the  close  connexion 
with  Ambr.  of  devotion  and  faith 
see  13.  22  note.  The  three  '  theo- 
logical virtues'  are  combined,  as 
here,  i  Cor.  xiii.  13,  Ambr.  Epist. 
LXXVIII.  9  ubi  perfecta  caritas,  ibi 
omnis  fides;  siciit  ubi  perfecta  caritas, 
ibi  spes  omnis;  47.  18  f.,  71.  17  f., 
99.  I  f. 

21.  sanctorum]  the  commonest 
name  of  Christians  in  N.T.,  e.g. 
Rom.  i.  7 ;  here  of  course  it  refers 
to  martyrs  in  particular. 

23.  perfecta... caritas]  'the  love 
of  Christ  towards  them,'  a  phrase 
derived  from  r  Joh.  iv.  17  in  hoc 
perfecta  est  caritas  Dei  nobiscum. 

24.  mnndi  principem]  an  appella- 
tion of  Satan,  coming  from  Joh.  xiii. 


31,  xiv.  30,  xvi.  1 1  (cp.  2  Cor.  iv.  4, 
Eph.  ii.  2,  vi.  1 2)  constantly  used  by 
Ambr.  e.g.  de  Abr.  11.  62,  in  Ps. 
CXVIII.  iv.  28,  ib.  viii.  52,  ib.  xvi. 
12  ;  and  by  Damasus  vil.  2,  XXX.  2, 
XLIII.  4,  XLVII.  2. 

triompliat]  So  Ambr.  in  Ps. 
CXVIII.  iii.  34  [Chris/us^  in  se  uoluit 
principem  mundi falUre,  in  discipuUs 
triumphare.  He  uses  the  word  in  a 
transitive  sense  also  de  lob  II.  26 
triumphauerunt  populum. 

25  f.  For  the  rhetorical  repetition 
of  in  his  see  2.  1 1 ;  for  in,  meaning 
'  in  the  person  of,'  14.  13  note.  The 
lengthening  of  the  in  (line  27)  has 
no  exact  parallel  in  the  hymns  of 
Ambr. 

paterna  gloria]  3.  i . 

26.   uol.  Spiritus]  i  Cor.  xii.  11. 

28.  Cp.  10.  13  note,  13.  30,  Lk. 
xii.  8,  XV.  10. 

29  f.  Biraghi  compares  the  prayer 
de  Inst.  Virg.  \o^  nunc  cut  te...  Pater 
gratiae,  uota  conuerto. ..  lo"]  te  quaest 
ut  tuearis  hancfamulam,  ut...agnii 
tuis  admixta  uersetur  comes  uir- 
ginum. 

30.  consortio]  in  this  connexion 
is  one  of  Ambr.'s  favourite  words ; 
cp.  de  Pcunit.  I.  49  martyrum  con- 
sortia; de  Noe  26  a ngelorum... con- 
sortio; in  Ps.  I.  16  consortia  beato- 


io8  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

iungas  precantes  seruulos 

in  sempiterna  saecula.  32 

rum  ;  and  in  the  plu.  de  Noe  64  ius-  almost  always  uses  serutdus  rather 

forum  consortia.  than  seruus,  and  later  writers  de- 

31.  seruulos]  The  diminutive  has  lighted  in  such  forms  ;  see  Mayor  on 

a  depreciatory  force.    But   Ambr.  Juv.  x.  173. 

Hymns  16-18 

On  the  genuineness  of  the  next  three  hymns,  see 
above,  p.  25.  There  seems  to  be  no  reason  why  Ambrose 
should  not  have  written  two  hymns  for  the  Third  Hour, 
one  perhaps  for  Sundays,  and  one  for  week  days. 

The  rubric  to  4  in  some  of  the  Ambrosian  MSS  ad 
tertiam  dominicis  diebus  shews  that  this  was  at  least  the 
use  adopted  in  the  Milanese  church;  and,  if  Dreves^ 
had  been  correct  in  stating  that  so  ancient  an  authority 
as  Vat.  reg.  11  contained  the  rubric  to  16  Hymnus  ad 
tertiam.  cotidianus,  the  suggestion  would  be  still  more 
likely ;  but  unfortunately  that  MS  does  not  even  contain 
the  hymn  in  question. 

Steier  points  out  a  resemblance  between  16  and  two 
stanzas  of  other  later  hymns,  viz.  between  stanza  I  and 
78  stanza  IV,  and  between  stanza  II  and  76  stanza  IV, 
which  he  thinks  to  tell  against  the  Ambrosian  author- 
ship. But  if  we  grant  this  likeness,  it  may  but  mean  that 
the  writers  of  those  hymns  copied  Ambrose,  as  they  did 
in  so  many  other  cases. 

The  fact  that  Hincmar  of  Reims  quotes  16  as  Ambrose's 
carries  little  weight.  Nor  is  the  alleged  imitation  of  16.  5 
on  the  part  of  Ennodius  decisive.  For  it  is  not  impossible 
that  the  writer  of  16  copied  Ennodius  just  as  the  writer 
of  99  took  his  8th  line  from  him  (32.  28). 

One  thing  is  certain — that  the  three  hymns  were  all 
written  by  the  same  man.    I  believe  that  this  man  was 

^  Aurelius  Ambrosius  p.  84. 


HYMN  XVI.   AMBROSE 


109 


Ambrose.  [The  prosody,  the  vocabulary,  the  concentrated 
force  of  the  language,  the  thoughts,  the  theology,  are  all 
in  favour  of  this  view.] 


Hymn  16 

Abdgh  EacdhjlsvxSAi  Fbhls  Gabd  Habcdefgh/i  Ibcdehimnp  Vbcp 

Nunc  sancte  nobis  Spiritus, 
unum  Patri  cum  Filio, 
dignare  promptus  ingeri 
nostro  refusus  pectori. 

OS,  lingua,  mens,  sensus,  uigor  5 

confessionem  personent, 

2  unus    Eacdhjlsvx5)tt    Fbhs    Gbd    Habcd'ef   IcMehmp   Vbp.    patris 
EacdhvS  Fb  Gbd  Vp.  6  confessione  Ecsx  Hbe  Ihn  Vp.     personet  Ab 

Echjsx/i  (-nat  E5)  Fb  Gd  Hace  Im^  Vcp.    • 


1.  The  Holy  Spirit  is  especially 
invoked  at  the  third  hour  because  it 
was  then  that  He  came  down  on  the 
day  of  Pentecost,  Acts  ii. 

2.  uniun]  'one  essence,'  'one 
power '  as  at  6.  31  ;  not  one  person. 
Ambr.  more  than  once  quotes  and 
comments  upon  Joh.  x.  30  ego  et 
Pater  unum  sumus.  See  cle  Spir. 
HI.  117  repellit...Arianos,  quia 
dicit :  unum  sumus ;  tamen  et  in 
superioribus  et  in  inferioribtis  hae- 
reticam  iugulat  saeuitatem  Sabellian- 
orum,  quia  unum  dixit  sumus,  non 
unus ;  de  Incam.  77  non  enim  quod 
eiusdem  substantiae  est,  unus,  sed 
unum  est ;  nam  utiqtu  Filium  eius- 
dem cum  Patre  substantiae  confitentes 
in  tractatu  Nicaeni,  twn  unam  per- 
sottam,  sed  unam  diuinitatem  in 
Patre  et  Filio  crediderunt.  Hincmar 
of  Reims  observes  orans  beat  us  Am- 
brosius  Nunc  sancte  nobis  Spiritus 
bene  intellexit  unum  esse  Deum  cum 
Patre  et  Filio.  ...de  exempt 0  euangelico 
ego  et  Pater  unum  sumus  Ambro- 
sius  scribit  unum,  ne  fiat  discretio 
naturcu  et  potestatis. 

Patzi]   For  the  dative  cp.  Lucr. 


II.  918  cum...animalia  sint  mortali- 
bus  una  ecuiemque. 

3.  ingeri]  almost  equivalent  to 
infundi ;  cp.  CatuU.  xxvii.  a  inger 
mi  calices  amariores ;  de  Lapsu 
Virg.  24  praecepta,  quae  oculis  tuts 
ipse  scriptus  paries  ingerebat',  20. 16. 

4.  refusus]  one  of  Ambr.'s  fa- 
vourite words  ;  see  2.  22  note. 

5.  '  mouth,  tongue,  soul ,  thought, 
strength.'  The  line  emphatically 
says  '  let  everything  that  is  within 
me  bless  His  holy  name.'  It  is  hard 
to  distinguish  between  os  and  lingua: 
perhaps  os  refers  to  the  singing, 
lingua  to  the  words.  The  other 
words  are  perhaps  based  on  Lk.  x. 
27  and  parallels:  mens  answering 
to  'heart  and  soul,'  sensus  to  'mind, 
uigor  to  'strength.'  As  to  Ennod. 
Hymn.  ill.  2  cor,  lingua,  sensus 
dignitas,  see  introduction. 

6.  confessioiiem]  Acts  ii.  11 
'  declaration '  of  faith  or  thanks ; 
the  usual  meaning  of  confiteor  and 
confessio  in  the  O.T.,  cp.  Ps.  xli. 
(xlii.)  2  in  twee  exsultationis  et  con- 

fessionis;   Ambr.  Hex.  iv.  \i  fidei 
confessione.    For  the  ace.  cp.  19.  I3 


no 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


flammescat  igne  caritas, 
accendat  ardor  proximos. 


8 


hyrimos  per  sonant,  and  2.  3 1  te  sonet, 
6.  \^  te  concrepet. 

7.  igne]  refers  to  the  linguae 
tamquam  ignis  of  Acts  ii.  3  ;  cp. 
118.  7  ignis,  caritas.  For  caritas  as 
the  gift  of  the  holy  Spirit  see  Rom. 
V.  5,  Ambr.  de  Spir.  I.  94  offunditur 
etiani  caritas  Dei  per  Spiritum,... 


qui  diuinae  arbiter  et  fans  projluus 
caritatis  est. 

8.  ardor  has  a  good  or  bad 
meaning  according  to  the  context ; 
cp.  31.  55,  64.  6,  68.  16  with  58.  13. 

proximos  is  perhaps  a  happy  ap- 
plication of  Juv.  III.  199  tua  res, 
cum  proximus  ardet  \  Ucalegon. 


Hymn  17 

Abdghk  EacdhjvS  Fbhps  Gab  Habcdefgh/*  Macx  Vabcp 

Rector  potens,  uerax  Deus, 
qui  temperas  rerum  uices, 
splendore  mane  qui  instruis 
et  ignibus  meridiem, 


2  nice  Eg  Hb  Vp^ 


3  splendorem  E5.     inserui  qui. 


1.  rector]  Cp.  5.  1,  Ambr.  de 
Cain  I.  4  quae  tamquam  operatori  et 
creatori  omnium  Deo  defert  et  eius 
tamquam  parentis  atque  rectoris  sub- 
dit  omnia  guberttacttlo. 

neraz]  '  a  God  of  truth,'  who 
keepest  Thy  word,  probably  in  this 
connexion  referring  to  Gen.  viii.  22. 
God  is  uerus,  'very  God,'  as  op- 
posed to  idols,  which  are  no  gods : 
He  is  uerax  in  that  He  is  faithful  to 
His  promise  and  His  ordinance ; 
cp.  Joh.  iii.  33  etc. 

2.  The  thought  and  expression 
of  this  line  recur  several  times  in 
Ambr.  Thus  Hex.  iv.  2  si  magnus 
est  \_sol\  qui  per  horarum  uices  locis 
aut  accedit  aut  decedit  cotidie . . .;  ib. 
7  est  ergo  in  diei  potestate  sol  et  luna 
in  potestate  noctis,  quae  temporum 
uicibus  oboedire  conpellitur. ..namque 
luna  luminis  inminutionefn  habet, 
mm  corporis,  quando  per  uices  men- 
struas  deponere  uidetttr  suum  lu- 
men...', ib.  12  diuisa  tempora  habent 
paresque  mensuras  prro  mensium 
uicibus  sol  et  luna ;  ib.  28  quid 
autem  de  tnnto  loquar  temperamento 


et  moderamine  conditoris?    Cp.   3. 

3.  mane  is  a  substantive  as  at 
Verg.  Georg.  in.  325,  Hor.  Sat.  i. 
iii.  18,  Pers.  Sat.  in.  i,  Prud.  Cath. 
I.  96,  Genesis  i.  4  etc.,  73.  9,  73.  5, 
110.  13. 

Q,^.  Hex.  I.  33  lux... retectis  stir- 
gentis  diei  splendore  regionibus  7iostro 
se  circumfundit  aspectui ;  ib.  iv.  27 
(also  of  dawn)  iam . .  .micat  splendor ; 
cp.  3.  I. 

I  write  splendore  mane  qui  in- 
struis. If  the  hymn  is  by  Ambr.  it 
is  impossible  to  believe  that  he  could 
have  written  such  a  line  as  splendore 
mane  instruis,  wherein  a  short  un- 
accented syllable  is  left  unelided 
before  a  vowel.  If  we  insert  qui, 
the  structure  of  the  hymn  will  be 
exactly  that  of  18 :  the  whole  of  the 
first  stanza  being  taken  up  with  the 
invocation,  and  the  petition  follow- 
ing in  the  next  stanza.  See  also 
the  similar  commencements  of  3 
and  6. 

5.  fiammas  litium]  Cp.  Ecclus. 
xxviii.  II  homo  efiim  iracundus  in- 


H  YMN  X  VIII.  A  MBR  OSE 


III 


exstingue  flammas  litium, 
aufer  calorem  noxium, 
confer  salutem  corporum, 
ueramque  pacem  cordium. 
5  extingues  Vp. 


cendit  litem.  The  prayer  is  suggested 
by  'the  fires  of  noon.' 

6.  caloremj '  the  heat'  of  passion 
(Jas  iii.  6)  or  lust  (Hos.  vii.  4). 
calor,  caleo  can  also  have  a  good 
meaning,  and  this  prevails  in  3.  19, 
60.  10,  116.  16  ;  cp.  Prud.  Perist. 
VI.  21. 


7.  The  use  of  the  plurals  cor- 
forum,  cordium  is  according  to 
Ambr.'s  manner.  Steier  p.  643  has 
a  list  of  instances  drawn  from  his 
prose  writings ;  cp.  the  use  of  noc- 
Hum  6.  18,  mentium  12.  15.  Here 
they  seem  to  be  used  for  the  sake  of 
the  rhyme. 


Hymn  i8 

Abdghk  EacdhjlsvS  Fbhjpqs  Gabd  HabcdefghM  Ibcdhmnopv  Ma  Vabcp 

Rerum  Deus  tenax  uigor, 
inmotus  in  te  permanens, 
lucis  diurnae  tempora 
successibus  determinans, 


largire  clarum  uespere, 


5 


2  permanes  Eh  lb,  permanet  Ab'^  Ecdl  Fs  Hbd  Ih.  3  diurna  Ab 

Es5.  4  determinas  Ab.  5  claro  Ea  Hacgh  lo,  clarus  Ip.     uesperi 

Ab^  Gabi  Hbe  Ichd  Vp,  uesperum  E5  Hd'. 


1.  '  O  God  who  art  the  strength 
which  sustains  all  creation  from  day 
to  day.'  This  seems  to  be  the  sense 
here  meant,  rather  than  'holding  all 
things  together  in  space,'  '  the  bond 
of  the  universe';  though  for  this 
latter  sense  cp.  Wisdom  i.  7,  36. 
41,  39.  15,  44b.  1,  48.  5. 

rerum]  'the  universe,'  as  at  2.  i. 
It  is  here  governed  by  tenax,  which 
takes  a  like  gen.  in  Hor.  Od.  ill.  iii. 
I  tenacem  propositi',  Ovid  J/i?/.  VII. 
657  quaesiti  tenax  ;  Verg.  Aen.  iv. 
188  ficti  prauique  tenax  \  Draeger 
I.  §  206.  6. 

2.  The  immutability  of  God  is 
dwelt  upon  at  Ps.  ci.  (cii.)  27,  Mai. 
iii.  6,  Jas.  i.  17.  It  is  a  favourite 
thought  with  Augustine,  as  at  Conf. 
J.  vi.  9  aptid  te  rerum  omnium  iu- 


stabilitim  stant  causae  et  rerum 
omnium  mutabilium  inmtitabiles 
manent  origines  and  the  whole  of 
10;  cp.  Prud.  Apoth.  i^d  non  con- 
uerlibilis  nee  demutabilis  umquam  \ 
est  Deus. 

in  te  permanens  comes  from 
Wisdom  vii.  27,  which  itself  appears 
to  be  derived  from  Aristotle  Phys. 
VIII.  5. 

3.  tempora]  as  in  2.  3. 

4.  successibus]  often  used  as 
here  in  the  plural  by  Ambr. ;  cp. 
Hex.  III.  48  prosperioris  cursus  suc- 
cessibus; in  Luc.  VI.  68  totius  na- 
turae creator  rebus  stucessus  dejluos 
subministrat;  ib.  85. 

5.  '  Grant  us  a  bright  evening 
time,'  uespere  being  a  subst.  as 
mane   at   17.    31.    This  is  simpler 


112 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


quo  uita  nusquam  decidat, 
sed  praemium  mortis  sacrae 
perennis  instet  gloria. 


7  praemio  Ea  Fh^  Hacgh  Inp  Vp. 
gloriae  Es  Gd,  gloriam  Vp. 

than  'light  at  evening  time,'  though 
darum  might  be  a  quasi-subst.  like 
nubila  at  21.  i,  sereno  at  36.  i, 
obscurum  Verg.  Georg.  I.  478.  The 
writer  seems  to  have  in  mind 
Wisdom  vi.  13  clara  est  et  quae 
numquam  marcescit  sapientia ;  cp. 
Wisdom  vii.  29  f.,  Zech.  xiv.  7. 

6.   quo]  'whereby.' 

nusquam]  not  numquam,  i.e. 
'  that  life  may  not  decay  at  any 
point  in  its  activities.^  Ambr.  else- 
where   uses    this    unusual    phrase, 


8 


8  perenni  Ab'^  Im.    instat  E5. 


which  is  at  the  same  time  one  which 
no  imitator  would  think  of  taking 
up;  cp.  Hex.  I.  11  laudent  alii 
quod  idea  nusquam  decidat  terra. 
For  decidat  cp.  Ps.  Ixxxix.  (xc.)  6 
uespere  decidat.  Wisdom  iv.  19  et 
erunt  post  haec  decidentes  sine  honore. 

7.  mortis  sacrae]  as  at  12.  18, 
16.  II.  For  the  thought  cp.  Rev. 
xiv.  1 3.  praemium  predicate  '  as  the 
reward,'  cp.  10.  9. 

8.  instet]  '  follow  hard  upon  it.' 


Hymn  19 

On  the  authorship  of  this  hymn  see  above,  p.  26. 
inch'ned  to  believe  that  Ambrose  wrote  it. 


I  am 


Aabcdghk  Eacdhjv/u^  Fbps  Gam  Habcdefghi/3  Ibghmnt  Makx  Vbcps 
lesu  corona  uirginum, 
quem  mater  ilia  concipit, 
quae  sola  uirgo  parturit, 
haec  uota  clemens  accipe, 


2  concepit  Aadg  Ecdv/*  Gam  Habcde/3  Ighmt  Vs. 
peperit  E/t*.  4  et  {pro  haec)  Hb  Vs'. 

1.  corona  comes  from  Is.  xxviii. 
5  in  die  ilia  erit  Dominus  corona 
^/or/a^,  whence  come  also  the  phrases 
corona  confitentium,  121.  2,  militum 
corona,  122.  2,  corona  praesuluni, 
123.  2. 

2.  ilia]  emphatic,  as  often  in 
classical  writers,  as  Verg.  Aen.  vil. 
no  sic  luppiter  ille  monebat. 

3.  uirgo  parturit]  So — in  spite 
of  w  Ps.  XLVII.  II  eutn  Maria  non 
parturiuit,  sed  peperit, — Ambr.  says 
de  Inst.  Virg.  39  minus  erat  homi- 
nem  resurrexisse  quam  uirginem 
parturisse. 


3  quem  Hb. 


5.  Comes  from  Cant.  ii.  16,  vi. 
3  ;  cp.  Ambr.  in  Ps.  cxviii.  xiv.  3 
bona  etiam  Christi pascua,  quipascit 
in  liliis  in  splendore  sanctorum  / 
borui  pascua  etiatfi  monies  conual- 
lium,  nam  et  in  his  pascitur  Chris- 
tus. 

pascis,  as  in  Hex.  iv.  22,  at 
de  Inst.  Virg.  113  quoted  on 
line  9,  and  Fort.  Vita  Mart.  I. 
150  pascens  radicibus  herbae,  seems 
to  be  used  in  an  intransitive  sense  ; 
cp.  Draeger  i.  §  87,  Schmalz 
632. 

lilia]  Cp.  de  Inst.  Virg.  93  qui 


HYMN  XIX.  AMBROSE 

qui  pascis  inter  lilia 
saeptus  choreis  uirginum, 
sponsus  decorus  gloria 
sponsisque  reddens  praemia. 

quocumque  pergis,  uirgines 
secuntur  atque  laudibus 
post  te  canentes  cursitant 
hymnosque  dulces  personant. 

te  deprecamur,  largius 
nostris  adauge  mentibus 
nescire  prorsus  omnia 
corruptionis  uulnera. 


113 

5 


10 


15 


5  pascit  Fb  Vs.  7  sponsi  Aa,  sponsos  Ga,  sponsas  Eac/t  Fbp  Hbd' 

Ibgmt  Vb,  sponsa  Ed,  sponses  Ev.     decorans  Eadv/tt  Fb  Ga  Hd'/3  Ibgmt 
Vbs,  decoras  Gm  Hd*.     gloriae  Ha.  8  sponsi  Aab^  Vs,  sponsus  E^ 

Vc.     reddis  Gm  Mk,  reddes  Hb^,  reddunt  Hb^.  9  pergit  Vc. 

12  insonant  Mk.  14  sensibus  Eju. 


Christi  passionem  loquuntur  et  suo 
ore  concelebrant  ac  mortificaiionem 
eius  in  suo  circutiiferunt  cor  pore 
Christi  lilia  sunt ;  specialiter  sacrae 
uirgines ;  in  Cant.  vi.  i  Moses  per 
desertum  dux  it  populum  ludaeorum 
...Christus  per  lilia  ducit.  The  ap- 
plication of  the  lily  to  virginity 
perhaps  goes  back  to  Origen  in 
Cant.  lib.  III.  (Migne  P.G.  xiii. 
149  f.). 

6.  saeptus]  Cp.  Verg.  Aen.  i. 
411,  439,  506,  IX.  20,  551,  783. 

7.  sponsus  decorus]  from  Is.  Ixi. 
10  sponsum  decoratuni  corona.  For 
virgins  as  the  brides  of  Christ  see 
Ambr.  de  Virg.  i.  22  spec  tat e  et 
aliud  tiirginitatis  meritum  !  Christus 
uirginis  sponsus  ;  ib.  II.  29  mulieris 
caput  uir,  uirginis  Christus ;  de 
Laps.  Virg.  21  quae  se  spopondit 
Christ 0  et  sanctum  uelamen  accepit, 
iam  nupsit,  iam  inmortali  iuncta 
est  uiro. 

9  f.  From  Rev.  xiv.  4 ;  cp.  de 
Inst,    Virg.  113  ut  uirgo  illic  agni 


sequatur  uestigia   et   in   meridiano 
pascal. 

10.  laudibus... canentes]  Cp. 
Stat.  Theb.  viii.  353  longa  iacet  ille 
canendus  \  latide ;  Fortunat.  Laus 
Mariae  47  sed  redeo,  qua  uirgo 
trahit  me  laude  canenda. 

11.  Comes  from  Cant.  1.  j,  post 
te  curremus. 

12.  For  the  ace.  cp.  16.  6. 

13.  deprecari  usually  means  'to 
pray  that  an  evil  may  be  averted,' 
'  to  deprecate  ' :  here  that  a  blessing 
which  is  in  danger  of  being  lost  may 
be  granted;  cp.  Aulus  Gellius  vil. 
xvi.  3,  Ronsch  358. 

largius... adauge]  'increase  in  our 
souls  more  largely,'  i.e.  'grant  us  in 
ever  larger  measure,'  as  in  the  Bap- 
tismal Service, '  Increase  this  know- 
ledge...in  us  evermore';  cp.  Lk. 
xvii.  5  adauge  nobis fidem.  The  nor- 
mal ace.  after  adauge  is  supplied  by 
the  clause  in  15  f.  nescire... uulnera. 

15.  nescire  is  used  as  at  3.  20. 

16.  corruptionis  uulnera]    Cp. 

8 


114 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


de  Laps.  Virg.  1,1  amplexa  es  cor- 
ruptionem ;  ib.  3 1  iaces  ecce  uulne- 
rata ;  Hex.  iv.  4  corruptionis  sub- 
ditus  seruituti ;  de  Noe  53  commotio 
enini  uitiosa  non  est  nisi  per  affectus 
corruptiontm  ;  in  Ps.  CXVIII.  xix. 
41  animae  corruptae. 

The  thought  of  sin  as  wounding 
the  soul  is  a  very  favourite  one  with 


Ambr.  as  de  Bono  Mortis  40  animi 
uulnera ;  in  Ps.  xxxv.  3  \Christus'\ 
dolores  uulnerum  sanare  consueuit ; 
XXXVII.  20  animae  uulnera  gra- 
uiora  qtiam  carnis  sunt:,  ib.  53 
homo  enim  potest  uni  alicui  uulneri 
non  patere  ;  ut  puta  iniustitiae,  in- 
temperantiae,  in/mdicitiae ;  cp.  in 
Ps.  XXXVI.  3,  XL.  14  etc. 


III.   AURELIUS  PRUDENTIUS 
CLEMENS 

The  few  historical  facts  that  we  know  about  the  life 
of  Prudentius  are  learnt  from  his  own  writings,  and 
especially  from  the  45  lines  which  he  prefixed  to  his 
collected  edition  of  them.  Born  in  Spain,  probably  at 
Saragossa,  in  A.D.  348,  he  spent  a  wild  youth,  though,  as 
he  came  of  a  Christian  family,  his  self-accusation  may 
perhaps  be  exaggerated.  After  an  education  in  rhetoric, 
followed  by  a  course  of  jurisprudence,  he  entered  upon  a 
political  career,  in  which  his  ability  was  recognised.  He 
was  twice  set  in  command  of  a  province,  and  was  at  last 
raised  to  some  still  higher  post  by  the  favour  of  the 
emperor,  probably  Theodosius,  who  himself  also  was  a 
Spaniard.  This  high  office  may  have  been  the  command 
of  one  of  the  three  divisions  of  the  Palatine  (or  Imperial) 
Guard. 

Soon  after  his  50th  year  his  '  white  hair  warned 
Prudentius  to  retire  from  public  life  and  to  give  himself 
up  to  the  service  of  God.  How  long  he  lived  after  this 
we  have  no  means  of  knowing.  In  A.D.  404  or  405  he 
collected  and  published  an  edition  of  his  poems.  These 
may  be  divided  into  two  chief  classes,  lyric  and  didactic. 

The  former  of  these  classes  contains  the  book  Catfu- 
merinon  {KaOr^^epivSiv),  a  kind  of  daily  hymn-book, 
consisting  of  1 2  sacred  poems  for  private  use ;  and  one 
entitled  Peristephandn  {irepi  (ne^avtav),  made  up  of  14 
versified  accounts  of  the  death  of  certain  martyrs.  The 
poems  of  these  two  collections  are  written  in  every  kind 
of  metre.  Their  special  importance  for  our  present  pur- 
pose lies  in  the  fact  that  centos  from  them  have  been 

8—7 


1 16  EARLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

taken  to  serve  as  hymns  in  the  public  offices  of  the 
church.  The  Mozarabic  church  of  Spain  adopted  large 
portions  of  them  ;  elsewhere  as  a  rule  only  a  few  shorter 
pieces  were  actually  sung. 

There  is  one  marked  distinction  between  his  hymns 
and  those  of  Ambrose  and  his  successors.  Prudentius 
wrote  without  any  immediate  thought  of  their  being 
sung  in  church,  whereas  Ambrose's,  as  we  have  seen, 
were  composed  directly  for  that  purpose. 

The  didactic  poems,  which,  though  they  were  less 
highly  esteemed  at  the  time,  perhaps  reach  a  higher 
poetical  level,  are  written  in  hexameters,  and  were 
directed  against  the  absurdities  of  heathen  thought  and 
worship  (as  the  Psychomachia  and  the  two  Libri  contra 
Symmackum),  or  against  the  false  doctrines  of  heretical 
teachers  (as  the  Apotheosis  and  the  Hamartigenia). 

Prudentius  is  the  greatest  of  the  early  Christian  Latin 
poets.  In  the  middle  ages  his  works  were  a  great  reading- 
book  in  schools.  Isidore  of  Seville,  with  a  touch  of  local 
feeling,  does  not  hesitate  to  rank  him  above  the  classical 
writers. 

si  Maro,  si  Flaccus,  si  Naso  et  Persius  horret, 

Lucanus  si  te  Papiniusque  tedet, 
par  eat  eximio  dulcis  Prudentius  ore^ 

carminibus  uariis  nobilis  ille  satis. 

This  praise  of  course  he  does  not  deserve ;  but  Bentley 
and  other  good  authorities  speak  highly  of  him. 

We  may  say  that,  although  he  is  not  a  poet  of  the 
highest  rank,  he  might  have  been  one  had  he  lived  in  an 
age  that  would  have  developed  his  genius. 

Some  of  his  strong  points  are  to  be  seen  in  the  follow- 
ing extracts : — his  easy  and  graceful  flow  of  language, 
his  clear  and  vivid  style,  and  his  skilful  control  of  various 


HYMN  XX.  PRUDENTIUS  117 

metres.  His  weak  points  are  his  occasional  prolixity  and 
monotony.  He  does  not  always  know  when  to  bring  a 
story  to  an  end,  and  does  not  realise  that  at  times  irXiov 
rjfiiav  iravTo^.  To  give  one  example  :  while  Ambrose,  at 
14.  3 if.,  puts  just  six  words  into  the  mouth  of  Lawrence 
when  on  the  gridiron  and  tells  the  whole  story  in  32 
lines,  Prudentius  extends  his  account  to  584  and  makes 
Lawrence  in  that  position  utter  a  fairly  long  speech 
(see  p.  104). 

Hymn  20 

Cathemerinon  I,  from  which  20  is  taken,  is  entitled 
hy77inus  ad galli canUim^  'at  cock-crow.'  In  its  25  stanzas 
it  insists  on  the  necessity  of  watchfulness  and  of  avoid- 
ing slumber  of  the  soul ;  it  dwells  upon  the  danger  of 
attacks  by  nightly  demons,  and  concludes  with  a  prayer 
for  help  to  Christ.  The  order  of  the  selected  stanzas  is 
in  the  original  text  I,  II,  XXI,  xxv.  As  in  his  other  hymns, 
Prudentius  shews  from  time  to  time  the  influence  of  the 
hymns  of  Ambrose. 

The  hymn  was  adopted  into  the  later  series  (see  p.  xi) 
and  was  appointed  for  Mattins  on  Tuesdays. 

Eacdhjlsvx/i^  Fhijklnpsy  Gabm  Hacdefghi  Icdeghimnopv  Vbc 

Ales  diei  nuntius 

lucem  propinquam  praecinit, 

nos  excitator  mentiura 

iam  Christus  ad  uitam  uocat. 

«  cecinit  Vb. 

I.    'The  winged  messenger  of  day'  1.  44.    Christ  awakens  us  from  the 

is  of  course  the  cock,  the  praeco  diei  death  of  the  soul,  as  the  cock  arouses 

of  2.  5.  us  from  our  nightly  slumbers,    men- 

3.    Excitare  is  used  of  arousing  tiuni  'souls,'  as  at  8.  21. 
from  the  sleep  of  death,  Joh.  xi.  ii, 


ii8 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


*  auferte '  clamat  '  lectulos  5 

aegros,  soporos,  desides ; 
castique  recti  ac  sobrii 
uigilate ;  iam  sum  proximus.' 

lesum  ciamus  uocibus 

flentes,  precantes,  sobrii :  10 

intenta  supplicatio 

dormire  cor  mundum  uetat. 

6  aegro  Ecv  Fk  Gm  Ideimn  Vc.  sopore  Ecvx/it^  Fiknp%y  Gbm  Hghi 
Icdehimn.  7  caste  recte  Ejx  Fks  Hacdeghi  Id^eg^  (casteq.  recti  h)  m'nv 
Vc.  et  (pro  ac)  Es.  sobrie  Ejx  Fks  Gm  Hacdeghi  Id^eg^m^nv  Vc. 
9  sciamus  Ecsx/x^.  10  sobrie  Ecdlvx/x^  Fikps  Gbm  Hadefg 

Id'%imnpv  Vc. 


5.  'Away  with  the  couches  that 
are  for  the  sick,  the  drowsy  and  the 
slothfiil.'  So  Verg.  Georg.  IV.  464 
aeger  amor ;  cp.  80.  7.  For  the  other 
words  cp.  Aen.  vi.  390  umbrarum 
hie  locus  est  somni  noctisqtu  soporae. 
Stat.  Theb.  x.  87  desidis  atria  somni. 

6.  The  temptations  against  which 
vigilance  especially  guards  us  are 
lust,  unjust  dealing  with  others,  ex- 
cess ;  cp.  Rom.  xiii.  13  sicut  in  die 
ambulemus:  non  in  comissationibiis 
et  ebrietatibus  { =  sobrii),  non  in 
cubilibus  et  impudicitiis  (  =  casti), 
non  in  contentione  et  aemulationibus 
(  =  recti). 

8.  uigilate]  i  Cor.  xvi.  13,  r  Pet. 
V.  8.  The  origin  of  this  and  like 
passages  is  of  course  our  Lord's 
bidding,  as  at  Mt.  xxiv.  42.  Cp.  the 
Rhythm  of  Bernard  of  Morlaix  ^ora 
nouissima,  tempora  pessima  sunt, 
uigilemus ;  ecce  minaciier  imminet 
arbiter  ille  supremus. 

9.  ciamus]  '  let  us  summon  to  our 
aid';  cp.  Liv.  xii.  i^deos ciebamus; 
Val.  Flacc.  iv.  549  numina  nota 
ciens.  The  form  cio,  cire,  found  in 
Lucr.  I.  212  and  later  writers,  e.g. 
120.  6,  is  not  so  common  as  cieo, 
except  in  compounds. 

The  invocation  of  Christ  must  be 
aloud  {uocibus),  accompanied  by  re- 
pentance (Jlentes),  it  must  come  from 


the  heart  {precantes),  apart  from  all 
worldly  excitement  {sobrii). 

10.  With  the  ancients  silent  prayer 
was  most  uncommon,  as  is  illustrated 
by  the  story  of  Hannah,  i  Sam.  i.  13. 
Cp.  the  Rule  of  Pythagoras,  quoted 
by  Clement  of  Alexandria  Strom.  IV. 
xxvi.  173,  fjiiTb.  (puvfjs  edxeffOai,  Hor. 
Epist.  I.  xvi.  59,  Martial  i.  xxxix.  6. 
And  for  the  combination  of  tears  with 
prayers  so  often  mentioned  in  these 
hymns, — 2.  28,  21.  11,  42.  46,  60.  2, 
69.  6,  73.  8,  75.  11,  86.  12,— there 
is  no  occasion  to  adopt  Dressel's 
flere  hie  et  alibi  potius  ingemiscere 
esse  uidetur.  We  must  remember 
the  emotional  character  of  southern 
nations  and  (among  others)  the  stern 
Clearchus  shedding  tears  before  ad- 
dressing his  troops,  Xen.  Anab.  i. 
iii.  2  KoX  irpGrrov  fikv  iddKpve  iroXvv 
Xp6vov  i(rr(hs.  Also  Ambr.'s  words 
Praef.  in  Ps.\.  \o  psalmus  canitur, 
et  ipsa  etiatn  saxosa  pectora  molli- 
untur.  uidemus  flere  praeduros  ; 
and  Augustine's  {Confess,  ix.  14) 
quantum  fleui  in  hymnis  et  canticis 
tuis  suaue  sonantis  ecclesiae  tuae 
uocibus  conmotus  acriter!  ib.  16  idea 
plus  flebam  inter  cantica  hymnorum 
tuorum. 

11.  intenta  supplicatio  denotes 
the  state  of  mind  opposed  to  the 
uaga  mens  condemned  in  51.  n,  57. 


HYMN  XXL   PRUDENTIUS  119 

tu  Christe  somnum  dissice, 
tu  rumpe  noctis  uincula, 
tu  solue  peccatum  uetus,  15 

nouumque  lumen  ingere. 
13  discute  Ev  li.  14  nostra  (pro  noctis)  Ic. 

15,91.  14;  cp.  82.  i6f.,  Prad.  CVzM.  The  somntts,  tux,  and  lumen  are 

1. 86  sensum  profunda  obliuio  \  pres-  those  of  the  spirit. 

sit,grauauit,obruit,\uanisuagantem  14.  noctlB  uincula]  Cp.  Wisdom 

somniis.  xvii.  2  utnculis  tenebrarum  et  longae 

12.  Cp.  5.  21.  noctis  compediti.    The  thought  con- 

13.  The  line  is  imitated  from  2.  stantly  recurs,  as  at  Cath.  i.  37 
30.  peccata,   ceu   nox   horrida,  \  cogunt 

dissice]  'dispel.'   The  form  affrtV-  iacere ac  stertere. 

f^r«  is  not  found  in  early  Mss  ;  Latin  15.   peccatum  uetus]   Cp.  4.   10 

dislikes  the  coming  together  of  «".  diri  ueterno  criminis. 

The  J  could  be  doubled  or  not  at  16.   nouum  lumen]  Cp.  6.  30. 

pleasure  after  the  Augustan  period.  ingere]  Cp.  16.  3. 

Hymn  21 

The  poem  from  which  21  is  taken,  Cathefnerinon  II, 
is  entitled  hymnus  vtatutinus  and  consists  of  28  stanzas. 
Its  central  thought  is  the  contrast  between  the  night  of 
dark  deeds  and  the  light  of  Christ  (lines  27  f.  nee  teste 
quisquatn  lumine  \  peccare  constanter  potest).  The  poet 
prays  that  we  may  be  enabled  to  walk  as  children  of  the 
light.    Rom.  xiii.  12  f.  might  be  taken  as  the  text. 

This  hymn  is  a  cento  of  lines  thus  arranged:  1-8,  48, 
49,  52,  57,  59,  60,  67,  68.  It  was  introduced  into  the  later 
series  (.see  p.  xi)  and  was  appointee^  for  Mattins  on 
Thursdays. 

Eacdhjlsv^  Fghjlpqsy  Gabm  Hacdefghi  Ibcdghimpv  Vc 

Nox  et  tenebrae  et  nubila, 

confusa  mundi  et  turbida, 

I.   Nox  etc.  are  in  the  vocative.  meum.   As  in  the  preceding  hymn, 

nubila]  'clouds, 'strictly  the  neuter  the  nox  etc.  are  primarily  the  spiritual 

pluralof««*/7Mj'cloudy,'cp.  12.  22.  night    etc.,    as    the    contrast    with 

It  is  used  as  a  subst.  also  by  Hor.  Christus   in   1.    4    shews.      In   the 

Od.  I.  xxxiv.  6,  and  at  Hamart.  89  second  stanza  it  is  otherwise. 

sunt  animis  etiam  sua  nubila;  Aug.  2.  confusamundi  probably  refers 

Conf.    XI.    II    discindens    nubilum  to  Gen.  i.  2. 


I20 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


lux  intrat,  albescit  polus, 
Christus  uenit,  discedite. 

caligo  terrae  ^cinditur  5 

percussa  solis  spicule, 
rebusque  iam  color  redit 
uultu  nitentis  sideris. 

te  Christe  solum  nouimus, 

te  mente  pura  et  simplici  i6 

flendo  et  canendo  quaesumus, 

intende  nostris  sensibus. 

sunt  multa  fucis  inlita, 
quae  luce  purgentur  tua : 

6  speculo  Es  Ip.  7  calor  Es  Hd^  Ibdghitnv.  1 1  om.  et  EacdM. 


3.  albescit]  '  grows  bright '  ratlier 
than  '  white ' ;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  iv. 
586  cum  primuni  albescere  lumen  \ 
uidit.  Aug.  Conf.  xi.  4  uses  it  meta- 
phorically :  albescet  ueritas. 

polus]  Cp.  2.  10  note. 

4.  discedite]  a  common  formula, 
bidding  all  uninitiated  or  obnoxious 
persons  to  depart  from  a  sacrifice ; 
cp.  26.  13,  21. 

5.  The  darkness  is  regarded  as  a 
substantial  '  cloak '  or  '  veil '  thrown 
over  things  (cp.  Hainart.  86  aut  si 
fusca  poluni  suffudit  palla  serenum), 

which  is  '  rent '  or  '  torn '  by  the  rays 
of  the  sun.    See  also  27.  24. 

6.  So  Lucr.  I.  148  non  radii  solis 
neque  lucida  tela  diei ;  'll.  800  per- 
cusstts  luce  ;  Tert.  de  Pudic.  vii  non 
lucernae  spiculo  lumine  sed  totius 
solis  lancea  opus  est ;  Prud.  Haniart. 
87  radiorum  spictila. 

7.  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  272  rebus  nox 
abstulit  atra  color  em ;  cp.  22. 2, 67.  i  f. 

8.  'Under  the  countenance  of  the 
shining  star  of  day,'  viz,  the  sun. 
sidus  is  so  used  in  line  15,  in  81.  i, 
and  of  course  in  classical  poetry. 

uultu  stands  because  the  sun  is 
personified,  cp.  Verg.  Georg,  I.  452 
nam  saepe  uidanus  \  ipsius  in  uultu 
uarios  errare  colores  ;  36.  7. 


9.  Cp.  Hos.  viii.  2  Deus  meus 
cognouimus  te ;  i  Cor.  ii.  2,  Phil, 
iii.  8  f. 

JO.  te  is  governed  by  quaesumus^ 
which  here  as  in  68.  1 7  is  followed 
by  the  imperative  {intende  in  12) 
instead  of  its  usual  //^-clause  as  at 
15.  29,  42.  61,  68.  17.  At  44.  21 
it  has  no  following  clause. 

quaesumus  here  stands  for  rogare 
...discivius  in  the  original  poem. 

11.  Cp.  20.  10  note. 

flendo  et  canendo]  This  use  of  the 
abl.  gerund  taking  the  place  of  the 
pres.  participle  is  first  found  Plaut. 
True.  916  ita  miser  cubando  in  lecto 
hie  exspectando  obdurui.  Cp.  Liv. 
XLV.  26  equidfvi pro patria  qui  letum 
oppetissent,  saepe  fatido  auditii;  Tac. 
Ann.  XV.  38  incenditcm  plana  pri- 
mum,  deinde  in  edita  asstirgens,  et 
rursus  inferiora  popidando,  anteiit 
remedia  uelocitate  mali;  2.  26, 28.  20, 
31.  44,  34.  15,  36.  34  etc.  The  con- 
struction was  very  common  in  late 
writers  and  has  passed  into  Italian  ; 
cp.  Ronsch  432  f.,  Schmalz  447  f., 
Lofstedt  Aeth.  i^gi. 

12.  sensibus]  See  2.  29,  note  3.  8. 

13.  fUcus  was  firstly  a  sea- weed 
found  off  Crete,  from  which  a  kind 
of  red  dye  was  made,  then  the  '  dye ' 


HYMN  XXII.  PRUDENTIUS 


121 


tu  lux  eoi  sideris 
uultu  sereno  inlumina. 


'5 


or  '  paint '  itself  which  was  at  times, 
like  our  '  rouge,'  used  to  cover  an 
imperfection  ;  cp.  Prud.  Harnart. 
2'j^(.  taedet  sacrilegas  mcUrum  per- 
currere  cur  as,  \  muneribus  dot  at  a 
Dei  quae  plasmata  ftuo  \  inficitint, 
ut  pigmentis  cutis  inlita  perdat  \  quod 
fuerat,  falso  turn  agnoscenda  colore. 
Ambr.  de  Cain  i.  15  adulterina  est, 
fucis  inlita.  Here  it  seems  to  refer 
to  pretences  and  unrealities  of  all 
sorts.   Cp.  Ps.  cxxxix.  23. 

15.  'Do  thou  who  art  light 
illuminate  us  with  the  bright  face  of 
the  rising  star.'  lux  is  found  in  all 
hymnals  for  rex  of  the  original,  per- 
haps adopted  from  2.  29.    In  the 


same  way  at  22.  i  lux  aurea  is  sub- 
stituted for  Prud.  's  sol  aureus. 

eoi  sideris]  i.e.  the  sun,  as  in 
line  8 ;  cp.  Verg.  Georg.  i.  288  aut 
cum  sole  rwuo  terras  inrorat  eous. 
Servius  there  notes  Cinna  in  Smyrna 
sic  ait :  te  matrinionium  flentem  con- 
spexit  eous,  et  Jlentem  paulo  uidit 
post  Hesperus  idem.  So  Sil.  Punic. 
IX.  180  conscia  nox  sceleris  roseo 
cedehat  eoo;  ib.  xi.  518  lucem  sur- 
gentis  eoi;  Sedul.  Carm.  V.  191 
splendidus. .  .fulget  eous.  In  all  these 
passages  eous  means  '  the  rising  sun,' 
'  the  dawn. ' 

1 6.  uultu  as  in  8 ;  sereno  '  bright ' 
as  in  10.  2. 


Hymn  22 

This  hymn  also  comes  from.  Cathemerinon  II,  answering 
to  lines  25,  93,  94,  96-108.  It  was  adopted  in  the  later 
series  and  appointed  for  Mattins  on  Fridays. 

Eacdhjlsv/x^  Fghinpsx7  Gabm  Hacdefghi  Ibcdeghmnopv  Vbct 

Lux  ecce  surgit  aurea, 
pallens  facessat  caecitas, 
quae  nosmet  in  praeceps  diu 
errore  traxit  deuio. 

2  fatescat  Ecdsvx  Gm  Hacd  Ihp,  facescat  E/i  Fin  Ig,  fatescit  El,  facessat 
Fhpx  Gab  Hh  Vt.  4  deuios  E/t  Vb. 


I.  'The  golden  light,'  probably 
means  '  daylight,'  which  demands 
spiritual  correspondence.  The  diffi- 
culty of  fixing  the  exact  signification 
of  the  words  is  a  result  of  bringing 
together  lines  from  different  parts  of 
the  original  poem.  In  Prud.  the 
sol  aureus  is  certainly  the  natural 
sun,  but  te  Christe  solum  nouimus 
and  the  rest  has  intervened,  so  that 
kaec  lux  in  5  is  plain.  Here  a  refer- 
ence to  the  time  of  day  seems  to  be 


required  to  start  with,  the  meaning 
of  hcuc  lux  being  gathered  from  the 
three  preceding  lines. 

2 .  pallens] '  colourless '  as  at  46.  5 , 
Prud.  Calh.  IX.  78  (of  the  darkness 
at  the  Crucifixion)  tristia  squalentis 
aethrae  palluerunt  sidera,  cp.  21.  7, 
67.  I,  120.  10.  Here  it  takes  the 
place  of  tatidem  in  the  original. 

facessat]  'depart.'  So  Liv.  i.  47 
J'acesse  hinc ;  Ambr.  Hex.  III.  27 
facessat  uana  opinio  ;  Prud.  Apoth. 


122 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


haec  lux  serenum  conferat 
purosque  nos  praestet  sibi : 
nihil  loquamur  subdolum, 
uoluamus  obscurum  nihil. 

sic  tota  decurrat  dies, 
ne  lingua  mendax,  ne  manus 
oculiue  peccent  lubrici, 
ne  noxa  corpus  inquinet. 

speculator  adstat  desuper, 
qui  nos  diebus  omnibus 
actusque  nostros  prospicit 
a  luce  prima  in  uesperum. 


lO 


15 


10  nee  (pro  ne  primo)  Esv/a  Gm  Hacde^f  Icgmn  Vb.   nee  {pro  ne  sec.) 
Eaedhjsv/i0  Gm  Hacde^  Icdgnv  Vbc.  1 1  ne  (pro  -ue)  Ev^<^  HaM'e 

Icdm,  nee  Ecs  Fn  Gm  Ha^cd^f  Igv  Vbc.  12  nee  He  lev. 

13  spectator  Ea. 


659.  The  variant  fatiscat  would 
mean  'fail,'  'give  way, 'as  at  26.  25. 

The  same  difficulty  of  determining 
the  reading  presents  itself  in  the 
original  poem.  Dressel  there  reads 
facessat. 

5.  haec  lux  means  Christ — the 
opposite  of  the  /.  caecitas. 

serenum]  'fair  weather';  as  in 
classical  Latin,  and  at  Juvenc.  ill. 
226  adueniet  uentura  luce  serenum, 
36.  1  ;  see  note  on  10.  2.  Jlere,  of 
course,  it  is  used  metaphorically. 

8.  uoluamus]  'turn  over'  in  our 
minds;  ep.  Lucr.  vi.  34  tioluere 
curarum  tristes  in  pectore  fluctus  ; 
Verg.  Aen.  i.  7ps^ per  noctem plurima 
uoluens;  Niceta  de  Symbolo  14  haec 
salutaris  confessio  uoluatur  in  pec- 
toribus  uestris. 

obscurum  niliil] '  nodark  thought,' 
cp.  67.  II,  86.  2. 

9.  sic  is  answered  by  «<?  in  10 : 
'  in  such  a  way  that  the  tongue  may 
not  sin  by  lying,  nor  the  hand  or 
the  eyes  by  sliding,  that  guilt  may 
not  defile  the  body.' 

sic  is  often  used  in  wishes  and 
prayers.    Thus  Hor.  Od.  I.  iii.  i  f. 


sic  te  diua  patens  Cyprt,  |  sic/ratres 
Helenae,  lucida  sidera,  \  tuntorum- 
que  regat  pater;  where  Page  notes  : 
'jjV="so"  i.e.  "on  that  condition" 
. . .  ep.  our  similar  use  of  "  so  help  you 
God  "  in  administering  oaths  :  the 
Latins,  however,  throw  the  clauses 
with  sic  forward,  instead  of  keeping 
them  to  the  end.'  Cp.  Verg.  Eel. 
IX,  30  sic  tua  Cymeas  fugiant  ex- 
a fn ina  taxos . . .  incipe. 

decurrat]  'run  to  its  close, ^  as  at 
106.  5. 

10.  Note  the  emphasis  put  on 
the  adjs  mendax  and  lubrici.  lubrici 
is  here  taken  in  its  literal  sense 
'easily  moving';  cp.  also  the  note 
on  3.  12. 

12.  noxa]  'guilt'  cp.  64.  14; 
Gaius  Digest  L.  xvi.  238  noxae  ap- 
pellatione  omne  delictum  continetur. 
We  have  had  the  adj.  noxius  1.  39, 
17.  6  meaning  'guilty,'  and  it  is  often 
used  in  later  hymns.  But  noxialis 
of  23.  ir,  33.  5  bears  the  stronger 
sense  '  baleful.'  The  ne  may  be  taken 
either  as  parallel  with  the  two  fore- 
going, or  as  dependent  upon  ne  pec- 
cent, cp.  James  iii.  6. 


HYMN  XXIII.  PRUDENTIUS  123 

13.  apectilator] 'watchman, 'used  iuUitia   ditiina... quasi   speculairix 

in  its  literal  meaning  2  Sam.  xviii.  pia.    Arnob.  adu.  Nationts  iv.  33 

26,  2  Kings  ix.  20  etc.    For  its  use  speculator  tlle...betu  meritorum  ac 

of  God's  all-seeing  eye,  cp.  Minuc.  pessime.   The  general  thought  could 

Felix    Octauius    xxxil.    9    quanta  be  illustrated  by  numberless  passages; 

magis  Deus,auctor  omnium  ac  specu-  cp.  48.  4,  93.  5;  Commodian  Apol. 

lalor  omnium,  a  quo  nullum  potest  127   quique  tettet  caelum,  prospicit 

esse secretum,... interest... cogitationi-  ubique  de  cculo  \  et  penetrcU  totum 

bus  nostris;  Ambr.  in  Ps.  xxxv.  25  oculis  et  auribus  audit. 

Hymn  23 

Cathemerinon  IX,  from  which  23  is  a  cento,  is  entitled 
hymnus  omnis  horae.  At  every  hour  of  every  day  should 
a  believer  be  mindful  of  Christ,  who  is  the  A  and  H,  the 
beginning  and  the  end.  Prudentius  therefore  praises  Him 
as  the  creator  of  all  things,  as  the  everlasting  Son  of  the 
Father's  love  begotten.  He  then  briefly  but  graphically 
relates  the  chief  wonders  of  His  earthly  life,  in  order  to 
shew  to  all  men  commtnus  Deum  docendis  proditum  mor- 
talibus  (line  9). 

The  uses  of  different  churches  selected  from  the  poem 
various  stanzas  to  form  a  Christmas  hymn.  The  eight 
here  given  are  those  of  the  Hereford  breviary,  and  in  the 
original  are  the  4th,  5th,  6th,  7th,  8th,  9th,  36th  and  37th. 
The  Mozarabic  use  on  the  other  hand  was  to  sing  the 
first  35  stanzas  on  Easter  Day  and  during  the  octave, 
36-38  post  ascensionem  Domini. 

Ehx^  Hdefgh  Ih  Mi  Vs 

Corde  natus  ex  parentis  ante  mundi  exordium, 
alpha  et  w  cognominatus,  ipse  fons  et  clausula 

2  A  {pro  alpha)  Hh. 

1.  corde...  parentis]  Col.  i.  13.  Carm.  in.  2S-jf.Auftc  esse  per  orbem\ 
Cp.  1.  3  (which  Prud.  may  have  principintn  ac  finem,  hunt  o  uide- 
had  in  mind)  ;  Prud.  Apoth.  (init.)  rier,  hum  u.  These  letters,  the  first 
corde  Patris  genita  est  sapientia,  and  last  of  the  Greek  alphabet, 
Filius  ipse  est.  denote    '  the    beginning    and     the 

2.  alpha  et  w]  Rev.  i.  8,  1 1,  end,'  as  is  further  expressed  by 
xxi.   6,    xxii.    13,    107.    21,    Sedul.  yi>«x^/^/a«J^«/a,  representing //-//«■»- 


124 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


omnium,  quae  sunt,  fuerunt,  quaeque  post  futura  sunt, 
saeculorum  saeculis. 

ipse  iussit  et  creata,  dixit  ipse,  et  facta  sunt 
terra,  caelum,  fossa  ponti,  trina  rerum  machina, 
quaeque  in  his  uigent  sub  alto  solis  et  lunae  globo, 
saeculorum  saeculis. 

corporis  formam  caduci,  membra  morti  obnoxia 
induit,  ne  gens  periret  primoplasti  ex  germine, 
merserat  quem  lex  profundo  noxialis  tartaro, 
saeculorum  saeculis. 


pium  et  clausula  of  Rev.  i.  8.  Our 
name  omega  is  a  modern  invention 
which  Prudentius  knew  not. 

4.  saeculorum  saeculis]  the  re- 
frain after  each  stanza,  is  not,  as 
such,  in  the  original,  but  was  in- 
serted from  the  last  line  of  the 
whole  ^oem,  omnibus  te  concelebrent 
saeculorum  saeculis,  when  the  cento 
came  into  use  as  a  hymn. 

5.  iussit]  Ps.  cxlviii.  5.  The 
ipse  is  Christ  catching  up  the  ipse  of 
line  1 ;  cp.  Hamart.  338  Christus 
cum  conderet  orbem;  Perist.  II.  413  f. 
O  Ckriste nomen  unicum,  ...o factor 
orbis  et  poli  \  ib.  X.  468  f.  Christus 
paternae  gloriae  splendor,  Deus  \ 
rerum  creator,  1.  8  note. 

6.  For  this  threefold  enumera- 
tion of  the  elements  of  the  universe 
cp.  Ps.  cxlv.  (cxlvi.)  6  qui  fecit  cae- 
lum et  terram,  mare,  et  omnia  qtiae 
in  eis  sunt,  from  Exodus  xx.  11. 

fossa  ponti]  'the  hollow  of  the 
sea,'  cp.  Lucr.  v.  483  salso  suffodit 
gurgite  fossas. 

trina  rerum  machina] '  the  three- 
fold fabric  of  the  world,'  from  Lucr. 
V.  96  machina  mundi.  The  phrase 
recurs  at  113.  9,  Fort.  III.  vi.  52 
et  Trinitatis  opem  machina  trina 
sonet;  cp.  39.  3,  69.  2,  Hamart. 
247  mundana  laborat  mcuhina. 

7.  Prud.  is  perhaps  thinking  of 
Lucr.  V.  471  f.  hunc  exordia  sunt 
solis  lunaeqw  secuta,  \  interutraque 
globi  quorum  uertuntur  in  auris. 


9.  formam]  as  at  Phil.  ii.  7  for' 
mam  serui  cucipiens. 

caduci]  '  frail,'  cp.  29.  21,  94.  26, 
Hilary  Hymn.  II.  25  tton  estcaducjim 
corpus  istud,  quod  tenes. 

obnoxia]  'subject  to';  cp.  Apoth. 
1043  mortique  obnoxia  cessit;  Symm, 
II.  1 06 1  horrea  nocturno  non  iim- 
quam  obnoxia  furi;  Verg.  Georg. 
II.  439  non  ulli  obnoxia  curae.  The 
phrase  fuembra  morti  obnoxia  recurs 
at  Perist.  V.  155. 

10.  primoplasti]  '  the  first  made 
tiian,'  i.e.  Adam.  The  word  is  half 
Latin,  half  Greek.  So  Commod. 
Instr.  XXXV.  I  has  protolapsus. 
The  more  correct  protoplastus  is 
found  at  33.  4,  40.  3,  112.  16,  Wis- 
dom vii.  I  (Vulgate).  The  words 
plasma  (37.  20,  94.  26),  plasmare 
(42.  6,  14),  plasmator  (78.  i)  also 
come  in  these  hymns. 

Note  the  adverbial  phr.  ex  ger- 
mine qualifying  gens  like  an  ad- 
jective. 

11.  '  which  the  law  of  death  had 
overwhelmed  in  the  depths  of  hell.' 
noxialis,  'baleful,'  invented,  as  it 
seems,  by  Prud. ;  cp.  Perist.  X.  1 107 
noxialis  carceris ;  33.  5  ;  see  22.  1 2 
note. 

tartaro]  the  infernal  regions  in 
the  old  heathen  mytholc^,  adopted 
by  Christian  writers  to  denote  'hell,' 
or  'the  powers  of  hell.'  So  at  31. 
87,  32.  6,  34.  24,  36.  17  etc. 


HYMN  XX TIL   PRUDENTIUS 


125 


o  beatus  ortus  ille,  uirgo  cum  puerpera 
edidit  nostram  salutem  feta  sancto  Spiritu, 
et  puer,  redemptor  orbis,  os  sacratum  protulit, 
saeculorum  saeculis. 

psallat  altitudo  caeli,  psallant  omnes  angeli, 
quidquid  est  uirtutis  usquam  psallat  in  laudem  Dei : 
nulla  knguarum  silescat,  uox  et  omnis  consonet, 
saeculorum  saeculis. 

ecce  quern  uates  uetustis  concinebant  saeculis, 
quem  prophetarum  fideles  paginae  spoponderant, 
emicat  promissus  olim :  cuncta  conlaudent  eum 
saeculorum  saeculis. 


15 


13  partus  Ex^  Hf  Ih. 
hanc  sacrando  piauit  Vs. 
21  quam  Mi.     uetusti  Ih. 


1 4  plena  {pro  feta)  Vs. 
x8  laude  E^  Hfg. 
23  collaudant  Hdf. 


15  ut  Hdf.    orbem 
19  sed  {pro  et)  Vs. 
deum  Mi. 


13.  uirgo... puerpera]  in  sharp 
contrast  as  at  1.  13  and  often.  Prud. 
lays  stress  upon  the  Virgin-birth, 
Apoth.  436  etc. 

14.  salutem]  personified,  as  at  38. 
29  iam  nata  lux  est  et  sahts ;  cp. 
36.  27,  87.  16. 

feta... Spiritu]   Lk.  i.  35,  6.  10. 

17.  psallant]  Imitated  from  Ps. 
cxlviii.  I.  This  is  the  reading  of 
practically  all  the  hymnals.  It  goes 
better  with  psallat  before  and  after 
than  psallite,  which  is,  no  doubt, 
the  original  text.  But  from  a  metri- 
cal point  of  view  psallant  is  not  so 
good,  as  it  brings  a  spondee  into 
the  I  St  foot  of  the  2nd  part  of  the 
line,  which  Prud.  never  admits. 

psallere  {ip6.Wuv)  is  strictly  to 
sing  to  the  accompaniment  of  a 
stringed  instrument,  but  this  mean- 
ing is  not  to  be  pressed  here  or  at 
43.  5,  51.  2,  54.  4  etc. 

18.  'Let  every  power,  wherever 
it  be,  sing  to  the  praise  of  God ' ; 
cp.  Ps.  cxlviii.  2  laudate  eum  omnes 
uirtutes  eius. 

19.  nulla  lingtiarum]  Late  Latin 
extended  the  use  of  the  partitive 
gen. ;  cp.  Tac.  Germ.  43  nulla  has- 


tium\  Draeger  i.  421,  Schmalz 
365.  silescat  would  strictly  mean 
*  leave  off  singing,'  but  probably 
Prud.  intended  it  to  he  =  s^eat. 

21.  Cp.  Apoth.  605  f.  estne  Deus 
iam  noster  homo?  uersatur  et  ad- 
stat  I  nobiscum  nomenque  probat 
uersumque  tutustis  \  obscurum  saeclts 
praesenti  inluminat  ore. 

We  have  had  the  phrase  uelusta 
saecla  12.  29.  uates,  the  bards  or 
singers  such  as  David  and  the  pro- 
phets, cp.  14.  6  note,  concinebant 
'  sang  with  one  accord,'  cp.  Acts  x. 

43- 

22.  fideles]  'faithful  to  the  truth,' 
'  truthful,'  as  at  34.  14. 

paginae]  '  prophecies ' ;  cp.  Pro- 
pert.  IV.  XXV.  17  has  tibi  fatalis 
cecinit  mea  pagina  diras\  Prud. 
Apoth.  \oT  falsiloqua  est  diuini  pa- 
gina libri. 

spoponderant  put  into  the  plu- 
perfect to  denote  that  the  promise 
was  of  ancient  standing,  or  it  may 
be  because  the  Incarnation,  though 
spoken  of  in  the  present,  was  already 
a  historical  event  of  the  past.  So 
41.  15  atisus  erat,  95.  10  uiderat, 
96.  4  sanxeras. 


126 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


macte  iudex  mortuorum,  macte  rex  uiuentium,  25 

dexter  in  parentis  arce  qui  cluis  uirtutibus, 
omnium  uenturus  inde  iustus  ultor  criminum, 
saeculorum  saeculis. 

te  senes  et  te  iuuentus,  paruulorum  te  chorus, 
turba  matrum  uirginumque,  simplices  puellulae,  ,  30 

uoce  Concordes  pudicis  perstrepant  concentibus 
saeculorum  saeculis. 

31  perstrepunt  Hgh. 


25.  macte]  Originally  'mighty 
one,'  the  vocative  of  a  participle 
answering  to  the  adj .  magnus.  At  first 
confined  to  the  language  of  religion, 
it  came  to  be  used  in  the  sense  of 
'  well-done.'  The  idea  here  is  much 
like  that  of  Ps.  xliv.  (xlv.)  5  '  Good 
luck  have  thou  with  thine  honour.' 

26.  dexter]  'on  His  right  hand,' 
cp.  4.  32. 

in  parentis  arce]  Prud.  often 
uses  arx  thus,  as  Perist.  11.  272  in 
arce  lucebunt  Patris ;  and  Fortu- 
natus  has  taken  up  the  phrase,  cp. 
33.  1 1. 

duis]  '  excellest.'  Prud.  uses  this 
word  again  of  Christ  Psych.  2  qui 
patria  uirtute  cluis  \  and  twice  of 
Rome  c.  Symin.  i.  417  praediuite 
cultu  I  inlustrata  cluis ;  ib.  il. 
583  f.  uis  dicam...quis gloria  fotibus 


aucta  I  sic  cluat,  inpositis  ut  mun- 
dum  frenet  habenis  ?  cp.  Cafk.  IV. . 
37  tuaprcucluenspotestas.  In  earlier 
Latin  the  more  usual  form  of  the 
word  was  clueo  cluere.  Plautus  uses 
that  word  absolutely,  as  here,  with 
an  ablative  of  the  distinguishing 
feature. 

29.  te  is  governed  by /^rj^^r^/aw/, 
which  is  elsewhere  used  of  confused 
shouting  ;  cp.  the  use  of  personare 
16.  6.  The  stanza  is  an  amplification 
of  Ps.  cxlviii.  12. 

Many  hymnals  add  in  full  a  doxo- 
logy :  Tibi  Christe  sit  cum  Patre 
hagioque  Pneumate  (or  Spiritu) 
hymnus,  decus  (or  ntelos),  laus  peren- 
nis,  gratiarum  actio,  honor,  uirtus, 
uictoria,  regmim  aetemaliier,  sae- 
culorttm  saeculis.  This  of  course 
was  not  written  by  Prud. 


Hymn  24 

This  beautiful  hymn  is  patched  together  from  Prud.'s' 
hymnus  epiphaniae,  Cath.  XII,  and  has  gained  by  its  ab- 
breviation. The  lines  selected  are  in  the  original  125- 
128,  134,  129,  130,  132,  93,  94,  97,  99,  loi,  102,  107-112, 
117,  114,  113,  115,  133,  137,  138,  136. 


HYMN  XXIV,  PRUDENTIUS 


127 


Ex^fr  Fs  Habcdefy  Ichn  Vcs 

Saluete  floras  martyrum, 
quos  lucis  ipso  in  limine 
Christi  insecutor  sustulit, 
ut  turbo  florentes  rosas. 

quid  crimen  Herodem  iuuat  ? 
uos,  prima  Christi  uictima, 
grex  inmolatorum  tener, 
palma  et  coronis  luditis. 


audit  tyrannus  anxius 
adesse  regum  principem ; 

1  om.  in  Ex0  Ich  Vc.     lumine  Ex,  limite  Fs  Vs. 


1 .  '  Hafl  flowers  of  the  martyr 
band,'  martyrum  being  partitive 
gen.  Cp.  [Aug.]  Serm.  ccxx  iure 
dkuntur  martyrum  Jlores,  quos  in 
medio  frigore  infidelitatis  exortos 
uelut  primas  erumpentes  ecdesiae 
gemmas  quaedampersecutionispruina 
decoxit. 

2.  '  Whom  on  the  very  threshold 
of  the  light  of  life ' ;  an  echo  of 
Verg.  Aen.  vi.  426  continue  auditae 
uoces,  uagitus  et  ingens,  \  infantum- 
que  animae  Jlentes  in  limitie primo,  \ 
quos  dulcis  uitae  exsortes  etc.  ;  cp. 
Lucan  II.  106  nee  prima  in  limine 
uitae  I  infantis  miseri  nascentia 
rumpere  fata. 

4.  The  original  of  Prud.  ceu 
turbo  nascentes  rosas  might  well 
have  been  retained.  Cp.  Stat.  Silu. 
III.  126  f.  media  cecidere  abrupta  iu- 
uenta  \  gaudia,  florentesque  manu 
scidit  Atropos  annos,  \  qualia  pal- 
lentes  declinant  lilia  culmos  \  pu- 
bentesque  rosae  prinios  moriuntur  in 
annos;  Verg.  Aen.  xi.  68 f.  qualem 
uirgineo  demessum  pollice  florem  \ 
seu  mollis  uiolae  seu  langtuntis 
hyaeinthi. 

6  f.  uictima  and  grex  are  in  ap- 
position with  uos.  uictima  is  a  col- 
lective singular  as  at  31.  40. 

7 .   inmolare  meant  ( i )  to  sprinkle 


10 

8  corona  Hb'cd^. 

with  sacrificial  meal  {mola  salsa), 
hence  (2)  'to  sacrifice,'  as  here  and 
at  33.  3,  18,  34.  8,  107.  11. 

8.  The  palm  and  crown  were  the 
tokens  of  victory  among  the  Greeks 
and  Romans;  cp.  Liv.  x.  47  eodem 
anno  [B.C.  293]  coronati,  primum  ob 
res  bello  bene  gestas, . .  .palmcuque  turn 
primum  translato  e  Graecia  more 
uictoribus  dalae.  Hence  both  were 
adopted  by  Christians  as  signs  of 
the  martyrs'  triumph.  Palms  are 
thus  spoken  of  Rev.  vii.  9  (though 
with  Hebrew  associations)  and 
crowns  (in  a  rather  different  con- 
text), ib.  IV.  4.  So  Cypr.  de  Bono 
Pat.  7  qui  martyras  floribus  coro- 
not  aetemis,...qui  palmas  ueras 
uincentibus  tribuit;  49.  43.  Cle- 
ment quotes  Paulinus  of  Nola  (of 
Celsus  who  died  as  an  infant)  aui 
cum  Bethlaeis  infantibus  in  Para- 
diso,  I  quos  malus  Herodes  perculit 
inuidia,  \  inter  odoratum  ludit  ne- 
mus,  atque  coronas  |  texit  honoran- 
dis  praemia  martyribus. 

10.  Actsv.  31,  Rev.  i.  i  prirueps 
regum  terrae.  So  in  Prud.  Christ  is 
entitled  rex  {Cath.  XI.  100,  Xll.  41, 
Psych.  97J,  rex  aeternus  (Apoth. 
222),  rex  uiuentium  {Cath.  IX. 
106  =  23.  25). 


128 


EARL  Y  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


11  arripe  E^  Fs«  Hcef  Ih  Vs*. 
Fs  Hbcdef  Ihn  Vcs. 

1 1 .  amens  n.]  '  mad  with  rage  at 
the  message,'  16.  i6  note. 

12.  satelles]  'guardsman,'  an 
officer  attached  to  the  personal  ser- 
vice of  a  prince.  The  original  of 
Prud.  is  here  more  graphic,  if  some- 
what spun  out :  exclamat  amens 
nuntio:  \  successor  instat,  pellimur!  \ 
satelles,  i,  ferrum  rape!  \  perfunde 
ctinas  sanguine! 

14.  '  Search  the  laps  of  the  nurs- 
ing mothers.' 

16.  indolis]  'sex';  lit.  'quality' 
usually  of  character  or  disposition. 

18.  'with  drawn  sword,'  mucro 
is  strictly  the  point,  but  Verg.  Aen. 
II.  449  has  strictis  mticronibus.  All 
MSS  read  districto,  which  would  be 
meaningless.  On  such  a  point  their 
evidence  is  of  little  worth. 

19.  effasa]  '  born,'  cf.  Juvenc.  i. 
105  iussum  fundere  par  turn  ;  Prud. 
Cath.  VII.  59  nee  ante  partu  de 
senili  effusus  est ;  39.  20,  Verg.  Aen. 


exclamat  amens  nuntio : 
'ferrum,  satelles,  corripe; 

mas  omnis  infans  occidat, 
scrutare  nutricum  sinus, 
fraus  ne  qua  furtim  subtrahat 
prolem  uirilis  indolis.' 

transfigit  ergo  carnifex 
mucrone  destricto  furens 
effusa  nuper  corpora 
animasque  rimatur  nouas. 

o  barbarum  spectaculum! 
uix  interemptor  inuenit 
locum  minutis  artubus 
quo  plaga  descendat  patens- 
quid  proficit  tantum  nefas  ? 
inter  coaeui  sanguinis 

24  descendit  Vs. 


15 


20 


25 


25  profuit  Ex^ 


VIII.  139  que7n  Candida  Maia  \  Cyl- 
lenae  gelido  conceptum  uertice  fudit ; 
where  Servius  says  that  the  word 
implies  an  easy  labour ;  Ambr.  Hex. 
v.  30  mulieres  solae  partus  suos  in- 
clementer  effundunt. 

20.  '  and  searches  out  (sc.  by 
piercing  the  body)  the  young  lives.' 
rimari  is  used  at  86.  ro  of  God 
searching  the  heart,  by  Verg.  Georg. 
I.  384  of  birds  groping  in  the  mea- 
dows for  food,  and  Aen.  vi.  599  of 
the  vulture  digging  into  Tityos'  en- 
trails. 

21  f.  This  passage  is  imitated 
from  Ambr.  de  Virg.  i.  7  (of 
Agnes)  ftiitne  in  illo  corpusculo 
uulneri  locus. 

24.  descendat]  the  regular  word 
for  a  blow  'falling,'  cp.  Liv.  I.  41 
ferru7n...in  corpus  descendisse;  Ov. 
Met.  III.  67;  Lucan  Vl.  216;  Dra- 
cont.  Delib.  184  descendit  hiatu 
hasta  patens. 


H  YMN  XX  V.   PR  UDENTIUS  1 29 

fluenta  solus  integer 
inpune  Christus  tollitur. 

sit  Trinitati  gloria, 

uirtus,  honor,  uictoria,  30 

quae  dat  coronam  testibus 

per  saeculorum  saecula. 

27.   fluenta]   See  the  note  on  1.  all  mss  that  contain  the  hymn,  but 

17-  it  was  not  written  by  Prud. 

integer]  'unscathed,'  cp.   1.    51  31.    testibus]  i.e.   'to  martyrs.' 

note.  For   the  martyr's  crown  cp.  14.  3 

29  f.   This  doxology  is  found  in  note. 

Hymn  25 

These  are  the  first  two  (out  of  44)  stanzas  of  Prud.'s 
hymnus  ieiimantium,  Cathemerinon  vil.  The  former 
stanza  contains  a  prayer  to  Christ  that  He  may  regard 
with  favour  this  fast,  which  is  an  offering  to  Him  ;  the 
second  enumerates  some  of  the  benefits  to  be  gained  by 
fasting.  The  hymn  thus  formed  had  no  wide  use,  as 
is  shown  by  the  few  old  MSS  in  which  it  is  found,  viz, 
British  Museum  37517  probably  from  Canterbury,  and 
Bern  455  from  St  John  at  Laon.  But  it  is  mentioned  by 
Radulph  de  Canonum  Obseruantia  (quoted  by  Daniel  IV. 
207)  de  qiiadragesima  sunt  hyinni  Audi  benigne:  ad  noc- 
turnos.  Ex  more :  in  laudibus,  O  Nazarene.  The  poem  as 
a  whole  was  in  the  Mozarabic  Church  sung  at  the  third, 
sixth  and  ninth  hours  during  Lent,  from  10  to  20  lines 
at  each  service. 

Eh  Makx 

O  Nazarene,  lux  Bethlem,  Verbum  Patris, 

quern  partus  alui  uirginalis  protulit, 

adesto  castis,  Christe,  parsimoniis, 

I  dux  Mk. 

I.    Most   of  the    liturgical    mss  uerbum  Patris]  Joh.  I.  i,  cp.  1.  3. 

change  Pnid.'s  lux  into  dux^  which  2.  partus] active,  'child-bearing, 

comes  from  Mt.  ii.  6.  3.  parsimoniis]  'fast,'  as  at  96. 


w. 


ISO 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


festumque  nostrum  rex  serenus  adspice, 
ieiuniorum  dum  litamus  uictimam. 

nil  hoc  profecto  purius  mysterio, 
quo  fibra  cordis  expiatur  uiiidi, 
intemperata  quo  domantur  uiscera, 
aruina  putrem  ne  resudans  crapulam 
obstrangulatae  mentis  ingenium  premat. 


14,  96.  6,  110.  19.  The  word  is  used 
by  classical  writers,  but  not  in  this 
sense. 

4.  festum]  Cp.  George  Herbert's 
'  welcome  dear  feast  of  Lent.' 

serenus  is  not  nom.  for  voc,  but 
is  to  be  taken  closely  with  adspice, 
'look  brightly  upon.' 

5.  ieiuniorum... uictimam]  The 
fast  is  an  offering  to  Christ ;  cp.  96. 
18, 110.  1 7.  liiare, '  offer  a  successful 
sacrifice,'  usually  intransitive  with 
abl.  of  the  offering  (like  sacrijicare, 
facere  etc),  but  it  occurs  in  classical 
poetry,  as  here,  with  an  accus. , — e.g. 
Ovid  Fasti  w.  630  has  sacra  litate. 

uictimam]  Cp.  Rom.  xii.  i,  Phil, 
iv.  18,  Hebr.  xiii.  15.  Possibly  the 
word  has  here  the  same  collective 
meaning  as  in  24.  6. 

6.  purius]  'more  cleansing,'  cp. 
Tibull.  I.  V.  II  ipseque  te  circum 
lustraui  sulpure puro. 

7.  fibra  cordis] '  the  heart  strings, ' 
for  the  heart  itself.  So  Pers.  i.  47 
neque  enim  mihi  cornea  fibra  est ; 
Saluian.  de  Gub.  Dei  in.  37  letaliter 
crescentibus  fibris.  Fibra,  uiscera, 
aruiva  are  chosen  as  being  the  parts 
chiefly  offered  in  sacrifice. 


expiatur]  is  cleansed  by  atonement 
made.  The  sin  offering  was  a  piacu- 
luni,  cp.  96.  17,  62.  11,  and  also  67. 
5,  98.  8. 

uuidi]  lit.  '  wet '  (being  akin  to 
uinor,  vypos)  probably  here  means 
'drunken,'  'debauched,' as  Hor.  Od. 
11.  xix.  18  uses  it,  like  the  Greek 
^e^pey/jL^vos. 

8.  uiscera] '  the  body,'  'the  flesh'; 
see  16.  17  note,  and  for  the  general 
sense  cp.  i  Cor.  ix.  27. 

9.  aruina]  strictly  the  hard  fat 
between  the  skin  and  the  body, 
hence  '  fat '  in  general ;  cp.  Ambr. 
in  Ps.  xxxvili.  34  deponat . .  .pingue- 
dinem  quandam  carnalis  aruinae. 

resudans]  Cp.  Apoth.  719  crudns 
conuiua  resudat  \  congeriem  uentris ; 
Cath.  X.  107  sua  tunc  tormenta  re- 
sudans. 

crapulam]  originally,  like  K/)at- 
irdXr),  the  headache  after  drinking, 
but  often  the  debauch  itself;  cp.  103. 
17,  116.  27. 

10.  obstrangulatae]  invented  as 
it  seems  by  Prud. ;  cp.  Pcrist.  i.  99 
\daeinones'\  strangulant  mattes  et 
ipsas  seque  miscent  sensibus. 


Hymn  26 

This  hymn  consists  of  the  last  7  of  the  38  stanzas 
of  Prud.'s  hymnus  ante  somnum,  Cathemerinon  VI. 
Radulph  (Daniel  IV.  207)  notes  as  to  its  use:  de passione 
...ad  contpletorium,  Ctdtor  Dei.  Blume  {Analecta  XXVII. 
37)  gives  its  Mozarabic  use  also  ad  complet. 


HYMN  XXVI.   PRUDENTIUS 


131 


Ehl  Fst  Gfi  Macx 
Cultor  Dei,  memento 
te  fontis  et  lauacri 
rorem  subisse  sanctum, 
te  chrismate  innotatum. 

fac,  cum  uocante  somno 
castum  petis  cubile, 
frontem  locumque  cordis 
crucis  figura  signet. 

crux  pellit  omne  crimen, 
fugiunt  crucem  tenebrae : 


10 


3  rore  sub  ipso  sacrato  chrismate  Fs. 
6  peti  Fs^.  8  signa  Fs. 


4  innouatum  El  Fst. 


2.  fontis  et  lauacri] '  the  cleansing 
stream,'  hendiadys.  Our  use  of  the 
'font'  makes  it  easy  to  forget  that 
in  early  times  baptism  was  by  im- 
mersion, and  if  possible  in  running 
water,  lauacri,  water  for  cleansing ; 
it  is  so  used  also  at  31.  41,  37.  22, 
91.  24.  It  is,  no  doubt,  a  remini- 
scence of  Tit.  iii.  5  per  I.  regenera- 
tionis  et  renouationis. 

4.  chrismate]  the  sacred  oil  with 
which  the  newly  baptized  were 
anointed  ;  see  Tertullian  de  Bapt.  7, 
and  cp.27.  32, 37. 1 2,40. 3 1 ,  106. 7, 10. 
This  sacramental  symbol  was  at  first 
composed  of  pure  olive  oil,  but  from 
the  V I  th  century  on  wards  balsam  was 
added  to  it.  In  early  times  no  day 
was  fixed  for  blessing  the  chrisnia, 
but  since  the  Vth  century  this  cere- 
mony has  been  performed  at  the 
second  mass  on  Maundy  Thursday, 
which  was  hence  called  missa  chris- 
matis.  For  some  time  all  the  clergy 
of  a  diocese  had  to  attend  and  take 
the  chrism  away  with  them,  but  this 
rule  was  afterwards  relaxed. 

innotatum]  'marked,'  not  found 
elsewhere.  The  variant  innouatum 
is  found  in  mss  both  of  the  hymn 
and  of  the  original  text,  and  is  a 
natural  conjecture  with  reference  to 
baptismal  regeneration. 


5  f.  See  that  you  make  the  sign 
imprinted  on  you  at  that  time.  The 
cross  on  which  Christ  was  sacrificed 
was  from  the  earliest  times  held  in 
high  honour  (cp.  i  Cor.  i.  18,  24, 
Gal.  vi.  14;  Chrysost.  Horn,  lv  in 
Matth.,  Aug.  Serm.  xii  de  sanct., 
John  of  Damascus  De  Orthod.  Fide 
IV.  17  etc.) ;  so  much  so  that  Chris- 
tians were  accused  of  worshipping 
it.  With  the  cross  they  signed  them- 
selves ;  cp.  Tert. de  Coron.  Milit.  in. 
Cypr.  de  Orat.  Dotn.  ix,  Lactant. 
Div.  Inst.  IV.  xxiii.  3  cum  diis  suis 
immolant,siadsistataliquissignatam 
frontem  gerens,  sacra  nullo  tnodo 
litatit ;  Cyril  of  Jerusalem  Catech. 
IV.  14,  xiir.  36;  Fort.  ix.  xiv.  7f., 
X.  vi.  121  f.  42.  35, 103.  9f.  See  also 
the  references  given  by  the  com- 
mentators on  this  passage  of  Prud. 

7.  frontem... cordis]  Cp.  Ambr. 
de  Is.  et  An.li  signaculum  Christ  us 
in  fronte  est,  signcuulum  in  corde  ; 
infronte,  ut  semper  confiteamur  ;  in 
corde,  ut  semper  diligamus.  Alcuin 
Carm.  cxxi.  41  f.  muniat  frontem, 
loca  siue  cordis... crucis  et  tropaeum 
daemonuin  uafros  abigat  meandros 
membra,  quae  casta  dabimus  cubili. 

9.  crimen]  '  guilt,'  see  1.  35  note. 

10.  tenebrae]  spiritual  darkness 
and  the  powers  of  darkness. 

9-3 


132 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


tali  dicata  signo 
mens  fluctuare  nescit. 
procul,  o  procul,  uagantum 
portenta  somniorum ! 
procul  esto  peruicaci 
praestigiator  astu ! 
o  tortuose  serpens, 
qui  mille  per  meandros 
fraudesque  flexuosas 
agitas  quieta  corda, 
discede,  Christus  hie  est, 
hie  Christus  est,  liquesce  ! 


15 


13  otn.  o  El. 


20  agitat  Ft. 


21-24  0^'  Fs. 


1 1 .  dicata] '  hallowed,'  as  at  96.  4. 
mens  '  soul '  as  at  2.  30. 

12.  fluctuare 'waver';  cp.  Verg. 
Aen.  X.  680  attitno  nuttc  hue  nunc 

Jluctuat  illuc ;  Catull.  LXIV.  62 
magnis  curanim  Jluctuat  undis ; 
Ambr.  de  Noe  41  corporis  nostri 
terrena  substantia  ...Jluctuat  pas- 
sionibus;  Prud.  Hamart.  11%  mens 

Jragilisfac  Hi  ti  itiorutnjluctua  taestu; 
87.  27,  and  see  also  9.  7. 
nescit]  Cp.  3.  20  note. . 

1 3.  procul]  an  echo  of  Verg.  Aen. 
VI.  258  procul  0  procul  este projani ; 
cp.  21.  4  discedite  (note). 

uagantum]  Cp.  2.  II.  Notice  the 
alliteration  running  through  the 
stanza.  For  the  power  of  the  cross 
in  banishing  evil  spirits,  see  Lact. 
de  Mort.  Pers,  10,  Ath.  de  Incarn.  48. 

15.  'Avaunt  thou  deceiver  of  per- 
sistent cunning ! ' 

praestigiator]  'juggler,'  'cheat,' 
used  by  Plautus,  but  then  not  until 
the  silver  age. 

astu]  used  only  in  the  abl.,  except 
in  some  late  writers. 

17.  tortuose]  'writhing,'  'wrig- 
gling,' in  allusion  to  the  serpent's 
motion;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  v.  275 
tteguigua?n  longos  Jugiens  dat  cor- 
pore  tortus :  but  with  a  further 
sinister  meaning. 


18.  By  countless  winding  ways 
and  evil  twists,  mil/e  as  at  Hor. 
Od.  III.  vii.  12  tempt  at  mille  uajer 
jHodis. 

meandros]  from  the  river  Maeander 
in  Caria,  which  had  a  proverbially 
winding  course;  cp.  Plin.  Hist.  v.  29 
ita  sinuosis  Jlexibus,  ut  saepe  credatur 
reuerti;  Ov.  Alet.  viii.  162  noji  sec  us 
ac  liquidus  Phrygiis  Maeandros  in 
aruis  \  ludit  et  ambiguo  lapsu  rejluit- 
que  Jluitque ;  \  occurretisque  sibi  uen- 
turas  aspicitundas,  \  et  nunc oAf antes., 
nunc  in  mare  tiersus  apertum  \  incer- 
tas  exercet  aquas .  Hence  Verg.  ^^w. 
V.  251  duplici  maeandro  'a  double 
wavy-line';  and  of  evil  twists  Cic. 
in  Pison.  53  quos  tu  maeandros,  quae 
deuerticula  Jluxionesque  quaesisti? 
Aul.  Gell.  Noct.  XVI.  viii.  17  ne...in 
Hits  dialecticae  gyris  atque  maean- 
dris,  tamquam  apud  sirenios  scopulos, 
consenescas.  Alcuin  Carm.  cxxi. 
41  f.  quoted  above  on  7.  Prud.  for 
metrical  purposes  writes  meandros, 
as  also  enigma  Apotk.  331,  heresis 
Psych.  710,  sph^ra  Apoth.  210.  His 
doing  so  is  facilitated  by  the  occa- 
sional spelling  of  the  word :  a  coin 
is  extant  with  the  legend  ANTIO- 
XeCON  MeANAPOC.  But  in 
Greek  a  diphthong  is  often  shortened 
before  a  succeeding  vowel. 


HYMN  XXVII.  PRUDENTIUS  133 

signum  quod  ipse  nosti 
damnat  tuam  cateruam. 
corpus  licet  fatiscens  25 

iaceat  recline  paulum, 
Christum  tamen  sub  ipso 
meditabimur  sopore. 
28  meditabitur  Fst. 

21.  discede]  Cp.  21. 4note;  Prud.  24.  cateruam]  'band'  of  evil 
Apoih.   406  fuge  callide  serpens...       spirits  as  at  66.  7. 

desine,  Christus  adest.  25.  fatlscens] 'worn out,' 'tired,' 

22.  liquesce]  'melt  away,'  'van-       cp.  22.  2  note. 

ish';    cp.    Sil.    Punic.    XVI.     134  27.   BUb  ipso... BOpore]  'in  sleep 

Hannibal  ipse    etiam    iam    iamque  itself,' not 'as sleep  comes  on,' which 

modestior  arniis  \  ire  uidebatur,Mar-  would  be  sub  ipsuin  soporeiii ;  cp.  6. 

tisqiie  liquescere  fama.  21  f.,  Cant.  v.  2. 

Hymn  27 

Cathemerino7i  V,  from  which  27  is  taken,  consists  of 
41  four-line  stanzas,  is  inscribed  ad  incensuni  lucernae, 
and  refers  originally  to  the  lighting  of  lamps,  and  was 
therefore,  like  hymn  5  (Ambrose's  evening  hymn),  where 
see  the  introduction,  meant  for  singing  at  the  lucernare. 
That  this  was  its  use  in  the  firs't  place  is  shown  not  only 
by  the  title  in  the  MSS,  but  also  by  its  position  among 
the  poems  of  the  Cathenierinon,  coming  as  it  does 
between  IV  hymniis  ante  cibum  and  VI  hyinnus  ante 
somnwn. 

Hymn  27  begins  with  a  seasonable  prayer  for  light  to 
Christ  who  is  the  only  source  of  light.  Then  follows  a 
highly  poetical  description  of  the  various  substitutes  for 
the  light  of  the  sun,  and  an  expression  of  thanks  to  God 
for  this,  the  greatest  blessing  which  He  has  given  to  men. 

In  those  verses  of  the  original  poem  which  are  omitted 
in  the  hymn,  roughly  speaking  30-148,  Prud.  is  led  by 
the  incident  of  the  burning  bush  to  describe  in  a  long 
digression  the  passage  of  the  Red  Sea  and  the  destruc- 
tion of  Pharaoh,  and  certain  events  of  the  journeyings  of 


134 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


the  Israelites  to  the   Promised  Land  ;    and   this  again 
suggests  a  glowing  picture  of  the  heavenly  Canaan. 

Although  the  original  poem  was  written  for  the  daily 
lucernare,  the  hymn,  adopted  as  such  not  before  the  IXth 
century,  is  a  celebration  of  the  lighting  of  the  Easter 
Candle,  for  which  see  Smith  Diet.  Chr.  Ant.  p.  1564, 
Kraus  11.  564;  also  the  note  on  line  31. 


Eanv  Makx 
Inuentor  rutili,  dux  bone,  luminis, 
qui  certis  uicibus  tempera  diuidis, 
merso  sole  chaos  ingruit  horridum, 
lumen  redde  tuis,  Christe,  fidelibus. 

quamuis  innumero  sidere  regiam 
lunarique  polum  lampade  pinxeris, 


3  inruit  Mk, 

1.  Innentor]  'creator,'  has  lost 
its  meaning  of  '  discoverer '  as  has 
repertor.  See  12.  2.  The  1st  and 
4th  lines  are  an  echo  of  Hor.  Od.  iv. 
V.  5  lucetn  redde  tuae,  dux  bone, 
patriae. 

2.  For  this  merciful  interchange 
for  our  refreshment  and  for  the  re- 
gularity of  the  changes  see  introduc- 
tion to  2. 

certis]  'fixed,'  is  especially  used 
of  anything  that  recurs  at  definite 
intervals,  as  of  the  regular  courses 
of  the  sun  and  stars  (47.  4,  84.  20), 
or  of  the  fixed  interchange  of  times 
and  seasons  (as  here  and  57.  i) ;  cp. 
also  42.  57,  62.  i. 

uicibus]  used  as  at  17.  2. 

3.  merso] 'dipped  in  ocean,' 'set'; 
so  Catull.  LXVI.  68  (of  a  constella- 
tion) qui  uix  sero  alto  mergitur 
oceano. 

chaos]  the  state  of  the  world  when 
it  was  without  form  and  void  and 
darkness  was  upon  the  face  of  the 
deep  ;  cp.  Ov.  Met.  i.  5  ante  mare 
et  tellus  et  quod  tegit  omnia  caelum  \ 
unus  erat  toto   naturae  uultus   in 


5-28  om.  Ea. 

orbe,  I  quern  dixere  chaos,  rudis  in- 
digestaque  moles:  Lact.  Inst.  i.  4  chaos 
est  mdis  inordinataeque  materiae 
confusa  congeries.  It  is  therefore  an 
apt  image  of  night,  as  in  Stat.  Silv. 
III.  ii.  92,  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  81,  Ptrist. 

111.  55.  See  also  36.  36  note,  and 
73.  7. 

ingruit]  Cp.  Verg.  Georg.  11.  410 
ingruit  umbra. 

4.  fidelibus]  a  subst.,  as  at  29.  49. 

5.  inniunero  sidere]  collective 
sing,  as  Ov.  Her.  xvi.  366  innumeri 
militis.  Cp.  36.  49  innumej-um  po- 
pulum.  Verg.  has  innumeras  gentes, 
and  Prud.  elsewhere  always  uses  the 
plur. 

regiam]  '  Thy  palace '  (cp.  41.  36, 

112.  24)  and  polum  both  denote  the 
same  thing,  the  nightly  heavens. 

6.  lunari... lampade]  Cp.  Verg. 
Aen.  III.  637  Phoebeae  lampadis 
(which  Prud.  may  have  taken  to 
mean  '  the  torch  of  Phoebe  ') ;  Fort. 
IV.  xxvi.  131  lampade  lunae;  VII.  vi. 
3  lucifer . . .lampada  miitit. 

pinxeris]  'picked  out,'  'adorned.' 
So  of  an  embroidered  robe  Verg. 


HYMN  XXVII.   PRUDENTIUS  135 

incussu  silicis  lumina  nos  tamen 

monstras  saxigeno  semine  quaerere  ; 

ne  nesciret  homo  spem  sibi  luminis 

in  Christi  solido  corpore  conditam,  10 

qui  dici  stabilem  se  uoluit  petram, 

nostris  igniculis  unde  genus  uenit ; 

pinguis  quos  olei  rore  madentibus  • 

lychnis  aut  facibus  pascimus  aridis, 

quin  et  fila  fauis  scirpea  floreis  15 

7  inpulsu  Ev.  8  monstrans  Ev.  13  Unguis  Ev.  om.  quos  Mk. 

14  ac  {pro  aut)  Env. 


Aen.  IX.  582,  and  of  parti-coloured 
flowers   Ed.    il.   50   mollia   luteola 

pingit  tiaccinia  caltha.  Cp.  Lucr.  V. 
1 396  anni  \  tempora  pingebant  uiri- 
dantis Jioribiis  herbas  ;  Fort.  VI.  iv. 
1 1  non  cupis  auro  umeros,  nee  collum 

pingere  gemmis. 

8.  monstras . . . quaerere] '  biddest 
us  seek ' ;  so  Verg.  has  an  inf.  after 
monstrare:  Aen.  IX.  44  conferre 
tnanitm  pudor  iraque  monstrat. 

saxigeno  one  of  those  compound 
adj.'s  which  were  as  a  rule  avoided 
by  the  severer  taste  of  the  Augustan 
poets  but  which  were  much  liked  by 
Prud.,  who  among  others  has  caeli- 
potens,  columnifer,  cunctiparens, 
ctmctipotens,  dulcimodus,  falsiloqitus 
etc.    See  note  on  36.  1  Jlorigero. 

The  two  lines  7,  8  are  a  remini- 
scence of  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  6  quaerit 
pars  semina  Jlamtnae  \  abstrnsa  in 
uenis  silicis;  cp.  Lucr.  vi.  160,  20 r, 
841;  Hom.  Od.  V.  490  ffvipiia  irvp6i. 

9.  This  necessity  of  seeking  light 
from  the  rock,  to  supplement  that 
of  moon  and  stars,  is  to  teach  us 
that,  as  Christ  was  the  spiritual  rock 
that  followed  the  Israelites  in  the 
desert  (see  introduction  p.  133),  so 
He  is  the  one  source  of  our  lights. 
Prud.,  as  all  the  ancients,  thought 
that  the  flint,  by  means  of  which 
fire  was  obtained,  was  the  abode  of 
the  fire.    Ambr.  Hex.  11.  12  f. 

sibi...  conditam]  'was  stored,' or 


'hidden,'  'for  him.'  The  body  of 
Christ  is  called  solidum  to  prejiare 
for  the  far-fetched  interpretation 
which  follows. 

1 1.  petram]  i  Cor.  x.  4,  Wisdom 
xi.  4  data  est  Hits  aqua  de  petra  altis- 
sima.   Deut.  xxxii.  13. 

12.  igniculis]  'our  poor  lights,' 
contrasted  with  Him  who  is  the  lux 
uera,  line  29.  The  diminutive  form 
is  depreciatory. 

unde  refers  back  to  Christi  solido 
corpore  in  10. 

genus]  'source,'  'origin,'  as  Verg. 
Aen.  I.  380  genus  ab  Tone  swnmo. 

13  f.  '  Which  (lights)  we  feed  with 
lamps  wet  with  the  liquid  of  rich 
oil  or  with  dry  torches,  nay  too  we 
fashion  rush-wicks  smeared  with 
wax  from  the  flowers,  the  honey 
having  been  squeezed  out  before.' 
Lamps,  torches,  wax  tapers  are 
here  described  and  again  in  the  next 
stanza.  The  lines  are  full  of  echoes 
of  Vergil. 

13.  Cp.  Verg.  Eel.  V.  6%  pinguis 
crateras  oliiti;  Verg.  Aen.  V.  854 
rore  madentem. 

14.  pascimus]  Vei^.  Aen.  xi.  786 
pineus  ardor  cueruo  \  pascitur. 

aridis]  Verg.  Aen.  i.  1 75  succepit- 
que  ignemfoliis  at  que  arida  circum  \ 
nutrimenta  dedif,  where  however 
dry  tinder  is  spoken  of. 

15.  Cp.  Verg.  Georg.  iv.  140 
cogere  pressis  \  nulla  fauis. 


136 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


presso  melle  prius  conlita  fingimus. 

uiuax  flamma  uiget,  seu  caua  testula 
sucum  linteolo  suggerit  ebrio, 
seu  pinus  piceam  fert  alimoniam, 
seu  ceram  teretem  stuppa  calens  bibit. 

splendent  ergo  tuis  muneribus,  Pater, 
flam  mis  mobilibus  scilicet  atria, 
absentemque  diem  lux  agit  aemula, 
quam  nox  cum  lacero  uicta  fugit  peplo. 

o  res  digna,  Deus,  quam  tibi  roscidae 
noctis  principio  grex  tuus  offerat, 
lucem,  qua  tribuis  nil  pretiosius, 
lucem,  qua  reliqua  praemia  cernimus. 

tu  lux  uera  oculis,  lux  quoque  sensibus, 
intus  tu  speculum,  tu  speculum  foris, 


25 


17-24  om.  Ev. 
!7  et  ^%  luce  Ev. 


21-24  om.  En. 


30 


26  uotis  {j>ro  noctis)  Ev. 


17.  testtila]  the  earthenware  're- 
ceiver '  of  the  lamp  ;  the  word  is 
diminutive  in  form,  but  not  in  mean- 
ing, testula  refers  to  the  lychnis 
above,  pinus  to  the  facibus,  and 
stuppa  to  the  fila  scirpea. 

18.  linteolo...  ebrio]  'well  soaked 
linen  yarn.' 

19.  Cp.  Verg.  Aen.  ix.  ^^  piceum 
fert fumida  lumen  \  taeda.    Lev.  iii. 

16  adolebitque  ea...in  alimoniam 
ignis.  The  classical  word  was  ali- 
mentum ;  alimonia  was  used  by 
Plautus,  then  not  until  Aulus  Gellius. 

20.  '  Or  if  the  burning  tow  drinks 
up  the  rounded  wax ' ;  alluding  to 
the  shape  of  the  taper. 

2 if.  'Aye  our  halls  blaze  with 
Thy  gifts,  even  {scilicet)  with  these 
flickering  flames.' 

23.  Prud.  Perist.  XI.  167  sic  datttr 
absentis  per  subterranea  solis  \  cemere 
fulgorem  luminibusque  frui. 

agit]  'plays  the  part  of,'  'repre- 
sents ' ;  cp.  Cic.  ad  Fam.  II.  9  egi 
omnes  illos  adulescentes . 


24.  '  from  which  flees  night  beaten 
and  with  rent  robe. '  Prud.  takes  the 
idea  in  uicta  from  Verg.  Aen.  i.  727 
noctemjlamviisfunalia  uincunt ;  cp. 
Paul.  Nol.  Carm.  xiv.  52.  He  is  in 
turn  copied  by  Fortunatus  I.  xv.  56 
(of  a  well  lighted,  church)  7tox  ubi 
uicta  fugit  semper  habendo  diem. 

peplo]  For  '  night's  robe  '  see  the 
note  on  21.  5. 

25  f.  '  O  worthy  offering  for  Thy 
flock  to  make  Thee  at  the  beginning 
of  dewy  night,  even  light,  than  which 
Thou  grantest  nought  more  precious, 
light  by  which  we  perceive  Thy  other 
gifts.' 

27.  lucem  is  attracted  into  the 
same  case  as  quam  in  2 5.  Somewhat 
like  are  Ter.  Eun.  653  eunuchum 
quem  dedisti  nobis,  quas  turbas  dedit; 
Verg.  Aen.  I.  573  urbem  quam  statuo 
uestra  est. 

28.  reliqua]  see  4.  28. 

29.  lux  uera]  i  John  i.  5. 
sensibuB]  to  the  eyes  of  the  soul, 

as  at  3.  8. 


HYMN  XXVII.   PRUDENTIUS  137 

lumen,  quod  famulans  offero,  suscipe 
tinctum  pacifici  chrismatis  unguine, 

per  Christum  genitum,  summe  Pater,  tuum, 

in  quo  uisibilis  stat  tibi  gloria, 

qui  noster  dominus,  qui  tuus  unicus  35 

spiral  de  patrio  corde  Paraclitum. 


30.  speculum]  inins  refers  to  sen- 
sibus,  forts  to  oculis  of  29.  It  is  not 
easy  to  see  what  Prud.  means  by 
calling  God  a  speculum.  Perhaps  it 
is  that  He  shews  us  what  we  ought 
to  see,  both  in  the  spiritual  and  in 
the  natural  world.  The  thought  is 
not  unlike  that  of  3.  3  lux  lucis. 

31.  '  The  light  thus  offered  at  the 
beginning  of  night '  is  in  the  hymn 
the  paschal  candle ;  see  the  intro- 
duction. But  Prud.  was  thinking  of 
the  ordinary  lights  of  evening.  We 
do  not  elsewhere  read  of  these  lights 
as  being  '  offered,'  but  the  very 
ancient  custom  of  giving  thanks  in 
connexion  with  them  may  well  have 
been  considered  as  a  kind  of  con- 
secration of  them.  See  Oehler's  n. 
on  Tert.  de  Cor.  Mil.  3,  where  Tert. 
speaks  of  making  the  sign  of  the 
cross  ad  lumina  as  one  of  the  im- 
memorial traditions  of  the  church. 
Among  other  reff.  Oehler  notes  Je- 
rome Ep.  LVii  ad  Laetavi  (p.  595 
Martianay),  where  he  recommends 
that  Laeta's  daughter  should  make 
an  act  of  devotion  at  the  third,  sixth, 
and  ninth  hours,  accensaque  lucerna- 
cula  reddere  sacrificium  uespertinum. 
Jerome  does  not  exactly  speak  of 
offering  the  light,  but  it  is  so  closely 
joined  to  the  '  evening  sacrifice '  as 
to  suggest  that  it  formed  a  part  of 
it.  There  remains,  however,  in  Prud., 
the  mystical  relation  between  the 
lamp  itself  and  the  offerer's  soul.  It 
is  not  easy  to  see  which  is  directly 
intended,  and  which  indirectly.  If 
he  intends  lumen  to  be  the  lamp,  he 
uses  language  concerning  it  which 
properly  applies  to  the  baptized  and 
confirmed  believer:  if  he  intends  the 
believer,  his  language  is  borrowed, 


at  least  in  part,  from  the  feeding  of 
the  lamp.  Cellarius  explains  lumen 
as  equivalent  iofidei  lumen,  compar- 
ing Perist.  X.  432  f.  cernant  ut  tllud 
lumen  aetemaespei ; . .  .puris  sed  intus 
quod  relucet  mentibus.  But  how  can 
we  fit  on  to  this  the  next  line  tinctum 
pacifici  chrismatis  unguitul  It  may 
be  compared  with  Tert.  de  Prcuscr. 
36,  where  Tert.  speaks  of  the  faith 
as  being  sealed  with  the  baptismal 
water,  fed  with  the  Eucharist  etc. 

famulans]  'serving, 'hence 'hum- 
bly'; cp.  Fort.  IV.  xiv.  13  ibat  ad 
abbatem  famulans  sanctumque  ma- 
gistrum  \  discipulus  humilis. 

32.  tinctum] 'dipped,' the  regular 
word  for  '  baptized '  in  Tertullian 
and  other  early  Latin  fathers,  chris- 
matis has  its  special  Christian  signi- 
ficance, but  might  mean  no  more 
than  uni^uen  by  itself,  pacifici  has 
reference  both  to  theolive branch  and 
to  the  peace  which  the  Spirit  confers. 

unguine]  a  word  found  in  Verg. 
Georg.  III.  450  and  elsewhere. 

34.  stat]  means  little  more  than 
est ;  cp.  Leo's  edition  of  Fortunatus 
p.  418.  Ronsch  p.  388  reminds  us 
that  stare  passed  into  the  French 
itre,  and  gives  examples  of  a  like 
use  from  several  Latin  writers. 

uisibilis]  see  Col.  i.  15,  and  cp. 
Novatian  de  Trin.  p.  119  (Fausset). 

35.  unicus  is  a  subst.,  as  at  31. 
91,  71.  3,  87.  2  ;  it  is  used  adjectiv- 
ally 36.  28,  98.  2,  104.  50,  117.  26, 
119.  18. 

36.  For  the  Procession  of  the 
Spirit  from  the  Son  cp.  6.  30. 

de  patrio  corde]  Cp.  1.  3,  28.  i. 

ParAclitus  is  always  thus  scanned 
in  these  hymns  except  at  118.  5,  in 
consequence  of  the  Greek  accent. 


138  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

per  quem  splendor,  honos,  laus,  sapientia, 

maiestas,  bonitas,  et  pietas  tua 

regnum  continual  numine  triplici, 

texens  perpetuis  saecula  saeculis.  40 

37.  i.  e. '  Through  Whom  (it  is  not  Od.  III.  xvi,  42  si  Mydgoniis  regnum 

clear  whether  Prud.  means  the  Son  Alyattei  \  cainpis  contimiem ;  Prud. 

or  the  Spirit)  Thy  brightness... has  Praefatio  ^1  hymnis  continuet  dies ; 

everlasting  sway.'  Fort.  I.  i.  12  quo  sifie  node  manet 

sapientia]  from  Rev.  vii.  12  ;  cp.  continuata  dies. 

Rev.  V.  12.  40.  texens... saecula]  God's  glory 

39.   contlnuare  means  '  to  make  etc.  are  considered  as  forming  the 

continuous'or  'unbroken, 'as  inHor.  thread  which  binds  age  to  age. 


Hymn  28 

This  hymn  is  pieced  together  from  Peristephanon  II, 
the  lines  in  the  original  being  15,  17,  397,  398,  21-32, 
549)  550,  565.  It  is  based  upon  14,  Ambrose's  hymn  on 
St  Lawrence,  the  introduction  to  which  should  be  re- 
ferred to  for  the  death  of  Xystus  and  Lawrence.  See 
also  the  general  introduction  to  Prudentius  p.  117. 

Mhk 
En  martyris  Laurentii 
armata  pugnauit  fides, 
postquam  uapor  diutinus 
decoxit  exustum  latus. 

fore  hoc  sacerdos  dixerat  5 

iam  Xystus  adfixus  cruci, 

I  f.   The  first  two  lines  are  ex-  the  places  of  3  and  4:  nam  morte 

plained  by  the  preceding  passage  of  mortem  diruit  \  ac  semel  impendit 

the  original,  the  sense  of  which  is  :  sibi — come    from    19,     20    of    the 

the  one  glory  formerly  lacking  to  original.    For  uapor  see  6.  24. 

Rome,  now  given  up  to  Christ,  was  5.    sacerdos  in   early  writers  is 

the  final  subjugation  of  foul  Jove,  perhaps   the   commonest   word   for 

not     by    the    turbulent    might    of  'bishop.'  Cp.  Cypr.  j5/>/j/.  Lxvi.  5 

Cossus,  Camillus  or  Caesar,  but  by  ecce  iam  sex  annis  nee  fraternitas 

the  not  bloodless  strife  of  the  martyr  habuerit  episcopum,  fiec  plebs  prae- 

Lawrence.  positum,    nee   grex   pastor  em,    nee 

3  f.    See  14.  28  f.    The  two  fine  ecclesia  gubernatorem,  nee  Christus 

lines  which  in  some  hymnals  take  antistitem,  nee  Deus  sacerdoiem. 


HYMN  XXIX.  PRUDENTIUS  139 

Laurentium  flentem  uidens 
crucis  sub  ipso  stipite  : 

*  desiste  discessu  meo 

fletum  dolenter  fundere ;  10 

praecedo,  frater ;  tu  quoque 

post  hoc  sequeris  triduum.' 

extrema  uox  episcopi 

praenuntiatrix  gloriae 

nihil  fefellit,  nam  dies  15 

praedicta  palmam  praestitit. 

hinc,  sancte  Laurenti,  tuam 
nos  passionem  quaerimus : 
quod  quisque  supplex  postulat, 
cunctis  fauendo  praeroga.  20 

9  decessu  Mh.  12  triduo  Mk.  10  proroga  Mh. 

7.   flentem]   This  use  of  a  parti-  561  f.   quae  sit  potestas  credita  |  et 

ciple  for  the  infinitive  after  a  verb  tnuneris  quantum   datum  \  probant 

of  perception,   though  the  rule  in  Quiritum  gaudia,  \  quibus  rogatus 

Greek,  is  rare  in  Latin.    Prud.  has  adnuis.     For   tuam   passionem  =  te 

it  again  Cath.   x.    1 10  uictrix  caro  passtim  see  7.  6  note ;  and  for  the 

iamque  perennis  \  cemet  sine  Jine  ace.  after  quaero,  Schmalz  359.   The 

gementem  ;  cp.  Schmalz  453  f.  thing  asked  is  contained  in  the  next 

9  f.   Note  the  alliteration.  couplet. 

15.   niliil]  'in  no  respect,'  as  at  20.  fauendo]  =/a«<r«j,  cp.  21.  11. 

45.  19  ;  cp.  Draeger  i.  360.  This  line  is  not  in  Prud.,  but  forms 

1 7.  Mnc]    Prud.  has  sic.  a  summary  of  the  last  part  of  his 

18.  'We  ask  from  thy  passion,'  poem. 

i.e.   '  from  thee  as  a  martyr.'    See  pi«erogare   (cp.   erogare,  proro- 

the  two  following  lines  of  the  ori-  gave)   means    'to    pay    promptly': 

ginal   text :    est  aula   nam  duplex  Dirksen  gives  several  instances  from 

tibi,  I  hie  corporis.,  mentis  polo  ;  and  Law  Latin. 


Hymn  29 
'The  crowning  glory  of  the  poetry  of  Prudentius' 
(Trench)  is  the  tenth  hymn  of  his  Cathemerinon,  from 
which  both  29  and  30  are  taken.  The  deep  Christian 
feeling  and  thought,  the  exquisite  expression  thereof, 
and  the  admirable  choice  of  metre, — the  anapaestic 
dimeter  catalectic,  or  the  second  part  of  a  hexameter — all 


HO  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

combine  to  make  this  poem  the  masterpiece  of  its  kind 
in  literature. 

The  only  church  that  in  ancient  times  sang  these 
grand  verses  circa  exseqnias  deftincti  was  the  Mozarabic. 
The  following  cento,  hymn  29  (comprising  stanzas  I-vil, 
XII,  xv-xvii,  XL-XLii  of  the  whole  poem),  is  that  found 
in  the  Spanish  use,  which  added  two  stanzas  of  a  bar- 
barous type  :  aniwias  tion  iminemor  ob  hoc,  \  quarum 
memores  sumus  ipsi,  \  Dens,  sorte,  rogamus,  a  portis  \ 
erebi  regis  fac  alienas.  \  sit  honor  tibi,fons  pietatis,  \  laus, 
gloria,  sumnia  potestas  \  Patri,  Genito,  sine  Dona,  \  orbis 
regi,qui  Dens  unus.  So  Blume  Analecta  xxvil.  38  prints 
from  the  breviary  of  Ortiz  of  1502.  Daniel  I.  140  gives 
the  lines  incorrectly  from  Lorenzana. 

Makx 
Deus  ignee  fens  animarum, 
duo  qui  socians  elementa, 
uiuura  simul  ac  moribundum, 
hominem  pater  effigiasti : 

tua  sunt,  tua,  rector,  utraque ;  5 

tibi  copula  iungitur  horum  ; 
3  et  Max 

1.  Prud.  looked  upon  the  soul  as  is  immortal  {uiuum)  and  the  body 
sprung  from  fire,  which  was  the  doomed  to  death  {ntoribttndtini). 
principle  of  life,  and  from  God  the  Fort.  xi.  i.  33  iudicaturus  uiuos  el 
creator  of  fire,  Calh.  III.  186  oris  mortuos :  hoc  est  anitnas  et  corpora 
opus,  uigor  igneolus,  non  nioritur ;  pariter  iudicandas. 

Hamart.    543 f.    tiec  segnis   natura  4.    effigfiasti]   'hast  fashioned,' a 

aitittiae  est . . .ignitum  quoniam  Deus  word  perhaps  coined  by  Prud.  from 

indidit  olli  \  ingenium  ;  cp.   30.  4,  effigies.    It   is  found  afterwards  in 

Clem.  Hom.  xx.  90!  hi  tCov  dvdpu-  Sidonius  Apoll. 

irwv  \//vxai,  (fxarbi  KaOapov  ffraySvei  5.   Utraque]  both  body  and  soul. 

ov(Tai,   vTrb   a\\o(pij\ov  iru/)os    oixriai  As  only  two  things  are  thought  of, 

<TVfiirivhfj.evai  koI  <pv(nv  tov  airodaveLv  the  sing,  utrumque  would  be  more 

ovK  ^x*"'"''"    "■"■'■'   a|''a»'   KoXd^ovrai.  correct.   The  plural,  already  used  by 

See    the    commentators    on    Wisd.  Verg.  ^en.  VI.  685  palmas  utrasque 

ii.  2.  and   Tac.   Ann.    xvi.    it   utrosque 

2.  The  two  'principles,' as  Prud.  intuens,  became  the  normal  use  in 
goes  on  to  say,  are  the  soul  which  late  Latin,  as  e.g.  Fort.  iii.  vi.  26 


HYMN  XXIX.  PRUDENTIUS 


141 


tibi,  dum  uegetata  cohaerent, 
et  spiritus  et  caro  seruit. 

rescissa  sed  ista  seorsum 
soluunt  hominem  perimuntqye; 
humus  excipit  arida  corpus, 
animae  rapit  aura  liquorem. 

quia  cuncta  creata  necesse  est 
labefacta  senescere  tandem, 
conpactaque  dissociari, 
et  dissona  texta  retexi. 

hanc  tu,  Deus  optime,  mortem 
famulis  abolere  paratus, 

8  spiritus  simul  {pro  et  sp.)  Mk.         12  anima  Mk. 
17  hinc  ad  fin.  hymni  sequentis  nihil  annotauit  Walp. 


10 


15 


15  confracta  Ma. 


spes  in  utrisque  (Domitian  and  Vic- 
torius)  tnanens ;  cp.  the  Vulg.  of 
Ecclus.  xl.  23,  Lk.  vii.  42.  The  a  is 
lengthened  by  the  stress  of  the  verse 
coinciding  with  the  accent  of  the 
word,  which  fell  on  this  syllable 
perhaps  by  a  mistaken  analogy  with 
words  to  which  the  enclitic  -que 
('  and  ')  was  appended.  So  Fort. 
VI 11.  vi.  II  pariter  habeatis  utrcujtie. 

6.  tibi]  'by  Thee.'  The  dat.  of 
the  agent  is  rare  except  with  parti- 
ciples or  participials  ;  but  cp.  Verg. 
Aen.  I.  440  neque  cernitur  tilli, 
Schmaiz  375.  Prud.  may,  however, 
intend  the  dat.  to  mean  that  the 
union  is  for  God's  glory  and  the 
accomplishment  of  His  purposes. 

7.  uegetata]  '  quickened,'  as 
Hamart.  846  unde  Jluens  anima 
structum  uegetauerat  Adam  ;  Aug. 
Conf.  X.  10  tu  melior  es,.. .anima, 
quoniam  tu  uegetas  molem  corporis 
tui,  praebens  ei  uitam  ;  36.  51. 

9.  '  But  the  cutting  of  them 
asunder  breaks  up  and  destroys  the 
man.' 

1 1 .  The  earth  is  '  dry  '  as  op- 
posed to  the  nature  of  the  soul,  cp. 
Apoth.  694  liquidus  caelesti  spiritus 


ore.  animae  liquorem  is  equivalent 
to  animam  liquidam.  Prud.  has  in 
mind  Lucr.  11.  999  cedit  item  retro, 
de  terra  quodfuit  ante,  \  in  terras,  et 
quod  missumst  ex  aetheris  oris,  \  id 
nirsttm  caeli  rellatum  templa  recep- 
tant.  Cp.  Eur.  Suppl.  531  f.  eaffaT 
^Stj  yy  Ka\v<f>dijvai  veKpo6s,  \  O0ev  S' 
iKaarov  h  rb  <I)Q)%  d(plK€To,  \  ivravd' 
direXOeiu,  wvev/ia  /liv  irpds  aidipa,  | 
t6  aS)fia  5'  ^s  yqv.  [Damasus]  xcil. 
7  terrenum  nunc  terra  tegit,  mens 
nescia  mortis  \  uiuit  et  aspectu 
fruitur  bene  conscia  Christi ;  Fort. 
IV.  xxvii.  5  terrae  terra  redit,  sed 
spiritus  astra  recepit :  pars  iacet  haec 
tumulo,  pars  temt  ilia  polum.  See 
too  the  epitaph  on  Gregory  the 
Great  (Bede  Hist.  Ecd.  11.  i)  j«j- 
cipe  terra  tuo  corpus  de  corport 
sumptum  . . .  spiritus  astra  petit ; 
BUcheler  Anthol.  Lat.  1420.  a  astra 
tenent  animam,  ccutera  tellus  habet. 
14.  tandem]  'sooner  or  later.' 

16.  'Discordant  elements  in 
union  must  be  dissolved'  lit.  'un- 
woven.' Lucr.  uses  retexo  freely,  as 
at  I.  529. 

17.  mortem  ..abolere]  2  Tim. 
i.  10,  Heb.  ii.  14. 


142 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


iter  inuiolabile  monstras, 

quo  perdita  membra  resurgant : 

ut,  dum  generosa  caducis 
ceu  carcere  clausa  ligantur, 
pars  ilia  potentior  exstet, 
quae  germen  ab  aethere  traxit. 

si  terrea  forte  uoluntas 
luteum  sapit  et  graue  captat, 
animus  quoque  pondere  uictus 
sequitur  sua  membra  seorsum. 

hinc  maxima  cura  sepulcris 
inpenditur,  hinc  resolutos 
honor  ultimus  accipit  artus 
et  funeris  ambitus  omat. 


20 


25 


30 


20.  perdita]  i.e.  seemingly  de- 
stroyed. 

21.  ut... exstet  explains  the  iter 
of  19,  in  the  sense  of  'the  condition 
being  that.' 

generosa]  i.e.  the  heaven-bom 
elements,  cp.  24. 

caducis]  as  at  23.  9.  Notice  the 
alliteration. 

22.  Cp.  Prud.  Praef.  44  uinclis 
o  utinam  corporis  emicem  \  liber! 
Perist.  \\.  584  uinclis  saeculi; 
Ambr.  de  Bono  Mortis  fi  ita  dimitti 
petit  quasi  a  uinculis  quibusdam  ad 
libertatemfestinaret.  sunt  enim  uelut 
uincula  quaedam  corporis  huius... 
quae  nos  alligant\  Fort.  11.  vii.  7 
uincula  corporei  dissoluere  carceris 
optans ;  iv.  xiv.  3  ;  41.  45. 

23.  potentior  exstet]  'assert  it- 
self as  the  more  powerful. '  Prud.  is 
speaking  of  what  must  be  done 
while  the  union  still  exists  (dum 
ligantur),  in  order  to  insure  the 
resurrection  of  the  body  (20).  25 
foil,  shew  the  eflfect  of  the  opposite 
course. 

24.  ab  aethere]  '  from  heaven ' ; 
hence  the  epithet  generosa  in  21. 
See  the  passage  frona  Lucr.  at  1 1 . 


25.  '  If  perchance  the  will  of  the 
body  (cf.  Eph.  ii.  3  tioliintatem  car- 
nis)  savours  of  the  clay  and  chooses 
the  gross  element.' 

terrea]  '  of  the  body,'  i  Cor.  xv. 

47- 

26.  luteum  refers  to  the  material 
of  which  the  body  was  formed,  cp. 
Gen.  ii.  7,  Job  xxxiii.  6  de  eodem 
luto  ego  quoque  formatus  sum  ;  Cath. 
III.  138  non  luteus,  uelut  ille prior. 
Hor.  Od.  I.  xvi.  13  speaks  oi  prin- 
cipi  limo,  'our  original  clay.'  For 
the  phrase  cp.  Rom.  xi.  20  noli 
altum  sapere;  Cath.  II.  32  castum 
sapit. 

27.  pondere  u.]  Cp.Wisd.  ix.  15. 
29.   Mnc]  i.e.  because  the  bodies 

now  in  the  ground  will  one  day  rise 
with  their  own  souls,  as  is  more 
clearly  seen  in  the  original  setting, 
wherein  this  stanza  follows  30. 1 7-20. 

31.  'The  last  honour  (viz.  of 
burial)  welcomes  the  limbs  relaxed 
in  death.'  The  body  is  a  guest  to  be 
honourably  received. 

32.  'The  stately  funeral'  in 
Prud.'s  time  would  (if  in  Rome) 
pass  with  pomp  to  the  cemetery  or 
catacomb. 


HYMN  XXIX.   PRUDENTIUS 


H3 


hoc  prouida  christicolarum 
pietas  studet,  utpote  credens 
fore  protinus  omnia  uiua, 
quae  nunc  gelidus  sopor  urget. 

qui  iacta  cadauera  passim 
miserans  tegit  aggere  terrae, 
opus  exhibet  ille  benignum 
Christo  pius  omnipotent!. 

quia  lex  eadem  monet  omnes 
gemitum  dare  sorte  sub  una, 


35 


40 


33.  hoc]  an  honourable  burial. 
The  line  is  an  echo  of  Hor.  Od.  III. 
V.  13  hoc  cauerat  mens  prouida  Re- 
guli. 

34.  utpote  cr.] 'as  believing.'  67- 
pote  is  usually  followed  by  a  relative 
clause  or  by  ctim,  but  cp.  Hor.  Sat. 
I.  V.  94  inde  Kubos fessi peruenimus 
utpote longum  \  carpentes iter;  Apoth. 
903  utpote... acdpiens  ;  Hamart.  526 
utpote  suninto  aethere  demissus. 

36.  urget]  '  w  eighs  down ' ;  from 
Hor.  Od.  I.  xxiv.  5  ergo  Quintiliutn 

perpetuus  sopor  \  urget.  A  compari- 
son of  the  two  passages,  expressed 
in  very  similar  words,  well  illus- 
trates the  changed  aspect  of  death 
to  a  Christian. .  To  Horace  death  is 
a  sleep,  but  a  sleep  that  knows  no 
waking,  as  to  CaluU.  V.  4  nobis  cum 
semel  occidit  breuis  lux,  \  nox  est 
peipetua  una  dormienda. 

37.  passim]  'at  large,'  'at  ran- 
dom,' Here  again  it  is  worth  while 
to  compare  Horace's  interesting  ode 
I.  xxviii.  concerning  the  three  hand- 
fuls  of  earth,  which  constituted  a 
legitimate  burial  and  saved  the  soul 
of  the  dead  from  wandering  for  100 
years  on  the  banks  of  the  Styx  ;  cp. 
Verg.  Aen.  vi.  325. 

38.  Cp.  Verg.  Aen.  xi.  212 
\ossd\  onerabant  aggere  terrae. 

40.  pius  refers  to  the  '  duteous ' 
(cp.  7.  13  note)  as  benignum  to  the 
'  kindly'  character  of  the. act.   Con- 


trast Hor.  I.e.  23  at  tu  nauta  uagae 
ne  parce  malignus  harenae  \  ossibus 
et  capiti  inhumato  \  pariiculam 
dare. 

omnipotenti  seems  to  suggest 
that  he  shall  not  lose  his  reward, 
though  in  Matt,  xxv  the  burial  of 
the  dead  is  not  one  of  the  corporal 
works  of  mercy  mentioned, 

41.  Cp.  Damas.  iv.  3  communi 
lege  sepultos.  Biicheler  Anthol.  Lat. 
1376.  I  (C.I.L.  XI.  382)  humano 
generi  legem  natura  creairix  hanc 
dedit  ut  tumuli  membra  sefntlta  te- 
gant;  Tertullian  de  Spectaculis  21 
cadauer  hominis  communi  lege  de- 
futhti. 

42.  '  teaches  us  that  we  all  groan 
under  the  one  lot  (of  mortality)  and 
that  in  a  stranger's  death  we  grieve 
for  the  burial  of  our  own  kin  ' ;  cog- 
nata  being  contrasted  with  aliena. 
For  cognata  /unera,  '  the  burial  of 
our  kin,'  cp.  Catull.  Lxviii.  98  nee 
prope  cognatos  compositum  cineres ; 
Propert.  I  v.  vii.  10  nee  pote  cognatos 
inter  humare  rogos.  Or  perhaps 
'  that  in  another's  death  we  grieve 
for  a  fate  like  our  own.'  Latin  has 
no  use  of  the  pronoun  corresponding 
to  '  that  of, '  as  in  'a  fate  like  that 
of  ourselves,'  and  so  had  to  say 
either  'a  death  like  our  own  death,' 
or  'a  death  like  to  us.' 

gemitum  dare]  Verg.  Aen.  \.  485. 


144 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


cognataque  funera  nobis 
aliena  in  morte  dolere. 

sequimur  tua  dicta,  Redemptor, 
quibus  atra  morte  triumphans 
tua  per  uestigia  mandas 
socium  crucis  ire  latronem. 

patet,  ecce,  fidelibus  ampli 
uia  lucida  iam  paradisi, 
licet  et  nemus  illud  adire, 
homini  quod  ademerat  anguis. 

illic,  precor,  optime  ductor, 
famulam  tibi  praecipe  mentem 
genitali  in  sede  sacrari, 
quam  liquerat  exsul  et  errans. 


45 


50 


55 


44.  in]  'in  the  case  of,'  cp.  14.  13 
in  illo  martyre. 

45.  Lk.  xxiii.  43,  cp.  10.  7.  se- 
quimur, 'we  follow  in  thought.' 
Cp.  55  ductor. 

46.  '  triumphing  over  black 
death.'  The  object  triumphed  over 
is  regarded  as  the  instrument  by 
which  the  triumph  is  gained.  But  it 
would  be  hard  to  find  a  similar 
usage.  The  usual  idiom  is  de  or  ex 
with  the  abl.,  in  poets  and  late 
writers  the  ace,  as  at  16.  24.  Per- 
haps the  meaning  is  '  triumphing  in 
the  darkest  hour  of  death.' 

47.  tua  per  uestigia]  'in  Thy 
footsteps' :  cp.  Fort.  ix.  xi.  5  cuius 
pontijicis  scura  per  uestigia  currens. 

49.  ampli]  '  spacious,'  like  Ver- 
gil's ^  largior... aether'  Cp.  Passio 
S.  Perpet.  XI.  uidimus  lucent  itn- 
mensa?n ..  .factum  est  nobis  spatium 
grande.  Prud.  paints  the  glories  of 
Paradise  in  glowing  colours,  Cath. 
III.  loi  f.  ttinc  per  amoena  uirecta 
iubet  \frondicomis  habitare  locis,  \ 
uer  ubi  perpetuum  recblet  \  prataque 
multicolora  latex  \  quculrifluo  celer 
amne  rigat ;  a  passage  imitated  by 
S^dul.  Carm.  I.  53  amoena  uirecta  \ 
Jiorentum  semper  nemorum  sedesque 


beatas  \  per  latices  intrate  pios. 

50.  uia... paradisi]  'the  way  to 
Paradise.'  The  gen.  is  descriptive 
and  is  an  extension  of  such  a  phrase 
as  Verg.  Aen.  11.  359  mediaeque 
tenemus  urhis  iter,  '  we  hold  the 
way  to  the  heart  of  the  city,'  where 
the  adj.  makes  a  difference.  Cp. 
Propert.  I.  xx.  18  uiam  Phasidos 
('the  voyage  to  Phasis'j  and  pro- 
bably II.  i.  20  caeli  iter. 

51.  nemus  illud]  i.e.  Paradise. 
The  word  is  perhaps  chosen  with  a 
view  to  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  639  and 
similar  passages. 

52.  Gen.  iii.  i  f. 

54.  famulam  tibi]  '  Thy  faithful 
servant,'  now  that  the  hindrances  of 
the  flesh  are  removed. 

mentem]  'soul.' 

55.  genitali]  '  native,'  because 
our  first  parents  were  born  in  (the 
earthly)  Paradise ;  cp.  92.  2  note. 
Perhaps  sacrari  is  used  in  the  same 
kind  of  sense  as  consecrat  in  Hor. 
Od.  IV.  viii.  27  diuitibus  consecrat 
insulis. 

56.  Gen.  iii.  23  f.;  there  may 
perhaps  be  a  reminiscence  of  Gen. 
iv.  12,  14  (O.  L.  gemens  et  tremens, 
Vulg.  uagus  et  profugus). 


HYMN  XXX.   PRUDENTIUS  145 

Hymn  30 

Hymn  30  is  also  taken  from  Cathemerinon  X,  being  a 
cento  ingeniously  patched  together  and  consisting  of 
lines  1 17-120,  53-56,  33-44,  121-140  of  that  poem.  We 
know  neither  by  whom  this  rearrangement  was  made  nor 
exactly  when.  So  skilfully  has  it  been  done  that  it  reads 
like  the  rearrangement  of  the  poet  himself  If  it  be  true 
(as  Rambach  Anthologie  I.  ^6  asserts)  that  the  new  hymn 
was  not  used  before  the  Reformation,  it  was  probably 
made  up  at  about  that  time.  It  came  into  great  favour  as 
a  funeral  hymn  in  the  evangelical  church  of  Germany, 
being  often  sung  in  Latin.  A  fine  paraphrase,  Hort  aiif 
init  Traiiern  und  Klagen,  was  published  in  1561  and  in- 
creased its  popularity.  Trench  p.  287  f  prints  another 
selection,  being  the  last  thirteen  stanzas  of  the  original 
poem  with  the  omission  of  one  of  them ;  on  what  authority 
I  know  not. 

lam  maesta  quiesce  querella ; 
lacrimas  suspendite  matres ; 
nuUus  sua  pignora  plangat ; 
mors  haec  reparatio  uitae  est. 

1.  [Damas.]  xxi.  i  slringe  dolor  but  Prud.  does  not  distinguish  the 
lacrimas.  maestus  and  maereo  de-  two  words,  for  he  says  Perist.  ll. 
note    the    outward    expression    of       744  nemineni  diem. 

grief,  cp.  1.  54.  plcrnora]  lit.  '  pledges,'  constantly 

querella]   The  two  oldest  MSS  of  used  in  classical  authors,  as  here,  of 

Prud.  spell  the  word  with  the  double  children,  regarded  as  '  warrants '  of 

/,  in  spite  of  the  dicta  of  the  Lat.  the  continuance  of  mutual  love  and 

grammarians  quoted  by  Brambach  as  '  pledges '  to  fortune ;  cp.  31.  i6, 

Die  Neugeslaltung der  lat.  Orthogra-  36.  52.   Btlcheler  ^wM^/. /.«/.  1 389. 

/A»Vp.  259.  See  also  Lachm. 's  Z«<-r.  21  (C.I.L.  xn.  log^) pignora  desis- 

p.    203  f.,    Munro's   Lucr.    vol.    I.  tant  la^rimis  planctuque  grauari: 

p.  33  (ed.  5),  Ribbeck  prol.  in  Verg.  turn  placeal  gemere  quod  celebrare 

p.  429.    So  too  medella,  33.  9  etc.  decet. 

2.  Buspendite] 'cease  from';  cp.  plangat]  lit.  'beat  the  breast' 
Ov.  Fast.  IV.  849  tiec  iam  suspettdere  rarely  takes  the  ace.  of  the  person 

Jletum  sustinet.  lamented ;    but    cp.    Lk.    viii.    52 

3.  niillus  is  a  subst.    used,   for      plangebant  illam. 

nemo,  to  mark  the  masc.  gender  ;  4.    Death  far  from  being  the  end 


146 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


quidnam  sibi  saxa  cauata, 
quid  pulchra  uolunt  monumenta, 
nisi  quod  res  creditur  illis 
non  mortua  sed  data  somno  ? 

nam  quod  requiescere  corpus 
uacuum  sine  mente  uidemus, 
spatium  breue  restat  ut  alti 
repetat  conlegia  sensus. 

uenient  cito  saecula,  cum  iam 
socius  calor  ossa  reuisat, 
animataque  sanguine  uiuo 
habitacula  pristina  gestet. 


15 


is  the  renewal  of  life ;  so  Prud. 
Perist.  VI.  96  nee  uitam  rapit  ilia 
sed  reformat ;  Juvenc.  I  v.  31  laetcu 
reparatio  uitae,  of  the  future  life ; 
ib.  349  en  ego  sum  clarae  nobis  re- 
paratio uitae. 

5  f .  Daniel  i.  141  compares  Cic. 
Tuse.  I.  12  caerimonias  sepulero- 
rufn  maxi?nis  ingeniis  praediti  nee 
tanta  eura  coluissent  nee  uiolatas 
tarn  inexpiabili  religione  sanxissent, 
nisi  kaesisset  in  eorum  mentibtis 
mortem  non  interitum  esse  omnia 
tollentem  et  delentem,  sed  qimndam 
migratiottem  commutatioiiemque  ui- 
tae, quae  in  elaris  uiris  et  feminis 
dux  iti  caelum  soleret  esse,  in  ceteris 
humi  retineretur  et  permaneret 
tamen. 

7.  creditur]  '  is  entrusted '  for  a 
time,  to  be  given  back,  see  27  f. ; 
cp.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  X.  141  bene  ergo 
Christus  monumento  creditur  iusti. 

8.  Mt.  ix.  24,  xxvii.  52,  Lk.  viii. 
52,  Joh.  xi.  II  etc.,  29.  36,  Ennod. 
Hymn.  i.  5  mortis  Jigura  blandior  \ 
bustttm  soporis  admouet. 

9  f.  '  For  but  a  short  time  remains 
ere  the  body  which  we  see  resting 
empty  without  a  soul  shall  seek 
again  the  partnership  of  the  heaven- 
born  intelligence.' 

II.  ut  nearly  passes  into  the 
temporal  sense  of  'when  ';  cp.  such 


passages  as  Aul.  Gell.  il.  xxix.  4 
nidulatur  in  segetibus  idferme  tem- 
poris,  ut  appetat  messis. 

12.  conlegia]  'partnership,'  cp. 
VMn.  Nat.  Hist.  x.  1 7 eonlegium  quod- 
dam  naturae.  It  is  a  technical  term 
to  express  community  in  office,  but 
most  often  'a  guild'  of  such  officials, 
whence  comes  our  word  'college.' 
For  mens  and  sensus  cp.  29.  54, 
4.  6. 

13.  saecula]  '  time '  in  general,  a 
late  usage. 

14.  calor]  the  warmth  of  life  as 
opposed  to  the  cold  of  death,  cp. 
29.  36,  Verg.  Aen.  iv.  704.  But 
there  is  also  a  reference  to  fire  as 
the  primessence  of  the  soul,  29.  i 
note.  '  The  bones '  are  often  used 
by  Latin  poets  to  denote  the  frame- 
work of  the  body,  as  Verg.  Aen. 
III.  308  calor  ossa  reliquit ;  but  the 
bones  would  be  the  only  part  re- 
maining of  bodies  that  had  been 
long  buried.  Cp.  [Tibull.]  ill.  ii.  17 
pars  quae  sola  f/iei  superabit  corjoris, 
ossa;  Ambr.  Hex.  vi.  51  respice  in 
sepulcra  hominum  et  tiide  quid  ex 
te  nisi  cinis  et  ossa  remanebunt. 

15.  uiuo]  'life  giving.'  So  Ov. 
Met.  V.  436  uiuo  sanguine;  ib.  iv, 
248  uiuu77i  calorem.  Prud.  had  per- 
haps forgotten  x  Cor.  xv.  50. 

16.  gestet]  'wear.' 


HYMN  XXX.   PRUDENTIUS 


H7 


quae  pigra  cadauera  pridem 
tumulis  putrefacta  iacebant, 
uolucres  rapientur  in  auras 
animas  comitata  priores. 

sic  semina  sicca  uirescunt 
iam  mortua  iamque  sepulta, 
quae  reddita  caespite  ab  imo 
ueteres  meditantur  aristas. 

nunc  suscipe  terra  fouendum, 
gremioque  hunc  concipe  moUi : 
hominis  tibi  membra  sequestro, 
generosa  at  fragmina  credo. 


25 


1 7  f.  pigra . . .  iacebant] '  had  long 
been  lying  dormant ' ;  the  imperfect 
is  used  from  the  point  of  view  of  the 
day  of  resurrection.  Ambr.  in  Luc. 
X.  i\6 pigrum  corpus  a  mortis  sopore 
se  conmoiiet. 

19.  I  Thess.  iv.  16.  '  The  flying 
breezes'  are  often  mentioned  by 
poets,  as  e.g.  Verg.  Aen.  xi.  795. 

20.  So  Prud.  Apoth.  1062  f.  nosco 
nieutn  in  Christo  corpus  consurgtre  ; 
...et  totiis  iieniam,  nee  eniin  minor 
aut  alitis  quam  \  nunc  sum  resti- 
tuar :  uultus,  uigor  et  color  idem  \ 
qui  modo  uiuit  erit,  nee  me  uel  dente 
uel  ungue  \  fraudatum  reuomet  pate- 
facti  fossa  sepulcri.  [Damas.]  xcil. 
6  nee  perit  hinc  aliquid  Domino, 
caro  cuneta  resurgit. 

21  f.  Nature  itself  teaches  the 
principle  of  the  resurrection,  Joh. 
xii.  24  f.,  I  Cor.  XV.  36  f.,  Clem. 
Rom.  XXIV,  Tert.  de  Res.  Xll,  Min. 
Felix  XX I  \'.  1 1  uide  ideo,  quam  in 
solacium  nostri  resurreetionem  futu- 
ram  omnis  natura  meditetur.  sol 
demergit  et  nascitur,  astra  labuntur 
et  redeunt,  /lores  oceidunt  et  reuiues- 
cunt,  post  senium  arbusta  frondes- 
cunt,  semina  non  nisi  corrupta 
reuirescunt.  Paulin.  Nol.  Carm. 
XXXI.  231  cututa  resurgendi  fcuiem 
meditantur  in  omni  \  corpore  et  in 
terris  germina  et  astra  polo. 


33.  '  which  given  back  from  the 
deep  sod  call  to  mind  the  former 
ears  of  corn.'  meditantur,  lit. '  think 
of,'  i.e.  'imitate';  cp.  Stat.  Silu. 

II.  iv.  7  (of  a  parrot)  meditataqtu 
uerba  reddideras ;  Prud.  Perist.  iii. 
24  canitiem  meditata  senum  ;  Fort. 

III.  vii.  ^i  fulgorem  astrorum  medi- 
tantur tecta  metallo.  Or  perhaps  it 
is  rather,  'practise  for,'  'get  ready 
for  a  renewal  of.' 

25.  'Welcome  him  now,  earth, 
into  thy  cherishing  care  and  em- 
brace him  in  thy  soft  lap.'  An 
old  gloss  notes  terram  alloquitur 
quasi  defuncti  matrem.  At  Perist. 
VII.  27  the  river  welcomes  (suscipit) 
Quirinus  when  thrown  into  it ;  cp. 
[Damas.]  xx.  5  diaconus  hie  Tigri- 
das  tumulo  custode/ouetur;  Gray's 
Elegy  1 19  'here  rests  his  head  upon 
the  lap  of  earth  |  a  youth....' 

27.  'The  hmbs  which  I  commit 
to  thy  keeping  are  those  of  a  man, 
noble  are  the  remains  which  I  en- 
trust.' 

sequestro]  '  deposit '  for  safe 
keeping,  a  late  word  derived  from 
sequester,  which  Festus  defines  :  qui 
inter  aliquos,  qui  certant,  medius, 
ut  inter  eos  conuenerit,  depositum  ita 
tenet  aliquid,  ut  ei  reddat  cut  id 
deheri  iure  sibi  cotistiterit ;  cp.  Text. 
de  Pes.  .xxvil  proinde  enim  et  cor- 


148 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


animae  fuit  haec  domus  olim 
factoris  ab  ore  creatae ; 
feruens  habitauit  in  istis 
sapientia  principe  Christo. 

tu  depositum  tege  corpus : 
non  inmemor  ille  require! 
sua  munera  fictor  et  auctor 
propriique  aenigmata  uultus. 

ueniant  modo  tempora  iusta, 
cum  spem  Deus  inpleat  omnem  : 
reddas  patefacta  necesse  est, 
qualem  tibi  trado  figuram. 


30 


35 


40 


pora  medicata  condimentis  septil- 
turae  mausolds  et  monumentis  se- 
questranHir. 

30.  factoris]  'creator,'  a  not 
common  word  in  this  sense,  but 
found  1.  8,  33.  4,  40.  5,  69.  ^,  94.  8. 

ab  ore]  Gen.  ii.  7,  108.  30, 
Apoth.  778  finxerat  hoc  digitis, 
animant  sufflauerat  ore,  Cath.  11 1. 
186  oris  opus,  calor  igneohis,  non 
nioritnr.   ab  '  from,'  not  '  by.' 

31.  Rom.  viii.  9  Spiritus  Dei 
habitat  in  nobis. 

istis]  sc.  fragminihiis. 

32.  principe  Cliristo]  i.e.  ori- 
ginating from  Him  who  is  entitled 
sapientia,  as  at  27.  37  ;  cp.  36.  30. 
Perhaps  Prud.  has  in  mind  i  Cor. 
i.  24-ii.  16. 

35.  sua  munera]  '  His  own  work. ' 
fictor]  '  fashioner,'  cp.   Rom.  ix. 
20. 
auctor]  '  creator,'  cp.  Acts  iii.  15. 


36.  '  the  likeness  of  His  own 
countenance,'  Gen.  i.  27. 

aenigmata]  '  image,'  cp.  Perist. 
II.  117  argenteonan  aenigmatuvi  i.e. 
silver  coins  with  the  emperor's  like- 
ness on  them;  Arnob.  ill.  15 
Acgyptiorum... aenigmata,  quod  vtu- 
torum  aniniantium  formas  diuinis 
insertierint  causis.  Hence  per  ae- 
nigma  is  opposed  to  '  openly,'  '  face 
to  face,'  Num.  xii.  8,  as  is  in  ae- 
ttigmate  i  Cor.  xiii.  12. 

37.  tempora  iusta]  '  the  due '  or 
'  proper  time '  in  the  counsels  of 
God.  So  Verg.  A  en.  x.  r  i  adueniet 
iusttim  pHgnae,  ne  arcessite,  tempus; 
where  in  Jupiter's  mouth  the  words 
denote  the  time  appointed  by  the 
gods,  which  is  not  to  be  anticipated 
by  men.  St  Paul's  plenitudo  tem- 
poris  (Gal.  iv.  4,  cp.  33.  10)  has  a 
like  meaning. 


IV.    SEDULIUS 

Hymn  31 

Of  Sedulius  himself  we  know  next  to  nothing.  It  is 
possible  that  his  praenomen  was  Caelius,  as  fairly  old 
authorities  give  it,  but  the  oldest  MSS  call  him  simply 
Sedulius.  Probably  he  was  born  in  Rome  and  taught 
*  philosophy '  there  and  in  Achaia,  and  he  returned  to 
Rome.  He  seems  to  have  lived  during  the  reigns  of  the 
younger  Theodosius  (A.D.  423-425)  and  of  Valentinian  HI 
(425-455).  Converted  and  baptized,  as  it  appears,  by  a 
certain  priest  Macedonius,  he  was  ordained  a  presbyter 
but  never  became  a  bishop.  He  left  his  secular  work  and 
devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  the  scriptures,  living  ap- 
parently in  a  religious  community,  which  was  under  the 
guidance  of  Macedonius. 

Here  he  wrote  a  poem  entitled  Paschale  Carmen  in  five 
books,  consisting  "of  1753  hexameters.  The  first  book  by 
way  of  introduction  treats  chiefly  of  the  marvels  of  the 
Old  Testament.  Of  the  other  four  books  he  writes  in  a 
prefatory  letter  to  Macedonius  :  quattuor  igitur  mira- 
bilium  diuinormn  libellos,  quos  ex  pluribus  pauca  conplexus 
usque  ad  passioneni  et  resurrectiotiem  ascensionemque 
Domini  nostri  lesu  Christi  quattuor  euangeliorum  dicta 
congregans  orditiaui,  contra  omnes  aemulos  tuae  defensioni 
commendo.  kuic  autent  operi  fauente  Domino  PasCHALIS 
Carminis  nomen  inposui,quia  pascha  nostrum  immolatus 
est  Christ  us. 

This  poem,  which  is  distinguished  by  a  clear  and 
simple  style  free  from  all  discordant  artifice  or  verbiage 


ISO  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

and  at  times  rising  into  real  poetry,  gained  a  lasting 
popularity,  for  throughout  the  middle  ages  it  remained 
the  model  of  all  such  writing.  Sedulius  afterwards  ren- 
dered it  into  rhetorical  prose  under  the  title  of  Paschale 
Opus.  Of  this  prose  version  he  writes  to  Macedonius : 
praecepisti. .  .paschalis  carminis  texium^  quod  officiuni  purae 
deuotionis  simpliciter  exsecutus  uobis  obtuli  perlegendum, 
in  rhetoricmn  me  transferre  sermonein.  In  the  notes  on  31 
and  elsewhere  Carin.  denotes  the  Paschale  Carmen,  Op. 
the  Paschale  Opus. 

The  following  hymn  31  A  soils  ortus  cardine  in  23 
four-line  stanzas  gives  a  brief  description  of  the  chief 
wonders  of  Christ's  earthly  life  in  order  to  shew  that  He 
was  both  man  and  God.  It  is  written  in  iambic  dimeters 
and  uses  rhyme  freely  but  not  consistently.  Two  extracts 
from  it  were  widely  used  in  the  offices  of  the  church :  the 
first  seven  stanzas  (A-g)  being  sung  at  Christmas,  while 
the  following  stanzas  HILN  were  sung  at  the  Epiphany, 
some  hymnals  including  also  KM  at  this  latter  season. 
In  the  Mozarabic  use  and  in  some  others  the  whole  hymn 
was  sung.  The  stanzas  A-E  were  appropriated  in  diem 
sanctae  Mariae,  FG  were  used  at  Christmas,  HILN  at  the 
Epiphany,  KMOP  in  allisione  infantium,  QRS  on  the  domi- 
nica  in  Lazaro  (the  3rd  Sunday  in  Lent),  TVXYZ  in  cena 
Domini. 

Like  71,  89  and  120,  and  like  Psalm  cxviii.  (cxix.)  and 
some  other  Psalms  and  the  book  of  Lamentations,  this 
hymn  is  alphabetical.  Several  Mozarabic  hymns  of  the 
kind  are  handed  down  ;  see  Analecta  XXVII.  9,  16  and 
178.  Commodian  used  the  device,  as  did  Hilary  and 
Augustine  in  his  hymn  against  the  Donatists,  as  well  as 
Fort.  I.  xvi.  Agnoscat  ofnne  saeculum  antistitem  Leontium. 


HYMN  XXXI.   SEDULIUS 


151 


Bb  Eacdhjlrsvx/i^  Fhkpsv  Gbm  Habcdefgh  Ibcdeghkmnv 
Magkmx  Vcs<r 

A  solis  ortus  cardine 
ad  usque  terrae  limitem 
Christum  canamus  principem 
natutn  Maria  uirgine. 

Beatus  auctor  saeculi  5 

seruile  corpus  induit, 
ut  came  carnem  liberans 
non  perderet  quod  condidit. 

Clausae  puellae  uiscera 

I  ortu  Esv  Fs  Ig'hm'  Mg  Vs.  2  et  {pro  ad)  Bb  Es  Fv  Mg. 

3  Christo...principi  Edl.  4  nato  El.  7  quo  (/ro  ut)  lb.     caro 

{pro  came)  Edl  Imn  Mg.  8  ne  {pro  non)  Eacv/i  Fs  Gm  Il)cdghmv 

Mm  Vs.  quos  Es/*  Gm  («/  uidetur)  Hde  Ibghmn'v  Mmg,  qui  Id. 
9  clausa  Bb  Gm  {ut  uid.)  In'  Vs,  casta  Ecdhjiv  Fh  Iv,  caste  (=castae) 
Ea/i  Fp  Ibd  [manu  poster.)  Mm,     parentis  (pro  puellae)  Fhksv  Ibe. 


1.  '  From  the  point  of  sunrise  to 
the  boundary  of  the  earth,'  i.e.  from 
east  to  west ;  Ps.  cxii.  (cxiii.)  3  a 
solis  ortu  usque  ad occasum  laudabile 
nomen  Domini  \  Is.  xlv.  6,  Mai. 
i.  II. 

cardine]  often  loosely  translated 
'  hinge,'  was  the  '  pivot'  on  which  a 
door  turned,  forming  a  part  of  the 
door  and  fitting  into  a  socket  below 
and  one  above.  Then  it  was  the 
'  pole '  on  which  the  earth  turned, 
and  lastly  a  'point'  of  the  compass ; 
cp.  Lucan  v.  71  hesperio  tantum 
quantum  semotus  eoo  \  cardine.  The 
variant  et  usque  is  grammatically 
possible,  cp.  Juv.  X.  i  omnilms  in 
terris  quae  sunt  a  Gaiiibus  usque 
auroram. 

2.  terrae  limitem]  beyond  which 
was  nothing  but  ocean ;  cp.  11.  7 
note. 

3.  principem]  cp.  24.  10  note. 

5.  auctor  saeculi]  '  maker  of  the 
world,'  cp.  1.  8. 

6.  'clothed  Himself  with  the 
body  of  a  slave  ' ;  Phil.  ii.  6  ;  Basil. 


Seleuc.  Orat.  .YXXIX  3ta  tovto  fwp- 
<f>r)v  ^\a/3e  So^jXov  6  iv  fiop(p'g  deov 
inrapx'^v,  Iva.  Toiis  5o0\ovs  r^j  afiap- 
Tlas  iXevOepuxras  eU  ttjv  xporipoiv 
evyiveiav  iiravayiyri  Kal  rod  iirovpa- 
ylov  varpds  vlovs  dvadel^'^,  rg  /car 
avrbv  HKdyi  irdXiv  (Tvp.fiop<f>(t)6iirrai, 

induit]  Cp.  Prud.  Cat  A.  xi.  45 
mortale  corpus  induit,  23.  10,  38.  20. 

7.  '  By  flesh  freeing  the  flesh,'  i.e. 
freeing  man  by  becoming  man.  For 
the  sense  cp.  Job.  i.  14,  Col.  i.  72, 
32.  25  f.,  113.  15. 

nt...non  would  in  classical  Latin 
be  ne ;  cp.  Vulgate  of  Mt.  vii.  i 
nolite  iudicare,  ut  non  iudicemini. 

8.  quod  gives  a  better,  because  a 
wider  sense  than  the  variant  quos: 
the  whole  creation  is  included  ;  cp. 
Carm.  II.  21  sua  tie  fcutura  periret, 

9.  clausae]  Cp.  Carm.  11.  44  f. 
tunc  maximtis  infans  \  intemerata 
sui  conser turns  uiscera  templi,  \  in- 
laesum  ucuuauit  iter,  pro  uirgine 
testis  I  partus  adest,  clausa  ingre- 
diens  et  clausa  relinquens;  6.  14 
note ;     Fort.    VIll.    iii.     102    quae 


152 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


caelestis  intrat  gratia  ;  lo 

uenter  puellae  baiulat 
secreta  quae  non  nouerat. 

Domus  pudici  pectoris 

templum  repente  fit  Dei ; 

intacta  nesciens  uirum  15 

uerbo  creauit  filium. 

Enixa  est  puerpera, 

quem  Gabrihel  praedixerat, 

quern  matris  aluo  gestiens 

clausus  Johannes  senserat.  20 

Faeno  iacere  pertulit, 
praesepe  non  abhorruit, 

10  post  mirz.i  desinit  lAg.  1^-16  om.Gm.  13  corporis  Er. 

14  fidei  (pro  fit  dei)  Ech.    deo  Eyu.  16  concepit  Eacdsv/*  Fhksv  Hg 

Ibcdgnv  Vcs. 


Dominum  peperit  clausa  Maria 
manet.  Ezek.  xliv.  3  is  referred  to 
in  this  connexion. 

10.  Lk.  i.  28,  35. 

11.  'A  maiden's  womb  bears 
mysteries  which  she  knew  not,'  i.e. 
the  full  significance  of  which  she 
knew  not.  The  next  stanza  carries 
on  the  thought. 

puellae]  of  the  Virgin,  as  at  38. 
12,  39.  8.  Cp.  Festus:  baiularequis 
dia'tnr  quae  suo  cor  pore  fert,...a 
baiulis  i.e.  operariis  \  cp.  38.  11, 
39.  4,  40.  19,  Ronsch  163. 

14.  templum  repente]  Mai.  iii. 
I  ;  and  cp.  6.  16  note. 

15.  nesciens  uirum]   Lk.  i.  34. 

16.  uerbo]  '  by  means  of  a  word,' 
sc.  the  word  spoken  to  her  by  the 
angel ;  cp.  1.  1 1  nuntio,  38.  9  f., 
39.  II. 

creauit]  '  she  brought  forth,'  a 
rare  use  of  the  word  ;  but  cp.  Verg. 
Aen.  X.  551  quem  nympha  crearat ; 
ib.  XII.  271;  Sedul.  Carm.  11.  144 
nondiim...creatus,  'as  yet  unborn.' 
liuemer  quotes  Ekkehard  IV  (Cod. 
Sang.  398  p.   8^ :    Sedulius    '  uerbo 


creauit  Filium ,'  ubi  instilsi ' concepit ' 
canunt. 

I -J.  enixa  est]  The  hiatus  after 
a  short  unaccented  syllable  is  very 
harsh.  Fabricius  emended  enixa 
iam  est,  the  modern  Roman  breviary 
reads  enititur.  For  the  phrase  cp. 
Carm.  11.  63  salue  sancta  parens, 
enixa  puerpera  regem. 

18.  Lk.  i.  31  f. 

19.  Lk.  i.  41  f. 

gestiens]  'leaping  for  joy';  cp. 
Festus :  gestit,  qui  subita  felicitate 
exhilaratus  nimio  corporis  motu 
praeter  consuetudinem.  exsultat. 

21.  faeno]  'in  the  hay.'  The 
line  is  imitated  38.  17. 

22.  praesepe]  Carm.  ir.  62  an- 
gusto  Deus  in  praesepe  quieuit ;  6. 
29  note. 

abhorruit]  '  shrank  from  ' ;  cp. 
Te  Detim  16  non  horruisti  uirginis 
uterum. 

23.  'and  He  was  fed  with  a 
little  milk  (cp.  39.  24),  who  suffers 
not  even  a  bird  to  hunger ' ;  Ps. 
cxlvi.  (cxlvii.)  9,  Lk.  xii.  6. 

paruo]  Cp.  Op.  iv.  1  parui  gemi- 


HYMN  XX XL   SEDULIUS 


153 


25 


paruoque  lacte  pastus  est, 
per  quem  nee  ales  esurit. 
Gaudet  chorus  caelestium 
et  angeli  canunt  Deum, 
palamque  fit  pastoribus 
pastor,  creator  omnium. 
Hostis  Herodes  impie, 
Christum  uenire  quid  times  ? 
non  eripit  mortalia, 
qui  regna  dat  caelestia. 
Ibant  magi  qua  uenerant 
stellam  sequentes  praeuiam ; 

26  deo  Eacv  Fhs  Gm  {ut  uid.)  Hd  Ibdegh^mnv  Vcs.  30  uenisse  E/t*. 
31  arripit  Eahjvx^  (aripit  Eyu)  Hefg  Mm  Ih  Vs'',  deripit  Iv,  diripit  He 
Id-gmn  Vs.  33  qui  uenerat  Bb,  qua  uiderant  Gb^,  quam  uiderant 

Easvx/*^  Fis  Gb'  Hg  Ibgmnv  Mkm  Vs. 


30 


tus.  The  Roman  breviary  corrects 
to  et  lacte  modico. 

24.  nee]  '  not  even,'  as  at  Carm. 
IV.  124  quodque  Deo  facile  est  homi- 
nes optare  nee  audent ;  Fort.  L.  xv. 
90  et  qtiicquid  reliquum  nee  nume- 
rare  queo.  [The  usage  comes  from 
the  Latin  Bible,  where  it  often  re- 
presents the  Greek  oxihi  :  e.g.  Matt, 
vi.  29  quoniam  tiec  Salomon  etc.] 

25  f.    Lk.  ii.  9  f 

26.  '  and  angels  proclaim  (the 
birth  of)  God';  cp.  Carm.  11.  72 
angelicas  cecinit  miracula  coetiis ; 
Op.  II.  6  caelestis  militiae  multitudo 
Deum  laudat  in  Christo,  ut,  licet 
humana  ftterit  pro  matris  condicione 
creatio,  deitatis  tamen  una  com- 
munio  Patrem  cognosci  demonstrct 
in  Filio  ;  4.  29  natum  Deum. 

27.  'and  to  sliepherds  is  dis- 
played the  shepherd  and  creator  of 
all';  Carm.  Ii.  70  tunc  prius  ig- 
naris  pastoribus  ille  creatns  |  eni- 
tuit,  quia  pastor  erat ;  1.  6  note. 

palam  goes  so  closely  with  Jit  as 
virtually  to  form  one  compound 
verb  ;  Roby  §  2027. 

29.     Mt.   ii.    I  f,    To  avoid  the 


lengthening  of  -is  in  kostis  and  the 
shortening  of  the  first  syllable  of 
Herodes  ('H/jwStjj)  Erasmus  emended 
to  Herodis  hostes,  and  the  modern 
Roman  breviary  reads  crudelis  He- 
rodes Deum  I  regent....  But  metrical 
liberties  may  be  taken  with  foreign 
proper  names ;  11.  2  note ;  and 
Sedulius'  prosody  was  not  that  of 
Horace. 

31.  Similarly  in  the  account  of 
the  Temptation,  Carm.  11.  J91  f. 
scilicet  ut  fragilis  regna  ad/ectaret 
honoris  \  qui  populis  aeterna  parat ! 

eripit  is  contrasted  with  dot, 
mortalia  with  caelestia. 

33.  '  The  wise  men  went  their 
way  (to  Bethlehem),  following  the 
lead  of  the  star,  by  means  of  which 
they  had  come '  (to  Jerusalem). 
This  is  better  than  '  taking  the  same 
road  to  Bethlehem  by  which  they 
had  entered  Jerusalem,'  Daniel  l. 
148.  The  relative  qua  precedes  the 
word  stellam  to  which  it  refers.  The 
reading  of  the  later  Mss  quam  uide- 
rant comes  from  Mt.  ii.  9. 

35.  They  seek  the  true  light  (cp. 
3.  3  f.)  by  the  light  of  the  star. 


154 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


lumen  requirunt  lumine,  35 

Deum  fatentur  munere. 

Katerua  matrum  personal 

conlisa  deflens  pignora, 

quorum  tyrannus  milia 

Christo  sacrauit  uictimam.  40 

Lauacra  puri  gurgitis 
caelestis  agnus  attigit; 
peccata  qui  mundi  tulit 
nos  abluendo  sustulit. 

38  deflet  Mk.  40  uictima  Er  Hb.  41  lauacrum  Ex^  Habce^fg 

Id'hm.  42  attingit  Ibm'.  43  quae  non  detulit  Bb  Easx0  Fk'^v 

Gb  Hg  Ibdgmnv  Mkm. 


36.  mnnere]  i.e.  by  the  frankin- 
cense ;  Carm.  II.  96  tura  dedere Deo. 

37.  Katerua  is  so  spelled  on 
account  of  the  alphabetic  sequence ; 
see  the  corresponding  stanzas  of  71, 
89  and  120. 

personat]  '  cry  out ' ;  cp.  Jer. 
xxxi.  7  personate  et  canite  et  dictte. 

38.  deflens]  'weeping  for  them 
as  dead,'  the  regular  use  of  the 
word,  as  at  Fort.  iv.  vi.  17  non 
decet  hunc  igitur  ucuuis  dejlere  que- 
rellis  ;  but  cp.  42.  46. 

pignora]  'children,'  30.  3  note; 
Carm.  11.  113  trepidaeque  uocant 
sua  pignora  fetae  \  nequiquam. 

39.  For  the  exaggeration  in  milia 
see  1.  17  note. 

40.  uictimam  as  at  24.  6  is  a 
collective  singular,  here  in  apposi- 
tion with  milia.  Burmann's  conjec- 
ture uictimas  is  unnecessary. 

41.  lauacra]  see  26.  -2  note. 

puri]  '  cleansed '  by  Christ's  bap- 
tism therein  ;  cp.  the  parallel  pas- 
sage Carm.  1 1.  159  sanctoque  li- 
quentes  \  corpore  mundauit  latices. 
But  as  Sedul.  at  times  copies  Ju- 
vencus,  it  is  possible  that  he  here 
means  'cleansing,'  cp.  Juvenc.  ill. 
680  nuper  Johannes,  puro  qui  gur- 
gite  lauit  \  sordentes  populi  maculas; 
cp.  26.  6  note. 


gurgitis  is  used  of  any  great 
volume  of  water  (at  44.  6  of  a  flood 
of  light)  with  no  idea  here  of  a 
rushing  stream, — though  Jordan 
means  'the  rusher,' — as  is  shewn 
by  Carm.  II.  141  placidatn  lordanis 
ad  undam,  Op.  ili.  7  quieti  gur- 
gitis. 

43.  peccata  qui  mundi  tulit, 
'who  took  upon  Him  the  sins  of  the 
world,'  is  attested  by  few  Mss  but 
these  the  best  and  oldest.  It  is 
borrowed  from  4.  3 1 ,  and,  like  agnus 
in  42,  is  of  course  based  on  Joh.  i. 
29.  In  favour  of  this  reading  is  the 
fact  that  Sedulius  brings  this  biblical 
passage  into  connexion  with  Christ's 
baptism  both  at  Carm.  11.  148  f. 
agnus  I  ecce  Dei  ueniens  peccatum 
toller e  mundi,  and  at  Op.  11.  12  ecce 
agnus  Dei,  qui  tollit peccatum  mundi, 
cum  dicit  tollit,  ostendit  eum  non 
habere  quod  tollit,  quod  quidem  tulit, 
non  ut  ipse  gereret  sed  ut  ipse  deper- 
deret.  The  variant  peccata  quae  non 
detulit  has  on  its  side  the  great  mass 
of  MSS,  some  of  them  fairly  old.  In 
its  favour  perhaps  are  the  phrases  of 
the  parallel  passages  Carm.  11.  159 
ipse  nihil  quod  per dat  habens.  Op. 
11.  12  Dominus  lesus  Christus,  hu- 
mani  gentis  delicta  suscipiens  non 
tenuit  sed  fugauit.    If  that  reading 


HYMN  XXX I.   SEDULIUS 

Miraculis  dedit  fidem 
habere  se  Deum  patrem, 
infirma  sanans  corpora 
at  suscitans  cadauera. 

Nouum  genus  potentiae ! 
aquae  rubescunt  hydriae, 
uinumque  iussa  fundere 
mutauit  unda  originem. 

Orat  salutem  seruulo 
nixus  genu  centurio ; 
credentis  ardor  plurimus 
exstinxit  ignes  febrium. 


155 
45 


50 


55 


45-48  om.  Ih  Mk.  48  resuscitans  (jiro  et  s.)  Fs  Idgn  Vs. 

50  aqua  Fv  Iv.  55  plurimos  Fs  Vs(r. 


were  adopted,  peccata  must,  it  ap- 
pears, be  taken  as  ace.  after  sustulit, 
'  He  took  away  the  sins.'  abltundo 
would  then  be  not  strictly  a  gerund, 
but  used,  as  at  21.  11,  participially, 
'washing  us,  not  Himself.' 

For  tulit  used  as  the  perfect  of 
toller e  see  4.  31  note. 

sustulit]  '  raised  us  up.' 

45.  fidem]  '  proof,'  as  at  12.  14 
note.  For  the  general  sense  of  the 
stanza  cp.  1.  22  f.,  4.  25  f. 

46.  Joh.  V.  36. 

47.  infirma]  'sick,'  'ill,'  as  at 
Mt.  X.  8  etc.  sanare  is  also  a  Vul- 
gate word,  Mt.  iv.  23  etc. 

50  f.  '  The  water-pots  redden  and 
the  stream  bidden  to  pour  forth 
wine  has  changed  its  nature.' 

rubescunt]   See  8.  1 7  note. 

hydriae]  Joh.  ii.  5f.,  8.  13  note. 

52.  unda]  Cp.  Carm.  in.  5 
mutauit  laeta  saporem  \  unda  suum 
largita  mertim;  Op.  III.  i  amise- 
runt  aquae  quod  natae  sunt,  aquis 
indigentes  ad  potutn,  undaque  nobi- 
lior  facta  qua??i  genita  colorem  pari- 
ter  mutauit  et  nomen. 

orig^em]  '  its  original  nature  ' ; 
cp.   Carm.  II.   238  iam  fratres  nos 


esse  decet  nee  origine  camis  \  ger- 
manum  tractare  odium;  Fort.  il. 
xi.  5  traxit  origo  necem  de  semine, 
sed  pater  orbis  \  purgatiit  medicis 
critnina  mortis  aquis.  Somewhat 
similar  is  Jude  6  angelos  uero,  qui 
non  seruauerunt  suum  p>rincipatum. 
The  line  is  borrowed  by  (not  from, 
as  Daniel  iv.  11)  91.  12. 
53  f.    Mt.  viii.  5  f. 

54.  nixus  genu]  'kneeling';  cp. 
Ov.  Met.  viii.  182,  Juvenc.  IV.  647 
turn  genibus  nixi  regem  dominumque 
salutant.  We  are  not  told  in  the 
Gospels  that  the  centurion  knelt. 
centurio  is  read  by  accent,  not  by 
quantity. 

55.  Mt.  viii.  13.  ardor  and  ex- 
stinxit placed  thus  side  by  side  form 
an  oxymoron  ;  cp.  Op.  !!•  35  gelidis 
ardebat  periclis.  Probably  Sedulius 
has  in  mind  9.  2 1  hie  ignis  exstinguit 
fidem. 

56.  ignis  is  used  of  disease  at 
VeVg.  Georg.  ill.  566  contaclos  artus 
sacer  ignis  edebat. 

febrium]  plural  for  singular.  No 
'  fever '  is  specially  mentioned  in  the 
Gospel  story. 


156  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

Petrus  per  undas  ambulat 

Christ!  leuatus  dextera ; 

natura  quam  negauerat, 

fides  parauit  semitam.  60 

Quarta  die  iam  fetidus 
uitam  recepit  Lazarus, 
mortisque  liber  uinculis 
factus  superstes  est  sibi. 

Riuos  cruoris  torridi  65 

contacta  uestis  obstruit ; 
fletu  rigante  supplicis 
arent  fluenta  sanguinis. 

Solutus  omni  corpore, 

iussus  repente  surgere,  70 

suis  uicissim  gressibus 

aeger  uehebat  lectulum. 

61  quarto  Mk.  65  riuum  Fv.  66  a  tactu  {pro  cont. )  Fk.  67  fletus 
Fsv  Vs.  rigantis  Fsv  Vs,  rigantes  Mk.  supplices  Mk.  68  clausit  (pro 
arent)  Fsv  Vstr.  69  solutos  Bb,  solutis  Fv,  solutum  Fk.     languore 

(pro  Corp.)  Fk.  70  iussit  Fk.  72  laeti  uehebant  lectulos  Bb. 

57.    Mt.  xiv.  28f.    In  the  parallel  65  f.    Mt.  ix.  ^of. 

passages   of  both    Carm.   and   Op.  66.    contacts  uestis]  '  the  touch 

Sedulius  describes  the   calming  of  of  the  garment. ' 

the  tempest  instead  of  this  incident  67.   W^xt^X^o fletu  rigante... arent 

of  Peter  walking  on  the  sea.  form  an  oxymoron;  cp.   Carm.  ill. 

6 if.   Joh.  xi.  123  f.  posteritisque    latens    subitam 

quarta  die]  'on  the  fourth  day'  furata  salutem  \  ex tr etna   de   ueste 

after  death,  Joh.  xi.  39.  rapit  siccisqtie  jliientis  \  damnauit 

64.    superstes... sibi]  lit.  'surviv-  patulas  andax fiducia  7ienas. 

ing  himself.'     Carm.    iv.  289  f.  (of  69  f.   Mt.  ix.  if.   'A  man  relaxed 

Lazarus)  postque  sepulcralem   tarn-  in  all  his  limbs,'  being  paralysed. 

quam  recreatus  honorem  \  ipse  sibi  7 1 .     suis]  emphatic  ;    until  then 

moriens  et  postumus  exstat  et  heres  ;  he  had  been  carried. 

KvcCox.de  Excessu  Fratris  15  quid  uicissim]  'by  way  of  change'; 

agam,   mei  successor  heredis?  quid  Carm.    iv.     198    subito    mundata 

agam,   meae   uitae  superstes?     Cp.  uicissim   |   mirafitur   sua    membra 

Prud.  Perist.  IV.  115  sola  tu  morti  uiri. 

propriae   superstes  \  uiuis   in  orbe ;  73.    camifez]   Judas  is  so  called 

Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  I.   176  (of  a  dead  because  he  brought  about  Christ's 

man  raised  to  life  by  Martin)  ipse  death.    At  Rome  the  carnifex  exe- 

iterum  post  se  uiuens,  idem  auctor  et  cuted  only  slaves  and  foreigners,  and 

heres.  the  office  was  looked  upon  as  most 


HYMN  XXXI.   SEDULIUS 


157 


Tunc  ille  ludas  carnifex 

ausus  magistrum  tradere 

pacem  ferebat  osculo,  75 

quam  non  habebat  pectore. 

Verax  datur  fallacibus, 

pium  flagellat  impius, 

crucique  fixus  innocens 

coniunctus  est  latronibus.  80 

Xeromyrram  post  sabbatum 

quaedam  ferebant  compares, 

quas  adlocutus  angelus 

uiuum  sepulchre  non  tegi. 

73  ludas  ille  Fv.  75  quaerebat  Bb.  76  qui  Fk^  gerebat  Fv  Mk. 
80  coniungitur  Mk.  82  uehebant  Mk  Vso-.  corpori  (pro  compares)  Fksv 
Mk  Vsff.  83  quos  Vs.     adloquuntur  angeli  Mk.  84  sepultus  Vir. 


degrading,   so  that  the   name  was 
one  of  contumely. 

75.  Sedulius  may  have  in  mind 
Ambr.  in  Ps.  xxxv.  14  (also  of 
Judas)  oscula  labiis  ferebat,  offtm- 
debat  uenena  pectoribus  ;  meditabatur 
acerba  supplieia,  gratiae  pigntis 
afferebat;  in  Ps.  xxxix.  17  iiene- 
nuin  infundis  osculo,  quo  gratia 
caritatis  infunditur ;  osculo,  quod 
sacrae  pacis  insigne  est ;  in  Luc.  X. 
63  amoris  pignore  uuluus  injigis  et 
caritatis  officio  sanguinem  ftttidis  et 
pacis  instrumento  mortem  inrogas? 
Hex.  VI.  68  caritatis  insigne  con- 
uertens  cuf  signuin  proditionis  et 
infidelitatis  indicium,  pacis  hoc  pig- 
nore uteris  ad  officinafu  critdelitatis. 
Cp.  Sedul.  Carm.  v.  66  quid  socium 
simulas  et  arnica  fraude  salutas. 
For  the  general  sense  Ps.  liv.  (Iv.) 
22. 

uerax]   See  17.  i  note. 

Mt.  xxvii.  26. 

innocens]  Cp.  1.  39. 

Mt.  xxvii.  38. 
81.  xeromyrrham] 'dried  myrrh,' 
in  which  condition  it  was  exported 
and  sold,  being  originally  the  gum 
resin  from  a  shrub  which  grows  in 
south-west    Arabia.     It    would    be 


77- 
78. 

79- 

80. 


the  chief  ingredient  in  the  spices 
brought  by  the  women,  Lk.  xxiii. 
56,  xxiv.  I.  So  Prud.  Cath.  xil.  71 
{of  the  gifts  of  the  magi)  myrreus  | 
puluis  sepulcrum  praedocet.  The 
word  xeromyrrha  is  not  found  else- 
where and  has  caused  much  search- 
ing of  heart.  Arevalus  suggests 
Christo  fnyron,  but  surely  this 
would  not  have  been  thus  altered  in 
the  Mss.  Huemer  conjectures  chiro- 
myrrham  or  ckeromyron,  referring 
to  Corssen  Aussprache  ll.  517  for 
the  accent  of  the  newly  formed 
word. 

82.  compares]  'comrades,'  an 
unusual  word,  whence  the  variant 
corpori. 

83.  Mt.  xxviii.  2  f.  The  variant 
adloquuntur  angeli  is  a  correction 
due  to  the  fact  that  Lk.  (who  alone 
mentions  the  spices)  speaks  of 
'two  men,'  xxiv.  4.  Probably  ad- 
locutus has  the  further  meaning  of 
consoling  here  and  at  117.  17. 
Ronsch  quotes  an  example  of  adlo- 
quebantur  as  a  translation  of  irapa- 
IxvdoiiiJievoi  —  consolaiantur  of  Vul- 
gate at  Joh.  xi.  31. 

84.  tegi]  as  at  36.  39,  42. 


158 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


86  subditi  Fks  Vso", 
88  uenditos  Fk. 


85.    Ps.  xciv.  (xcv.)  I. 

yinnis]  Latin  had  no  y,  and  ex- 
cept in  some  dialects  the  Greek  v 
was  always  aspirated  at  the  be- 
ginning of  a  word,  so  that  a  liberty 
had  to  be  taken  if  this  letter  was  to 
take  its  place  in  an  alphabetical 
sequence.  At  the  corresponding 
stanzas  of  Hilary's  second  Hymn 
wc  find  Ymnos,  Zelauit.  This  dif- 
ficulty no  doubt  accounts  for  the 
fact  that  several  alphabetical  hymns 
do  not  go  beyond  T,  as  71  and 
(probably)  89. 

86  f.  At  line  26  the  angels  pro- 
claim the  birth  of  God  into  this 
world,  here  we  are  able  to  proclaim 
the  destruction  of  the  powers  of 
hell. 


Ytnnis  uenite  dulcibus,  85 

omnes  canamus  subditum 
Christi  triumpho  tartarum, 
qui  nos  redemit  uenditus. 

Zelum  draconis  inuidi 

et  OS  leonis  pessimi  90 

calcauit  unicus  Dei, 

seseque  caelis  reddidit. 

87  Christo  Fk.     triumphum  nobilem  Fs  Vs<r. 


triumpho]  perhaps  =  frwn;  cp.4. 

17- 
taxtarum]  23.  11  note. 

88.  uenditus]  viz.  by  Judas, 
sharply  contrasted  with  redemit. 
The  line  is  imitated  at  40.  36. 

89.  zelum]  See  Wisd.  ii.  24. 
Cp.  Prud.  Hamart.  188  (of  the 
devil)    arsit  enim   scintilla  odii  de 

/ofnite  zeli;  89.  24. 

draconis]  Ps.  xc.  (xci.)  13  con- 
culcabis  leonem  et  draconem.  12.  26 
note. 

inuidi]   3.  14,  6.  27  etc. 

90.  leonis]   32.  16. 

pessimi]  Note  the  use  of  the 
superlative  where  the  positive  might 
stand.  We  shall  have  other  instances 
of  this,  as  at  40.  25,  69.  12  etc. 


V.    MAGNUS  FELIX  ENNODIUS 

Hymn  32 

Magnus  Felix  Ennodius  was  born  at  Aries  A.D.  473, 
but  at  an  early  age  settled  in  upper  Italy,  where  he 
taught  rhetoric.  He  took  orders,  became  a  deacon  of 
Milan,  and  in  A.D.  513  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Ticinum 
(now  Pavia).  In  515  and  again  in  517  he  was  sent  by 
pope  Hormisda  as  ambassador  to  the  court  of  Anastasius, 
the  emperor  of  the  East,  in  order  to  bring  about  a  recon- 
ciliation of  the  eastern  and  western  churches,  in  which  he 
was  not  successful.    He  died  in  521. 

Ennodius  was  a  man  of  marked  ability  and  rhetorical 
power \  but  no  poet  Amongst  his  works  are  twelve 
hymns,  which  he  wrote  avowedly  in  imitation  of  those  by 
Ambrose",  but  by  no  means  equal  to  them  in  merit. 
They  were  too  artificial,  antithetical  and  difficult  to  come 
into  general  use.  Only  one  MS  now  extant  contains  them 
all  (Brussels  9845-7,  of  the  IXth  century),  but  individual 
hymns  of  Ennodius  were  used  in  various  churches,  as  is 
shewn  by  the  presence  of  one  or  two  of  them  in  such 
hymnals  as  are  quoted  in  the  critical  notes  to  the  follow- 
ing Ascension-hymn,  Iain  Christiis  ascendit  polum. 

^  See  Bucheler  Anthol.  Lat.  II.  i.  p.  643  Florianus  abbas  mortuum 
Ennodium  Idudat.  facundiam  non  solum  testatiir  oecidms  sed  et  orints 
miratur. 

^  Ennod.  Carm.  I.  vi.  39  cantem  quae  solitus,  dum  pUbetn  pasceret  ore, 
Ambrosius  uates  carmina  pulchra  loqui. 


i6o 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


4  ruet  Be. 
7  exitus  Icefn  Vc. 


Be  Fls  Icefn  Vcos 

lam  Christus  ascendit  polum, 
necauit  ante  funera : 
letum  sepultus  expulit: 
mors  mortis  impulsu  ruit. 

cantate  factum,  saecula ; 
funus  subegit  tartarum, 
uicit  peremptus  exitum ; 
sors  inde  luget  pallida, 

6  subiecit  Fl  Icefn  Vcos. 
8  mors  Be*  lefh  Vcs. 


tartari  FI  lefn  Vc. 


2.  In  this  and  the  following  lines 
the  one  idea,  that  Christ's  death  has 
destroyed  death,  is  ingeniously  ex- 
pressed in  several  different  ways. 
How  much  simpler  and  more  effec- 
tive are  Hilary's  niorte  camis  quam 
gerebat  mortem  uicit  ofunium,  1.  40, 
and  mors,  te  peremptam  sentis  lege 
sum  tua,  Deum  cum  cernis  suhdidisse 
te  tibi,  and  Ambr.'s  reddatque  mors 
uitam  nouam,  10.  24  and  the  lines 
that  follow,  which  Ennod.  here  has 
in  mind. 

funera  is  plural  for  singular,  as 
often  in  Verg.  e.g.  Aen.  ix.  486  nee 
te  tua  funera  mater  produxi. 

4.  '  Death  has  fallen  (or  fell)  at 
the  onset  of  death.'  mortis  incursu 
=  incursu  sua  or  propria.  The  in- 
cursus  would  answer  to  the  irruis 
in  Hil.  Hymn.  11.  12  Deique  tota 
uiui  in  corpus  irruis. 

5.  The  world  at  large  is  appealed 
to,  as  at  6.  7,  38.  i,  31,  39.  32. 

6f.  peremptus]  'one  slain.' 
exitus  is  a  poor  synonym  for  mors. 

8.  The  identification  of  sors  with 
death,  as  is  proved  by  the  epithet 
pallida  (cp.  Hor.  Od.  i.  iv.  13  pal- 
lida mors)  and  by  the  use  of  the 
verb  praesumpsit,  is  remarkabje; 
cp.  Ennod.  Carm.  11.  v.  i  Rustica, 
perpeltiae  non  te  sors  pallida  uitae  sus- 
tulit,  interitum  nee  tibi  viorte  dedit. 
Bueheler  Anthol.  Lat.  1336.  1  sors 


tibi  sub  teneris  Atgentea  contigit 
annis ;  where  Schrader  needlessly 
conjectures  mors.  Other  writers 
constantly  connect  sors  with  the  end 
of  life,  as  Sedul.  Carm.  iv.  130, 
272,  Fort.  II.  v.  I,  V.  ii.  69;  but 
they  do  not  -actually  identify  the 
two  things. 

inde  answers  to  unde  in  9.  The 
use  of  these  words  to  express  cause 
and  effect  is  very  common  in  late 
Latin  writers;  see  e.g.  33.  9,  Sedul. 
Carm.  11.  26  f.  ut  unde  \  culpa  dedit 
mortem  pietas  daret  inde  salute m. 

In  antiphonal  singing  the  over- 
lapping of  the  sense  from  one  stanza 
to  the  next,  as  here  and  in  28,  29 
below,  must  have  been  awkward. 
See  Bede  de  Arte  Metrica  1 1  hym- 
nos  ttero,  quos  choris  alternantibus 
canere  oportet,  necesse  est  singulis 
uersibus  ad  purum  esse  distinctos. 
But  when  he  goes  on  to  say,  ut  sunt 
omnes  ambrosiani,  he  ignores  the 
fact  that  in  some  of  Ambr.'s  own 
hymns  the  sense  is  continued  from 
stanza  to  stanza,  as  in  the  commence- 
ments of  2,  3,  5  etc.,  though  not  so 
markedly  as  in  the  present  case. 

9.  praesumpsit]  '  enjoyed  in  an- 
ticipation.' Cp.  Hil.  Hymn.  il.  15 
kanc  sumis  ante  pompam  tanti  p>roe- 
Hi  I  sputus  flagella  ictus  cassa 
harundinis ;  and  for  the  sense  of 
the  following  lines  Prud.  Hamart. 


HYMN  XXXIL   ENNODIUS 


i6i 


praesumpsit  unde  gaudium. 
escis  uorator  captus  est, 
est  praeda  raptor  omnium ; 
iam  rete  uinctum  ducitur. 
iacet  catena  in  nexibus ; 
serpens  uenena  protulit ; 
mitis  terit  superbiam, 
agnus  leonem  euiscerat. 


lO 


15 


10  escae  Fl  Icfn  Vc.  12  rite  lefn  Vcos.     uinctus  Fl  Icefn  Vos. 

13  catenae  Icefn  Vco.     om.  in  Ic.  14  proferens  Fl  Icefn  Vcos. 

15  mites  Be.     teret  Be,  teri  Vs. 


Pfoef.  2^  Jinita  et  ipsa  est  finis  ex- 
sortem  pet  ens;  Fort.  \\.  vii.  43  f. 
hue  captitia  cubas,  quo  te  regnare 
put  abas:  \  inuoitendo  peris  teque  fu- 
rendo  necas.  \  te  tua  poena  premit, 
tua  te  /era  uincula  torquent,  \  quos 
dare  ius  gemitus  ipsaferendogemis. 

10  f.  Here  again  the  one  thought 
is  elaborately  diversified.  With  line 
10  cp.  10.  25,  with  12  cp.  10.  26. 
Biicheler  Ant  hoi.  Lat.  1391.  i  post- 
quam,  mors,  Christi  pro  nobis  niorte 
peristi,  in  Domini  fainulos  nil  tibi 
iuris  erit. 

r2.  ducitur  is  used  as  at  1.  33 
(note). 

13.  catena]  Cp.  37.  15,  111.  8; 
also  36.  45,  Prud.  Cath.  XI.  47, 
Perhaps  the  ref.  is  to  such  a  passage 
as  Acts  ii.  24,  Ps.  xvii.  (xviii.)  6. 
It  is  a  triumph  over  death  rather 
than  over  Satan  that  E.  has  in 
mind. 

14.  protulit  is  the  reading  of  the 
best  MS,  and  proferens  of  the  later 
ones  is  in  its  favour.  But  how  to  take 
it  ?  Can  it  mean  '  has  cast  forth ' 
its  venom  and  so  lost  its  pt)wer  of 
harming?  Hartel  conjectured  pro- 
pulit,  comparing  Ennod.  Carm.  11. 
vii  \serpens  aenetis  in  cruce\  Occisor 
mortis,  dux  uitae,  planta  salutis  ! 
aspice  nam  serpens  ecce  uenena  fu- 
gat,  I  et  quod  supplicii  species  et 
mortis  imago  \  iam  fuerat  miseris, 
est  mihi  certa  solus.  In  this  case  the 
serpent  is  Christ ;  cp.  Smith  Diet. 


Chr.  Antiquities  1890,  Ambr.  de 
Spir.  III.  50;  and  propulit  means 
'has  banished.'  But  line  14  seems 
to  be  parallel  to  13,  and  if  so  ser 
pens  must  refer  to  Satan,  as  at  26 
1 7  and  often.  Vogel  suggests  per 
tulit,  '  has  had  to  endure, '  cp.  31 
21,  34.  31,  38.  17.  It  is  just  pos 
sible  that  the  writer  of  the  Brussels 
MS  meant  to  v/nie  perfulit  here,  for 
some  Mss  use  the  form  ^  for  per, 
though  it  usually  stands  for  pro; 
see  Maunde  Thompson  Latin  and 
Greek  Palaeography  p.  224. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  later 
copyists  entirely  missed  the  meaning 
of  the  passage,  correcting  to  iacet 
catenae  in  nexibus  serpens  uenena 
proferens.  In  like  manner  they  re- 
write 18  f.  quod  nostra  sanctus  in- 
duens,  \  ueste  serui  absconditus,  \  nos 
ad  triumphum  prouehit,  \  quam  si  e 
coruscis  sedibus  \  reos  terreret  ful- 
gure,  I  Deus  patens  per  omnia. 

15.  Gen.  iii.  15  ipsa  conteret 
caput  tuum ;  Levit.  xxvi.  1 5  con- 
teram  superbiam  ;  Is.  xxviii.  3  con- 
culcabitur  corona  superbiae.  The 
line  is  imitated  at  81.  i  r. 

16.  agnus]  1.  5. 
leonem]  3.  14  note. 

Verg.  Aen.  XI.  723  uses  euiscerat 
of  a  hawk  tearing  a  dove  to  pieces 
in  order  to  devour  it.  Ambr.  Hex. 
V.  47  (birds  of  ^xey)  praedam...tiel 
ore  uel  unguibus  euiscerare. 


1 62 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


plus  istud  est  potentiae, 

quod  nostra,  sancte,  suscipis 

et  ueste  serui  absconditus 

nos  ad  triumphum  prouehis,  20 

quatn  si  e  coruscis  sedibus 
reos  terreres  fulgore, 
Deus  patens  per  omnia 
nullo  remotus  tegmine. 

18  Christe  {j>ro  sancte)  Be'',  sanctus  Icefn^  Vcos,  Christus  In',     induens 
{pro  susc.)  Fl  Ifn  Vcos.  19  om.  et  Fl  Icefn  Vcs.     seruili  ueste  Vo 

(seruuli  u.  Vs).     absconditur  Vo,  abditus  Vs.         20  prouehes  Be,  prouehit 
Fl  Icefn  Vcos.  21  om.  e  Bc^.     haec  (pro  si  e)  Vs.  22  reos  terreret 

fulgure  Fl  Icefn  (fulgore  Vos),  reos  terreres  fulgure  Vc.  23  deum  Fl 

le.     patet  Be,  potens  Ic.  24  renatus  In. 


1 7  f.  '  This  displays  more  power 
of  Thine,  that  Thou,  O  holy  one, 
takest  our  nature  and  hidden  in  the 
garb  of  a  slave  carriest  us  on  to 
triumph,  than  if  from  Thy  dazzling 
abode  Thou  shouldest  scare  the 
guilty  with  Thy  brightness,  com- 
pletely revealed  to  us  as  God  sepa- 
rated by  no  veil.' 

1 7.  est  is  often  used  in  Latin,  as 
here,  where  we  expect  a  more  ex- 
pressive verb. 

istud  has  its  strict  connexion 
with  the  2nd  person,  which  is  lost 
by  the  correction  of  the  later  MSS 
reading  sanctus  and  pro7>ehit. 

18.  Cp.  Te  Deum  18  tu...susce- 
pisti  [suscepiurus)  hominem,  42.  25 
crucem...suscipere.  nostra  in  this 
sense  is  frequent  enough  :  e.g.  Leo's 
'Tome'  §  3  totus  in  suis,  totus  in 
nostris. 

sancte  is  the  original  reading 
of  the  Brussels  MS,  as  satictus  of  all 
the  others.  Sanctus  as  an  appellation 
of  Christ  is  found  Acts  iii.  14, 1.  37, 
41.  48,  42.  61,  46.  16  ;  cp.  the  hke 
use  oi  hagius  41.  49,  44.  17,  84.  21. 
Christe  in  the  MS  is  to  be  regarded 
as  a  gloss  rather  than  as  a  correc- 
tion. 

19.  serul]  Phil.  ii.  7. 


absconditus]  '  hidden,'  '  dis- 
guised,' possibly  from  Satan  ;  cp. 
Ignat.  Eph.  XIX.  i  tXaBev  rbv  dp- 
Xovra  Tov  aluvos  tojjtov  t/  irapdevia. 
Ma/Mas  Kol  6  TOKerbs  avrrjs,  ofxoiu^ 
Kai  6  dcwaros  tov  Kvplov  :  Commo- 
dian  /ipo/.  313  obrepsit  Dominus 
ueleri  latroni  celatus ;  Ambr.  Hex. 
II.  3  ut  uirginitas  Mariae  Jalleret 
principem  mundi.  But  the  7-eos  in 
22  seems  to  make  this  interpretation 
of  absconditus  rather  too  definite  and 
restricted.  * 

22.  fulgore  is  a  poetical  form 
which  troubled  the  later  copyists, 
who  thought  that  the  sense  oi  ful- 
gure was  wanted.  Here  it  means 
'  with  all  thy  flashing  brightness ' ; 
cp.  2  Thess.  ii.  8. 

23.  It  will  be  seen  that  I  have 
taken  the  patens  of  the  later  MSS, 
for  patet  of  an  earlier  one.  If  we 
read  patet  we  must  put  a  full  stop  at 
the  end  of  22,  and  translate  'He  is 
completely  revealed  to  us  as  God,' 
viz.  by  His  resurrection.  But  this 
abrupt  sentence  does  not  suit  the 
context. 

per  omnia]  'entirely,'  'in  all 
respects';  see  6.  31  from  which 
this  line  is  imitated. 


HYMN  XXXII.   ENNODIUS 


163 


sed  ut  iacentes  erigat, 
dignatus  esse  quod  sumus, 
redemit  ipse  ius  suum, 
ouem  reduxit  perditam 

pastoris  ad  custodiam. 
leuate  portas,  angeli ! 
intrat  tremendus  arbiter 
maior  tropaeis  hostium. 

28  reuixit  Be. 


25 


27  redimit  Be,  redimens  Vs. 
31  intret  Fl  leefn  Vcos. 

25.  Cp.  Ps.  cxlv.  (cxlvi.)  8  Do- 
minus  erigit  elisos  ;  38.  28. 

26.  Cp.  38.  23,  87.  9f. 

27.  '  He  has  Himself  redeemed 
His  own  possession.'  We  were  His 
and  yet  He  bought  us  back.  Cp. 
Sedul.  Can/1.  111.  308  tunc  praedo 

furens  ac  noxius  hostis,  cut  possessa 
diu  est  alieni  fabrica  iuris...\  id. 
(p.  2  ed.  Huemer)  fabricam  sui 
iuris. 

28.  Lk.  XV.  4f.  The  line  is  bor- 
rowed 99.  8. 

29.  For  the  overlapping  of  the 
sense  into  another  stanza,  see  the 
note  on  line  8. 

30.  Ps.  xxiii.  (xxiv.)  7. 


30 


29  pastores  Be. 


31.  Intrat  is  more  vigorous  than 
intret  of  the  later  Mss,  and  goes 
better  with  the  indicatives  of  27,  28. 

arbiter]  prob.  in  the  wide  sense 
of  '  sovereign,'  as  there  is  no  ref.  to 
judgment  in  the  context. 

32.  'greater  by  reason  of  the 
trophies  won  from 'the  enemy.'  Cp. 
the  like  abl.  Hor.  Od.  in.  v.  39 
Carthago ..  .altior  Italiae  ruinis.  [It 
is  not  improbable,  however,  that 
hostium  is  only  another  spelling  for 
ostium,  governed  by  intrat.  ostium 
is  the  Vulgate  word  in  John  x, 
which  would  suit  the  allusion  in 
28  f.] 


VI.    VENANTIUS  HONORIUS 
CLEMENTIANUS  FORTUNATUS 

Venantius  Honorius  Clemen tianus  Fortunatus,  'the 
last  of  the  Roman  poets,'  as  Leo  well  describes  him,  was 
born  about  A.D.  530  not  far  from  Ravenna.  In  or  about 
his  35th  year  he  suffered  from  ophthalmia  and  rubbed  the 
ailing  eye  with  some  oil  from  a  lamp  that  hung  before  a 
picture  of  St  Martin  of  Tours  in  one  of  the  churches  of 
Ravenna.  This  healed  the  eye,  whereupon  he  resolved 
to  shew  his  gratitude  by  making  a  pilgrimage  to  the 
saint's  grave  at  Tours,  He  travelled  through  Germany 
and  Austrasia,  making  friends  wherever  he  went  and 
paying  his  hosts  by  poetical  compliments,  for  he  was 
before  everything  a  minstrel.  At  last  he  reached  his 
destination,  but  soon  set  forth  once  more,  again  as  a 
minstrel  '  courted  and  caressed,  high  placed  in  ball  a 
welcome  guest,'  going  from  place  to  place  through  the 
greater  part  of  Gaul.  Among  other  cities  he  visited 
Poitiers,  where  queen  Radegundis, — wife  of  the  brutal 
Frankish  king  Clotaire  I,  from  whom  she  had  separated, — 
had  established  a  convent  in  company  with  her  adopted 
daughter  Agnes.  Here  Fortunatus  settled  down,  became 
the  intimate  friend  of  the  two  ladies,  and  was  ordained 
priest.  A  year  or  two  before  the  close  of  the  century  he 
became  bishop  of  Poitiers,  where  he  lived  until  his  death, 
which  befel  him  soon  after  A.D.  600. 

Of  his  great  poetical  gift  there  can  be  no  question,  in 
spite  of  the  fact  that  again  and  again  he  shews  traces  of 
the  decadent  taste  of  his  times.  And  between  his  best  and 
his  worst  work  there  is  a  very  wide  gulf    Some  of  his 


HYMN  XXXIII.   FORTUNATUS         165 

shorter  occasional  pieces, — and  most  of  his  poems  are  of 
an  occasional  character, — are  almost  frivolous,  while  his 
praises  of  barbaric  kings  and  nobles  indulge  in  exaggera- 
tion and  flattery.  But  his  hymns,  especially  the  first  two 
printed  here,  33  and  34,  rise  to  supreme  excellence.  They 
combine  a  deep  sincerity  and  a  fervor  of  poetic  feeling  and 
religious  thought  with  high  dignity,  strength  and  skill  of 
expression.  They  are  indeed  models  of  what  Christian 
hymns  should  be.  For  his  love  of  nature  and  his  eminent 
power  of  interpreting  her  various  aspects  see  the  intro- 
duction to  36. 

Fortunatus  was  highly  esteemed  as  a  poet  by  his  con- 
temporaries and  by  later  writers.  Thus  Paul  the  Deacon 
says  of  him  de  Gestis  Longobard.  II.  13  uersiculos,  nulli 
poetaruDi  secundus,  suaui  et  diserto  sermone  composuit; 
and  he  wrote  an  epitaph  for  his  tomb  in  six  distichs,  the 
first  two  of  which  run  thus : 

Ingenio  clarus,  sensu  celer,  ore  suauis, 
cuius  dulce  melos  pagina  multa  canit. 

Fortunatus  apex  uatum,  uenerabilis  actu, 
Ausonia  genitus  ha£  tumulatur  humo. 

Hymn  33 
This  noble  hymn  was  certainly  written  by  Fortunatus, 
for  not  only  is  it  handed  down  among  his  collected 
works,  but  it  abounds  in  his  characteristic  thoughts  and 
phrases.  It  is  in  favour  of  this  view  that  the  hymn  bears 
traces  of  the  influence  of  a  hymn  of  Hilary,  the  pre- 
decessor of  Fortunatus,  two  hundred  years  earlier,  in  the 
see  of  Poitiers  1.  Nevertheless  some  writers, — as  Sirmond, 
Ceillier  and  Pimont,— have  given  it  to  Claudianus  Ma- 
mertus,  a  writer  of  southern  Gaul  who  lived  in  the  middle 
of  the  Vth  century.    Their  grounds  are  these : 

1  ^Qejourn.  of  Theol.  Studies  vol.  V.  p.  249. 


i66  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

(i)  Sidonius  Apollinaris  writing  to  Mamertus(J/i!7««w. 
Gertn.  Ant.  Vlll.  56)  says,  lam  uero  de  hyimio  tuo  si 
percunctere  quid  sentiam,  commaticus  est,  copiosus,  dulcis, 
elatus,  et  quoslibet  lyricos  dithyrambos  amoenitate  poetica 
et  historica  ueritate  superemifiet.  Here  there  is  no  indica- 
tion that  ours  is  the  hymn  spoken  of. 

(2)  In  one  MS  of  Gennadius'  continuation  of  Jerome's 
work  de  Viris  Illustribiis  the  hymn  is  assigned  to  Ma- 
mertus — evidently  on  the  authority  of  some  one  copyist, 
not  of  Gennadius.  See  Endlicher's  edition  of  Mamertus 
Corp.  Script.  Eccl.  Lat.  XI.  p.  ii  scripsit  et  alia  nonmdla, 
inter  quae  et  hyninum  de  passione  Domitti,  cuius  princi- 
pium  est  Pange  lingua  gloriosi.   A  like  statement  is  made 

in  a  Xllth  cent,  MS  of  Mamertus. 

(3)  The  hymn  is  so  good  that  it  cannot  have  been 
written  by  Fortunatus  or  by  any  writer  of  his  time.  On 
this  point  opinions  differ.  In  any  case  such  subjective 
reasoning  cannot  stand  against  the  facts  of  the  case 
which  contradict  it. 

As  to  the  occasion  on  which  the  hymn  was  composed, — 
for  this,  like  the  great  majority  of  the  poems  of  Fortunatus, 
is  an  occasional  piece, — Radegundis  had  obtained  from 
the  emperor  Justin  and  his  consort  Sophia  a  fragment  of 
the  holy  Cross  for  her  cloister  at  Poitiers,  and  she  re- 
quested Fortunatus  to  write  a  triumphal  ode  with  which 
to  welcome  the  sacred  relic.  Gregory  of  Tours  tells  us 
with  what  splendid  and  festal  joy  this  and  other  relics 
were  welcomed  in  the  cloister;  Hist.  Franc.  IX.  40.  So 
it  seems  that  the  Pange  lingua  (33),  the  Vexilla  regis 
prodeunt  (34),  and  the  Crux  benedicta  nitet  (35)  were  for 
the  first  time  solemnly  sung  on  November  19,  A.D.  569. 

'  The  hymn  very  early  came  into  extensive  use  and  is 
found  in  most  mediaeval  Breviaries  and  Missals.  In  the 
older  Roman  (Venice  1478),  Paris  of  1643,  Sarum,  York, 


H  YMN  XXXIII.   FOR  TUNA  TUS         1 67 

Aberdeen,  and  other  Breviaries,  it  is  appointed  for  use 
from  Passion  Sunday  to  Maundy  Thursday;  stanzas 
l-v  being  used  at  Mattins  and  vi-x  beginning  Lustra 
sex  at  Lauds.  In  the  Roman,  Sarum,  and  other  Missals 
it  is  appointed  to  be  used  on  Good  Friday  at  the  Impro- 
peria,... stanza  viii  crux  fidelis  being  first  sung  by  the 
clergy,  or  as  a  solo,  then  stanza  l-vil,  ix,  x  by  the 
people  ;  each  stanza  being  followed  by  either  the  first  or 
second  line  of  stanza  VIII  [i.e.  crux  fidelis  or  dulce  lignum\ 
The  Sarum,  York,  Aberdeen  and  other  Breviaries  also 
appointed  stanzas  vlii-x...for  the  festival  of  the  Inven- 
tion of  the  Cross  (May  3).' 

The  above  quotation  is  taken  from  Julian  p.  880, 
where  other  interesting  and  valuable  information  is  to  be 
found.  In  Leo's  edition  of  the  poetical  works  of  Fort, 
this  hymn  is  the  third  poem  of  the  second  book. 

Bb  Eahlnstvxi7/n  Fbcefhkps/3  Gabm  Hbd/Sy  labcdefghnv  Mi  Vcs 

Pange,  lingua,  gloriosi  proelium  certaminis 

at  super  crucis  tropaeo  die  triumphum  nobilem, 

I   linguam  Mi.     gloriose  Bb.  ^  tropaeum  Evsm  F/3  Hb/3  labceghn 

Vc.     triumpho  Es.     nobile  Bb  Es  Fc^  lag  Mi  Vc^ 

I.    pange]  'sing,'  as  at  Fort.  V.  what    the    proelium    consisted,    is 

V.  57  qiiod  canna  Dauitica  pangit,  what   may    be   called   an   identical 

40.  34,  92.   23.     In  this  sense  the  gen.,  like  84.  5  interitu  mortis,  1. 

word  is  as  old  as  Ennius.  50  candore  claritatis. 

proelium]    Cp.    Hii.    Hymn.    11  The  first  line  of  the  famous /*ra«^^, 

ante  pompam  tanti  proelii.    Fort,  is  lingua,  gloriosi  corporis  mysterium 

also  thinking   of   Prud.    Cath.    IX.  of  Aquinas  is  of  course  imitated  from 

84  f.   die   tropaeum   passionis,    die  this. 

triumphalem  crucem,  \  pange  uexil-  7.   cmcis  tropaeo]  'the  trophy  of 

luw,  notatis  quod  refulget  frontibus.  (i.e.  consisting  in)  the  cross.'   To  a 

The  modern  Roman  breviary  alters  Roman  ear  '  a  trophy '  meant  the 

the  sense  by  reading  lauream  certa-  spoils  carried  in  the  triumphal  pro- 

minis  on  which  Neale  says  (Afediae-  cession  (see  6.  26  note),  which  were 

val  Hymns  p.  4)  '  It  is  not  to  the  to  remind  the  onlookers  of  the  vic- 

glory   of    the    termination    of   our  tory.    In  a  Christian  procession  the 

Lord's  conflict  with  the  devil  that  cross  would  do  this ;  Fort.  .XI.  i.  23 

the  poet  would  have  us  look  :  but  erux  species  tropaei  est,  quod  deuictis 

to  the  glory  of  the  struggle  itself.'  hostibus  solet fieri  triumphanti. 

gloriosi... certaminis,  shewing  in  triomphom]    In  connexion  with 


i68 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


qiialiter  redemptor  orbis  inmolatus  uicerit. 

de  parentis  protoplast!  fraude  factor  condolens, 
quando  pomi  noxialis  morte  morsu  conruit,  5 

ipse  lignum  tunc  notauit,  damna  ligni  ut  solueret. 

hoc  opus  nostrae  salutis  ordo  depoposcerat, 
multiformis  perditoris  arte  ut  artem  falleret 
et  medellam  ferret  inde,  hostis  unde  laeserat. 

4  parente  Bb.     facta  Bb  Eas/a  Fe  Gb  Hbd  labcdeghnv  Vcs.  5  in 

(ante  morte)  lb.  morsu  morte  Fj3,  morsu  in  mortem  En  Hb*  Ih  (morsus 
in  m.  Iv)  Vs,  in  morsu  mortem  Id,  morte  mors  occubuit  Bb  Gm  (m.  m. 
hoccurruit  Mi),  morsu  mors  incubuit  Fe  (mortu  m.  i.  la).  6  om.  ipse 

Bb,  ipsum  Vs.     ligno  Fc.     turn  Fk.  8  multiformi  E/u.    proditoris  Bb 

Eas/*  Fh  Gabm  Hj3  Ibceghn  Mi  Vc.  ars  (p7-o  arte)  Ens/t  Fhk  H7  Idg'hv 
Vs^     uinceret  Eh. 


super  cruets  tropaeo  it  would  be 
simplest  to  regard  triumphum  as 
CfjSV  iirivlKiov,  if  any  authority  for 
this  rendering  had  been  forthcoming. 
In  the  absence  of  such  authority, 
we  must  take  it  to  be  'the  triumph' 
itself,  die  being  used  as  at  Hor.  Od. 
I.  xxi.  I  Dianam  tenerae  dicite  uir- 
gines. 

trimnplium  nobilem]  13.  3,  34. 
38. 

3.  qiialiter]oneofFort.'sfavourite 
words,  e.g.  at  III.  x.  25,  xxii.  9, 
xxvi.  8. 

r.  orbis]  23.  15. 

inmolatus  uicerit  placed  side  by 
side  form  a  sharp  contrast.  The 
victim  was  the  conqueror.  Aug. 
Con/.  X.  69  uictor  ei  uictima,  et 
ideo  uictor,  quia  uictima. 

4  f.  '  The  Creator  grieving  at  the 
harm  wrought  to  (or  '  by  ')  the  first 
man,  when  by  the  bite  of  the  fatal 
apple  he  fell  in  death.  Himself  even 
then  marked  a  tree,  in  order  to 
undo  the  damage  caused  by  a  tree.' 
A  legend,  which  Fort,  appears  to 
have  in  mind  here  and  at  34.  17  f., 
told  how  that  the  cross  came  from 
the  tree  in  the  Garden  of  Eden,  a 
shoot  of  which  was  brought  out  by 
Adam  and  planted  by  Seth.    The 


tree  which  grew  from  this  was 
destroyed  in  the  deluge,  but  a  twig 
of  it  was  saved  by  Noah ;  see  Kayser 
I.  p.  407.  Cp.  Commodian  Apol. 
^  1 7  per  quod  hominem  prostrauerat 
morte  malignus,  \  ex  ipso  deuictus ; 
ih.  323  mors  fuit  in  ligno  et  in  ligno 
uita  latehat,  \  quo  Deus  pependit 
Dominus  ;  Ambr.  in  Ps.  XXXV.  3 
paradisum  nobis  crux  reddidit 
Christi.  hoc  est  lignum  quod  Adae 
Dominus  demonstrauit ;  Poetcu  aeui 
Carolini  p.  78  (ed.  DUmmler)  Adam 
per  lig7tum  mortem  deduxit  in  orbem, 
per  lignum  pepulit  Christus  ab  orbe 
necem. 

protoplast!]  Cp.  23.  22.  Cp.  for 
the  general  sense  Fort.  x.  ii.  2  habet 
hoc  insitum  natura  praeuaricatione 
protoplasti  parentis  ad  nos  decursa 
morte  mult  at  a,  ut  saepe  quod  uix 
adquiritur  mox  linquatur  ;  serpentis 
inueterati  dens  a  radice  sic  perculit, 
ut  nee  arbor  steterit  quin  stirpe 
mortis  fixa  uiuat;  ib.  ix.  ii.  if. 
aspera  condicio  et  sors  inreuocabilis 
horae  !  quod  generi  humano  tristis 
origo  dedit,  cum  suadens  coluber 
proiecit  ab  ore  uenenum,  morsu  et 
serpentis  mors  fuit  Eua  nocens : 
sumpsit  ab  ipso  ex  tunc  Adam  patre 
terra  dolorem,  et  de  matre  gemens 


HYMN  XXXIII.   FORTUNATUS 


169 


quando  uenit  ergo  sacri  plenitudo  temporis,  10 

missus  est  ab  arce  patris  natus,  orbis  conditor, 
atque  uentre  uirginali  carne  factus  prodiit 

uagit  infans  inter  arta  conditus  praesepia, 

13  positus  (/r0  conditus) 


12  caro  E/x  Fi  Hbd^^  Ibcdenv  Vcs«, 
E^  Gm. 

mundtts  amara  capit.  praeuaricando 
duo  probro  damnatittir  acerbo :  ille 
labore  dolet,  haec  generando  gemit. 

factor]   Cp.  1.  8,  30.  30. 

5.  morte]  'in  death.'  Fort, 
favours  this  abl.  ;  cp.  came  in  12, 
and  34.  3. 

7.  hoc  opus]  (used  as  at  10.  13) 
viz.  the  reparation  by  means  of  the 
cross  of  the  bane  wrought  by  the 
tree  of  knowledge. 

ordo]  '  the  plan.' 

depoposcerat]  '  had  demanded  ' 
in  the  everlasting  counsel  of  the 
Father.  Cp.  Vit.  Mart.  ii.  206 
ftituris  ordo  sui  nostrae  fuit  arra 
salutts. 

8.  arte]  applied  to  the  working  of 
God  as  Aug.  Conf.  iv.  24  /«  arte 
tua  ;  c.  Faust.  XXI.  5  ars  diuina. 

'  That  by  craft  He  might  foil 
the  craft  of  the  many-shaped  de- 
stroyer.' Satan  appeared  to  Eve  as 
a  serpent,  and  '  fashioneth  himself 
into  an  angel  of  light,'  2  Cor.  xi.  14 ; 
cp.  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  91  quid  tibi 
profane  serpens  profuit,  rebus  iwuis  j 
plasma  primum  perculisse  uersipelli 
hortamine?  Vit.  Mart.  ii.  132  f. 
For  another  application  of  the  out- 
witting of  Satan  see  Greg.  Nyss. 
Or.  Cat.  26. 

9.  Inde,  hostla]  The  hiatus  is 
justified  by  the  pause,  and  moreover 
Fort,  constantly,  though  not  con- 
sistently, treats  initial  A  as  a  con- 
sonant, as  e.g.  Vit.  Mart.  11,  341 
indicia  sine  hoc. 

liide...unde]  Cp.  Sedul.  Carm. 
II.  26  ut  unde  \  culpa  cL-dit  mortem 
pi  etas  daret  inde  salutetn  ;  and  see 
note  on  32.  8.  Possibly  there  is 
(in  inde,  unde)  also  a  ref.  to  the 
locality  of  the  cross.  Ambr.  in  Luc. 


X.  114  ipse  autem  crueis  locus... 
supra  Adae  (ut  Hebraei  disputant) 
sepulturam.  congruebat  quippe  ut 
ibi  uitae  twstrae  primitiae  locarentur, 
ubi  fuerant  mortis  exordia. 

10.  plenitudo  temporis]  Gal.  iv. 
4,  Eph.  i.  10;  cp.  Mk  i.  15  'the 
time  is  fulfilled.' 

11.  missus  est]  Cp.  Job.  iii.  17, 
vi.  57;  Ambr.  in  Luc.  vi.  13  oboe- 
diente  pietate  missus  est  in  hunc 
mundum  ;  x.  i  missus  a  Patre,  quia 
descendit  de  caelo  pat  emu  m  inple- 
turus  arbitrium. 

ab  arce  patrts]  Cp.  23.  26 ; 
Fort.  I.  xiv.  I  summus  in  arce  Dei; 
V.  iii.  44  regis  in  arce.  Athanasius 
de  Inc.  8  and  other  theologians  had 
dwelt  upon  the  fitness  of  our  being 
redeemed  by  Him  who  had  been  the 
agent  in  our  creation;  cp.  36.  27 
conditor  atque  redemptor ;  Diimmler 
Aloniim.  Germ.\  Poetae  lot.  aeui 
Carol,  p.  48  ut  saluaret  qtios  creauit, 
carnem  nostram  induit.  conditor  is 
one  of  Fort,  's  favourite  words ;  see 
34.3. 

12.  came]  'in  flesh';  for  the 
abl.  cp.  note  on  1.  5;  i  Pet.  iii.  18 
mortificatus  quidem  came;  Fort. 
VIII.  iii.  86  qua  caro  came  utnit; 
also  I.  iii.  8.  /actus  =' as  a.  creature,' 
— unless  indeed  we  are  to  take  came 

/actus  as  practically  one  word  ^caro 
/actus. 

1 3  f.  The  omission  of  this  whole 
stanza  in  some  Mss  may  be  due  to  a 
feeling  that  the  story  of  the  infancy 
is  incongruous  in  a  hymn  celebrating 
the  triumph  of  the  cross. 

uagit]  The  wailing  of  the  infant 
Jesus  is  not  mentioned  in  scripture, 
but  is  often  alluded  to  by  Hilary, 
from  whom  perhaps  Fort.  Ixjrrows 


I/O  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

membra  pannis  inuoluta  uirgo  mater  adligat 

et  pedes  manusque,  crura  stricta  pingit  fascia,  1 5 

lustra  sex  qui  iam  peracta  tempus  inplens  corporis, 
se  uolente,  natus  ad  hoc  passioni  deditus, 
agnus  in  crucis  leuatur  inmolandus  stipite. 

14  conligat  Bb.  15  manus  pedesq.  Es  HbM  Idehn  Mi  Vcs.     pangit 

Fc',  cingit  Est;u  F/3  Gb^  Mi  Vcs,  cinxit  Ihv.  16  lustris  E/it  Hb*  Ibcdv 

Vs.     peractis  E/n  (peracti  Ea)  Hb^  Idv  Vs.  17  uolentem  Bb  Ig'  Mi. 

passione  Fc  (-nis  Ig').         18  crucem  Eh,  cruce  Bb  Es  Gb'm  Hb'/3  Ibcghv 
Mi  Vcs,  cruces  Id^.     leuatus  Bb  Es  Gbm.     immolatur  Bb.     stipitem  En. 


it.  Thus  de  Trin.  II.  24  per  concep- 
tionem,  partum,  uagitum,  cunas ; 
ib.  27  infans  ua^t,  laudantes  angeli 
auditintur;  see  Journ.  of  Theol. 
Studies  Vv  430.  Cp.  also  Cypr.  Ep. 
XXXI.  3  uhi  scura  nati  salttatoris 
infantia  uagierat ;  Ambr.  in  Luc. 
II.  41  nu  illi  infantiae  uagi^ntis 
abluunt  JUtus ;  42  infantis  audis 
uagitus,  non  audis  bouts  Dominum 
agnoscentis  mugitus;  Prud.  CcUh. 
XI.  61  uagitus  iUe  exordium  \  uer- 
nantis  orbis  prodidit. 

inter]  '  within  '  is  used  for  intra, 
the  plural  form  praesepia  lending 
itself  to  this  construction. 

conditns]  '  hidden.'  See  the  note 
on  praesepe  at  6.  29. 

14  f.  '  His  virgin  mother  binds  up 
His  body  wrapped  in  rags,  yea  His 
feet  and  hands ;  the  tight-drawn 
swathe  marks  His  legs.'  Lk.  ii.  7. 
No  doubt  Fort,  considered  the 
binding  of  the  infant  limbs  a  pre- 
Sjige  of  the  passion. 

pannis]  'in  rags.'  That  this  is 
the  meaning  of  the  word  is  shewn 
by  many  passages ;  as  Ter.  Eun. 
236  squaliiium,  aegrum,  pannis  an- 
nisque  obsitttm  ;  Lact.  Phoen.  19 
egestas  obsita  pannis ;  Prud.  Perist. 
II.  281  pannis  uideres  obsitos ; 
Alcuin  de  Clade  Lindisfam.  Afon- 
ast.  1 04  uix  panno  ueteri  frigida 
membra  tegit ;  Juvenc.  I.  1 56 
pueruin  ueteri  cunabula  textu  |  in- 
uoluunt,  duroque  dalur  praesepe 
cubili.  The  panni  are  mentioned 
also  38.  20,  90.  10.    The  panni  are 


constantly  mentioned,  is  enhancing 
the  contrast  between  the  real  ma- 
jesty and  the  apparent  poverty.    " 

15.  manusque]  The  hands  also 
were  tied  in,  this  being  the  eastern 
custom. 

stricta]  used  as  at  1.  42. 

pingit]  'marks,'  'discolours' ;  cp. 
Prud.  Perist.  in.  144  membraque 
picta  cruore  nouo  \fonte  cutem  re- 
calente  lauant;  Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  i. 
2^%  pingit  inaduersum  signum  cru- 
cis. The  reading  of  the  later  Mss 
patigit  is  evidently  due  to  the  avoid- 
ance of  what  w'as  found  a  difficulty. 

fascia]  Cp.  Quint,  xi.  iii.  144 
fasciis  crura  uestiiintur. 

r6.  '  When  thirty  years  were 
now  accomplished.'  lustra... peracta 
may  be  either  ace.  abs.  (see  Index) 
or  the  words  may  be  in  apposition 
with  tempus.  The  reading  of  the 
later  mss  lustris... peractis  is  a  cor- 
rection. Fort,  is  especially  fond  of 
expressing  age  by  lustra,  as  here, 
e.g.  IV.  viii.  29. 

inplens]  '  having  fulfilled  ' ;  the 
pres.  part,  taking  the  place  of  the 
non-existent  past  part.,  as  often. 
An  extreme  case  of  this  is  5edul. 
Carm.  III.  130  moriens  ubi  uirgo 
iacebai  \  extremum  sort  it  a  diem  ; 
see  also  36.  31  cernens  with  the 
note.  Fort,  does  not  mean  to  say 
that  Christ  was  crucified  when  just 
thirty  years  old,  but  only  after  the 
thirty  years  of  Lk.  iii.  23. 

tempos  corporis]  i.e.  His  life  on 
earth,  like  Heb.  v.  7  in  diebus  carnis 


HYMN  XXXIII.   FORTUNATUS         171 

hie  acetum,  fel,  harundo,  sputa,  claui,  lancea ; 

mite  corpus  perforatur;  sanguis,  unda  profluit,  20 

terra,  pontus,  astra,  mundus  quo  lauantur  flumine. 
/ 

19  aceto  Bb  E/n  Fch'i  Gabm  H/37  Ig'h.   felle  Mi.    sputo  Es  Ga.    clauis 
Bb£st  Fhi  Hd  Ibcgn'  Vc.  10  mitte  Es  Ih  Mi,  cum  milite  Bb  Gb>, 

perforauit  Fk.     perfluit  Et.  2 1  pondus  Bb  Mi.     mundi  Bb. 


suae;  corporis  being  a  gen.  of  the 
same  kind  as  at  10.  14  poenam  cor- 
poris; cp.  16;  10. 

17.  se  aolente]  Is.  liii.  "j  oblatus 
est  quia  ipse  uoluit ;  cp.  Commod. 
Apol.  224  et  patitur  quomodo  uoluit. 

.  The  abl.  abs.  referring  to  the  subject 
of  the  sentence  is  a  construction 
found  in  Cic.  ad  Fani.  xvi.  26  non 
potes  effugere  huius  culpae  poenam 
te  patrono;  cp.  Fort.  I.  v.  7  hie  se 
nudato  tunica  uestiuit  egenum ;  43. 
if.  / 
n.  ad  hoc]  i  Tim.  i.  15. 

18.  liiBtipite]  =  iMj/'2;»/V(W/.  Fort, 
is  rather  given  to  this  usage,  cp.  e.g. 
III.  xvii.  8  raptus  in  axe  leuor; 
VIII.  iv.  6  ducitiir  in  thalamis. 

inmolandus]  The  cross  being  the 
altar,  a  thought  more  fully  brought 
out  iri  109.  3f. ;  cp.  i  Cor.  v.  7. 
The  gerundive  is  here  -equivalent  to 
a  final  clause  [ut  immolaretur),  as 
1.  18  occulendus  (note). 

19.  acetum]  Mt.  xxvii.  48.  fel, 
ib.  34.  harundo,  ib.  30,  48.  sputa, 
ib.  30.  claui,  Joh.  xx.  25.  lancea. 
Job.  xix.  34.  Cp.  Fort.  XI.  i.  21 
hinc  multa  prophetae,  qualiter  con- 
fixus  in  cruce  foratis  pedibus,  aceto 
uel  felle  aut  uitw  murrato  potatus, 
spitiis  coronatus,  lancea  percussus  ; 
Hil.  Hymn.  11.  16  sputus,  flagella, 
ictus,  cassa  harundinis. 

harundo  probably  refers  both  to 
the  reed  with  which  Christ  was 
struck, — though  this  was  not  done 
at  the  cross  itself,  but  neither  do 
we  read  of  sputa  there, — and  also 
to  that  on  which  the  sponge  was 
put. 

sputa]  Some  later  MSS  read  stupa, 
by  a  slip  in  writing,  though  Pimont 


defends  it  as  meaning  '  the  spoiige  ' 
of  Mt.  xxvii.  48. 

lancea  is  probably  nominative, 
like  the.  other  words  in  the  line. 
But  it  might  be  abl.,  as  some  editors 
punctuate :  '  the  gentle  body  is 
pierced  by  the  lance,'  cp.  Joh.  xix. 
34  unus  militum  lancea  latus  eius 
aperuit. 

The  cumulatio,  i.e.  a  string  of 
words  with  no  connecting  particle, 
is  a  favourite  usage  of  Fort.;  take 
two  examples  out  of  many,  11.  xii. 
13  carcere,  ciede,fame,  uinelis,  site, 
frigore,  flamma;  vi.  \a.  23  lingua, 
decus,  uirtus,  bonitas,  mens,  gratia 
pollent ;  cp.  37.  9  f. 

20.  san^niis,  unda]  In  this  and 
the  following  line,  as  at  34.  .22,  37. 
2  f.,  Fort,  is  thinking  of  the  conse-' 
cration  of  baptism  by  the  cross.  Cp. 
77.  10  quos  mufidat  unda,  san- 
guinis ;  89.  3  baptisma  cruce  con- 
secrans ;  and  the  prayer  in  the 
Baptismal  Service  '  Whose  most 
dearly  beloved  Son,  for  the  forgive- 
ness of  our  sins,  did  shed  out  of  His 
most  precious  side  both  water  and 
blood.'  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  86  hinc 
cruoris  fluxit  unda,  lympha  parte 
ex  altera:  \  lympha  nempe  dat  laua- 
crum,  turn  corona  ex  sanguine  est. 

21.  terra,  pontus,  astra]  We 
have  had  this  threefold  division  of 
the  universe  at  23.  6.  Fort,  often 
mentions  it,  as  at  iii.  xxxiiia.  27, 
IX.  viii.  7,  XI.  ii.  3  etc.,  cp.  39.  i. 

mundus]  '  the  universe ' ;  the 
whole,  of  which  the  three  preceding 
words  are  the  component  parts ;  cp. 
13.  29  note.  All  things,  whether 
with  or  without  life,  are  included,  as 
by  St  Paul,  Col.  i.  20. 


172 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


crux  fidelis,  inter  omnes  arbor  una  nobilis, 
nulla  talem  silua  profert,  flore,  fronde,  germine ; 
dulce  lignum  dulce  clauo  dulce  pondus  sustinens. 

flecte  ramos,  arbor  alta,  tensa  laxa  uiscera, 
et  rigor  lentescat  ille,  quern  dedit  natiuitas, 
ut  superni  membra  regis  mite  tendas  stipite. 


25 


23  nullam  Gb  Mi.  tale  Es.  silua  talem  Bb  Eahnt  Gam  Hbd/3  Ibcdegh 
(tale  In)  Vcs.  fronde  flore  (frondes  f.  Bb)  Eahn  Fhi  Gm  Hbd  Icgh,  frondes 
florem  germinans  Iv.  24  dulcem  clauum  Bb  Fi  (dulce  cl.  Em  Fc  Gb 

Mi)  Ga  H|3,  dulces  clauos  Ent''  Fh^  Hbd  Icdegnv  Vcs  (dulce  cl.  Ih),  dulces 
claui  Fk  (dulce  cl.  Es  Gm).  sustines  Hd7^  Vs,  sustinent  E/i  Fk^  Gm, 
sustinet  Es  Fh  Ga  Hb  Ig'hv  Mi.  26  nitescat  Es  Mi.  27  et  (pro  ut) 
Bb  Ga  Mi.  superna  Bb.  miti  Fh  Ibeg^n  \'cs,  mitte  H/3  Mi,  mitti  Ig'v, 
mittite  de  stipite  Es,  mitendas  Fc,  mittenda  sint  Fk.  tendis  Mi,  tendat  Et, 
tendant  Gm,  extendant  Bb. 


22.  fidelis]  'faithrul,'  in  that  this 
tree  did  its  duty,  accomplished  what 
was  expected  of  it,  cp.  the  use  of 
the  word  at  34.  14,  37.  25,  38.  10. 
Or  it  may  mean  that  it  was  faithful 
as  opposed  to  the  tree  of  knowledge 
in  Eden,  which  was  treacherous. 

inter  omnes]  arbores. 

una  nobilis]  '  alone  in  thy  glory, ' 
to  be  taken  closely  together ;  cp. 
Verg.  Aen.  I.  15,  11.  426,  in.  321 
ofelix  una  ante  alias. 

23.  nulla... silua]  i.e.  no  ordinary 
forest :  this  tree  came  from  Paradise. 
Perhaps  Fort,  has  in  mind  Hor.  Od. 
I.  xiv.  12  siliiaefilia  ncbilis. 

The  thought  works  backwards 
from  blossom  to  leaf  and  from  leaf 
to  bud ;  and  the  fruit  comes  in  the 
next  line  (pondus).  Or  it  may  be 
that  Fort,  with  a  distinct  feeling  of 
the  etymology  of  ^t'r/;/(?«  ('the  tiling 
borne,'  cp.  36.  10  tarn  noua  poma 
geris)  means  by  it  to  express  '  fruit ' ; 
when  the  order  will  be  that  of 
76.  5  f. 

24.  dulce  cl.]  abl.  Fortunatus 
freely  uses  the  form  in  -e  instead  of 
the  normal  /of  such  adj.s,  when  the 
metre  requires  a  short  final  syllable, 
as  Ovid  had  sparingly  done  before 
him.    Thus  we   have  luce  perentie 


diem,  morte  percnne  iacet,  cruce 
texile  pulchra,  dulce  liquore  sitim 
etc.   Cp.  mite  in  27. 

The  nails  of  the  cross  are  specially 
mentioned  by  Fort,  in  19,  34.  5, 
86.  7,  11.  iv.  40  uera  spes  nobis 
ligno,  agni  sanguine,  clauo. 

25.  flecte]  'bend,'  that  the  ascent 
may  be  the  easier. 

ramos]  Fort.  11.  iii.  7  tensus  in 
his  ratnis,  35.  10. 

uiscera]  i.e.  the  whole  of  the 
timber  inside  the  bark,  cp.  Dracont. 
de  Deo  1.  503  rubigo  latens  quai 
uiscera  ferri  j  conrodat. 

tensa  laxa  uiscera]  '  relax  thy 
taut  fibres.'  Kayser  takes  tensa  as 
the  imperative  of  tensare  and  trans- 
lates '  extend  thy  timber  into  soft- 
ness ' ;  but  this  does  not  give  so 
good  a  sense,  it  introduces  a  spondee 
where  in  the  rest  of  the  hymn  stands 
a  trochee,  and  it  invents  a  new  verb 
tensare. 

26.  natiuitas]  'birth,'  'nature.' 
Cp.  Jas.  i.  23  uiro  consideranti  uul- 
tum  natiuitatis  suae. 

27.  mite]  al)l.,  like  d^ce  in  24. 

28.  pretlum  saeculi]  •  The  ran- 
som of  the  world  '  was  the  death  of 
Christ ;  here  by  an  easy  transition 
it   is   applied   to   the    body   which 


HYMN  XXXIV.   FORTUNATUS         173 

sola  digna  tu  fuisti  ferre  pretium  saeculi, 
atque  portum  praeparare  nauta  mundo  naufrago, 
quem  sacer  cruor  perunxit  fusus  agni  corpora.  30 

28  f.  saecli  pretium  E^  Fh  Gm  Hb^  Ibdghv,  saecli  f,  pretium  Hd  In  Vs. 

29  naute  (i.e.  nautae)  Iv  Vs.    mundi  Ihv  Vs.  30  quam  Fck  Hb'd  Vs. 

fuso  Bb  Gb  Mi.     sanguine  Hb^  Mi. 

suffered  death;  cp.  34.  22,  36.  40,  uelis  das  nauita  portum;  viii.  iii. 

42.  28;  Fort.  II.  X.  10  haec  pretio  397  opto  per  hos  flitcttis  anintas  tu 

mundi  stat  solidata  domus ;    XI.   i.  Christe   puberties,   \  arbore    et   an- 

26  ideo  Dominus  in  cruce  suspendi-  temna   uelificante  crucis,  \  ut  post 

tur,ut pro  captiuitate  nostra  pretium  emensos  mundani  gurgitis  aestus   | 

sui  corporis  mercalor  in  statera  pen-  in   portum    uitae   nos   tua    dextra 

saret.  locet.     Ambrose    before    him    had 

29.     nauta    is    the    cross    itself  likened  the  cross  to  a  ship  de  Spir. 

floating    over    the    waves    of    this  .S".  i.  no  lignum  igitur  illud  crucis 

troublesome  world,  and  so  forming  tulut  quaedam  nostras  nauis  salutis 

a  refuge,  like  the  ark,  to  a  wrecked  uectura  nostra  est. 
creation.    The  metaphor  is  mixed,  30.    quem  refers  to  portum,  not 

but  Fort,  is  given  to  combining  in-  without  reference  to  Exod.  xii.  13, 

congruous  notions,  of  set  purpose  ;  23. 
cp.   Fort.   II.  iv.   25  (of  the  cross) 

Hymn  34 

Hymn  34,  Vexilla  regis  prodeimt,  was  written  for  the 
same  occasion  as  33,  the  introduction  to  which  should  be 
consulted.  It 'was  thus  primarily  a  Processional  hymn, 
written  for  use  at  the  solemn  reception  of  a  relic  of  the 
Holy  Cross.  Inspired  by  the  occasion  the  poet  composed 
this  poem  of  the  Crucified  King,  one  of  the  grandest 
hymns  of  the  Latin  church,  in  which  in  glowing  accents 
he  invites  us  to  contemplate  the  mystery  of  love  accom- 
plished on  the  Cross.  The  occasion  thus  gives  the  key  to 
his  choice  of  subject,  and  to  most  of  the  allusions  through- 
out the  hymn.' 

As  to  its  subsequent  history:  'the  Sarum  use  was  at 
Vespers  on  Passion  Sunday  and  daily  up  to  Maundy 
Thursday.  In  the  Paris  Brev.  of  1736  it  was  assigned  to 
Vespers  from  Monday  in  Passion  Week  up  to  Maundy 
Thursday.  In  the  present  Roman  Brev.  it  is  used  at 
Vespers  on  the  Saturday  before  Passion  Sunday,  and  up 


174 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


to  Maundy  Thursday,  and  also  on  the  Festival  of  the 
Invention  of  the  Cross  (May  3) ;  and  in  the  present 
Roman  Missal  it  is  appointed  to  be  sung  on  the  morning 
of  Good  Friday,  after  the  ceremony  of  the  Adoration  of 
the  Cross,  and  during  the  time  that  the  acolytes  are 
censing  the  reserved  sacrament.'  The  above  quotations 
are  taken  from  the  Rev.  J.  Mearns'  excellent  notice  of 
the  hymn  in  Julian  p.  1220. 

Eacdhjlstvx577/x0  Fdfhikmps/3  Gam  Habcdefghm  labcdefghnv  Mm  Vcs 

Vexilla  regis  prodeunt, 

fulget  crucis  mysterium, 

quo  carne  carnis  conditor 

suspensus  est  patibulo. 

2  fulge  E5  Ih,  fulgens  Vs^,  fulgent  Ed.     mysteria  Ed.  3  qua  Edt* 

Ga  Hd  Ig.     4  patibulum  Ec5,  in  patibulo  Hh. 


r.  uexilla  sunt  signa  militaria 
principum  et  regum,  quae  in  bello 
eriguntur,  ubi  manus  conseruntur 
cum  hostibus.  haud  aliter  insignia 
sacra  pas.tionis  Domini  nostri  {u/ 
Jlagella,  corona  spinea,  crux,  claui, 
lanceci)  sunt  eius  uexilla  (Clicht.). 
See  6.  15  (note),  42.  36,  Minuc. 
Felix  Octauius  xxix.  7  nam  et 
signa  ipsa  et  cantabra  et  uexilla 
castrorum  quid  aliud  quam  inaura- 
tae  cruces  sunt  et  omatae?  Prud. 
Psych.  347  uexillum  sublime  crucis, 

2.  falget]  in  the  literal  sense, 
says  Kayser,  because  adorned  with 
gold  and  jewels.  No  doubt  on  the 
occasion  for  which  the  hymn  was 
written  the  cross  was  thus  adorned, 
but  the  blaze  here  is  the  blaze  of 
glory,  as  at  Prud.  CatA.  jx.  84 
pange  uexillum,  notatis  quod  re- 
fulget  frontibus ;    Sedul.    Carm.    i. 

337  ^M  signo  scurata  crucis  uexilla 
coruscant ;  id.  Op.  I.  30  ecce  scurata 
crucis  uexilla  iam  radiant. 

crucis  mysterium]  the  mystery 
consisting  in  the  cross,  i.e.  the  cross 
so  full  of  meaning  to  a  Christian. 

3.  quo]  'whereby,'  or  'wherein,' 
referring  back  to  mysterium. 


came]  '  in  the  flesh  ' ;  cp.  33.  5, 
12  (notes). 

4.  patibulo]  a  yoke  shaped  some- 
what like  the  letter  Y,  placed  on  the 
back  of  criminals,  to  the  arms  of 
which  their  arms  were  tied  for  them 
to  carry  it  to  the  place  of  execution  ; 
cp.  Plaut.  Miles  359  f.  credo  ego  istoc 
exemplo  tibi  esse  pereundum  extra 
portam,  \  dispessis  manibus  patibu- 
lum quom  habebis.  Fort,  did  not 
know  it  as  a  punishment  in  use, 
any  more  than  we  do.  It  is  treated 
as  a  practical  synonym  of  crux.  The 
i  of  patibulo  is  lengthened  by  the 
stress  of  the  accent.  Some  hymnals 
have  instead  of  suspenstis  etc.  the 
line  sententiam  nostram  tulit,  which 
Neale's  version  has  popularized  in 
England. 

5.  '  Here  the  victim.  His  body 
pierced  by  nails,  stretching  out  His 
hands,  His  feet,  was  sacrificed.' 
conjixa  agrees  with  hostia,  uiscera 
is  the  ace.  of  the  part  affected. 

uiscera]  'the  body,'  cp.  Fort. 
I.  ii.  17  quo  ueneranda  pit  re- 
quiescunt  uiscera  Petri;  18.  17, 
33.  25. 

6.  tendens  manus]  11.  iii.  7  cttm 


HYMN  XXXIV.  FORTUNATUS         175 


confixa  clauis  uiscera, 
tendens  manus,  uesdgia, 
redemptionis  gratia 
hie  inmolata  est  hostia. 

quo  uulneratus  insuper 
mucrone  dirae  lanceae, 
ut  nos  lauaret  crimine, 
manauit  unda,  sanguine. 

inpleta  sunt  quae  concinit 
Dauid  fideli  carmine, 
dicendo  nationibus : 
'regnauit  a  ligno  Deus.' 


15 


5-8  om.  EaxAc  Ha  Il^hv,  eras.  Ev  Gm.  8  om.  hie  Ed.  hec  Vs. 

inmolatus  Ecdt.     om.  est  Es  Gm  Mm.  9  quod  la.     uulneratur  Edt. 

10  de  dirae  Ev.  1 1  lauare  Ig,  saluaret  lb.  12  et  s.  Et  Fkm  Ga 

HbMm  ladegV  Vs,  ex  s.  Ec2jliv5.  13  cecinit  Ehl  Fdi/3  Hah  Mm. 

14  fidelis  Ex/i<^  Gm  Hacdefg  Id-Tin,  fideles  Es.  15  dicendo  in  Ex*, 

dicens  in  Esx^/t^  Gm  Hd*f  Ig'hv. 


plantis  bracchia  pandens  ;  Fort.  XI. 
i.  23  expandens  autem  manus  ad 
populos  [quia  adeptus  est^  palmam  de 
terrcnis.  The  phrase  perhaps  comes 
from  John  xxi.  18  ;  but  wherever  a 
similar  phrase  occurs  (eg.  Is.  Ixv.  2) 
the  early  Christians  naturally  applied 
it  to  our  Lord  on  the  cross.  Ambr. 
in  Luc.  X.  wont  non  sibi  soli,  sed 
omnibus  tiinceret,  mantis  extendit, 
quo  omnia  Iraherefad  se',  in  Ps. 
cxviii.  xiii.  19  nobis  quoque  ex- 
pandit  manus  siias  Iesus...crucis 
eius  p>i-otegimur  uelamento. 

uestigrla]  'feet,'  as  at  40.  12,  cp. 
13.  13  note. 

8.  inmolata]  33.  18  note,  and 
24.  7  note. 

9.  quo  (sc.  patibulo) . . .  insuper] 
*  whereon.'  It  carries  on  the  hie. 
insuper  with  the  abl.  often  follows 
the  word  it  governs  ;  as  Vitr.  x.  21 
quo  insuper  conlocata  erat  materies. 

1 1  f.  'to  cleanse  us  from  guilt  He 
shed  forth  water  and  blood.'  Joh. 
xix,  34,  cp.  33.  30  note.   The  ab- 


sence of  any  connecting  particle  is 
so  much  in  Fort.'s  manner  (cp.  33. 
19  sanguis,  unda,  34.  6  mantis, 
ttestigia ;  and  the  note  on  33.  19) 
that  although  many  of  the  best  MSS 
here  insert  et,  I  have  omitted  it 
with  other  good  MSS. 

13  f.  '  Fulfilled  is  now  what 
David  sang  in  truthfiil  strain,  telling 
the  nations  (or  '  Gentiles ') :  God 
hath  reigned  from  the  tree.' 

14.  ndeli]  'faithful  to  the  truth,' 
as  at  23.  21. 

15.  dicendo]  for  this  abl.  gerund 
see  Index. 

16.  regrnauit]  The  cross  is  not 
only  an  altar  (33.  20  note),  but  a 
throne.  For  the  general  sense  cp. 
4.  17. 

a  ligno]  These  words  are  not 
found  in  the  Vulgate  of  Ps.  xcv. 
(xcvi.)  10,  but  they  are  in  certain 
MSS  of  the  Old  Latin  version.  'AtA 
^v\ov  is  found  in  one  ancient  MS  of 
the  L.XX  (see  Swete  aJ  loc.),  and 
Justin    Martyr    Apol.    i.    41,   and 


176 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


arbor  decora  et  fulgida, 

ornata  regis  purpura, 

electa  digno  stipite 

tarn  sancta  membra  tangere.  20 

beata,  cuius  bracchiis 
pretium  pependit  saeculi ! 
statera  facta  est  corporis 
praedam  tulitque  tartari. 

17  om.  et  Es/it  lb  Vc.  19  electo  E5,  elata  Fk  la.     digna  Ecjv  Ig. 

22  saecli  pep.  pretium  Easx^«(^  Gm  Hacefg  Ighnv  Mm,  pep.  saecli  pretium 
lb.  23  om.  est  Edlsv/x  Fm  lad^g  Vcs.  24  praedamque  tulil  Eachjx/x 
F"m  Hacefgh  Iv  Mm  Vs,  que  (  =  quae)  praedam  t.  In.  tartaris  Eax  He 
Ibien  Vc,  tartaro  Ed  Hd^. 


Dial.  73  quotes  the  passage  with 
dird  Tov  li^Xou  ;  and  so  Tert.  c.  Mar- 
cion.  III.  19  age  nunc  si  legisti penes 
Dauid:  Domintis  regnauit  a  ligno  \ 
Commodian  Apol.  291  in  psalmis 
canitur :  Dominus  regnauit  a  ligno. 
Sabatier  ad  loc.  gives  many  other 
references  to  Latin  authors.  For 
liturgical  texts  which  contain  the 
words  see  Julian  p.  1220. 

i7f.  arbor]  see  33.  22.  For  the 
legend  as  to  the  tree  of  which  the 
cross  was  made  see  33.  4  note. 

18.  The  purple  is  that  of  the 
blood  which  consecrated  the  tree  as 
a  throne ;  cp.  Paul.  Nol.  Carvi. 
XXVII.  89  crtue  purpurea  pretiosi 
sanguinis  ostro ;  Sedul.  Carm.  v. 
287  purpttreus  cruor  el  simul  uiida 
cticurrit.  It  is  not  of  the  purple 
hangings  of  the  processional  cross 
(as  Kayser  suggests)  that  the  poet 
is  thinking ;  cp.  2  note. 

19.  electa]  Cp.  Prud.  Perist. 
VIII.  I  electus  Christo  locus  est; 
Fort.  II.  iv,  21  arbor... electa  ut 
uisu,  sic  e  crucis  ordine  pulchra. 
The  full  force  of  the  word  is  to  be 
got  from  33.  6.  The  tangere  may 
depend  upon  electa,  rather  than 
upon  digna,  or  upon  both  words  in 
common.    Cp.  33.  28. 

21.  '  O  blessed  tree,  on  whose 
arms  hung  the  ransom  of  the  world ! 


It  was  made  a  balance  for  His  body 
and  bore  away  the  prey  of  hell.' 

22.  pretium  saeculi]  Cp.  33.  28 
note. 

23.  Fort,  compares  the  cross  to 
a  balance  at  xi.  i.  26  (quoted  above 
on  33.  28);  at  Vita  Mart.  11.  337 
inque  crucis  tititina  pretii  nuviis- 
mata  pensans,  and  at  Laus  Mariae 
1 70  in  cruce  pensandus. 

24.  -que  follows  the  phrase 
praedam-tulit,  which  is  regarded  as 
one  word  ;  it  follows  the  third  word 
of  its  clause  at  Hi.  xii.  31.  Even 
classical  poets  sometimes  use  que 
late  in  the  sentence;  e.g.  Tibull.  11. 
V.  72  muttus  ut  in  terras  deplue- 
retque  lapis. 

tartari]  Cp.  23.  11  note.  Fort, 
freely  uses  the  nomenclature  of 
classical  mythology,  as  e.g.  x.  i.  21 
ob  hoc  euacuauit  tartaros,  ut  repleat 
caelos.  He  goes  further  still  in 
places,  see  vi.  i.  36  f. 

25.  fundis  has  its  last  syllable 
lengthened  by  the  stress  of  the 
verse. 

aroma  is  a  generic  name  for 
'  spices,'  some  of  which  exude  as 
gum  from  trees.  Here  it  indicates  a 
spicy  odour  corresponding  to  the 
delicious  taste  of  nectar ;  cp.  Fort. 
V.  1.  I  nares  ipsas  aromate  respi- 
rante  suffiuit\  Vli.  xii.  38  graiiui 


HYMN  XXXIV.   FORTUNATUS         177 


fundis  aroma  cortice, 
uincis  sapore  nectare, 
iocunda  fructu  fertili 
plaudis.  triumpho  nobili. 

salue  ara,  salue  uictima 
de  passionis  gloria, 
qua  uita  mortem  pertulit 
et  morte  uitam  reddidit. 


25 


30 


25  fundens  Ecdlt  Hb  Ice  Vc.     aromata  cortex  Ga.  26  uincens  Ecd. 

saporem  Ecdt^S  Ice  Vcs  (soporem  El  In),     nectarem  Et^  nectara  Hm*, 
nectaris  El.  27  fecunda  Ecdlt^.  28  portas  El.     triumphum  Elt^ 

Ga  Hm  Vs.     nobilem  Ecdl  Vs,  nobile  Ga.         29  salua  Ga.         30  hostia 
Ga.         31  praetulit  E5.     32  pro  {pro  et)  Edl.     morti  la. 


aura  fiuens  quam  spiret  aroma 
Sabaeum,  uincens  quae  pinguis 
balsama  silua  rejlat;  ib.  120  sua- 
uius  et  recreat  quam  quod  aroma 
rejlat;  Laus  Mariae  354  uincis 
aromaticas  mentis  odo^e  comas. 

cortice]  Fort.  n.  iv.  27  (of  the 
cross)  arbor  dulcis  agri,  rorans  e 
cortice  nectar. 

26.  Nectar  was  the  drink  of  the 
old  Greek  gods  on  Olympus.  Hec- 
tare is  a  collateral  form  of  nectar, 
apparently  invented  by  Fort,  for  the 
sake  of  the  metre :  similar  forms 
used  by  him  are  calcis  for  calx,  cotis 
for  cos,  ducis  for  dux  and  others, — 
as  Ennius  has  lacte  for  lac.  Cp. 
uespere  18.  5.  The  2nd  hand  of  one 
St  Gall  IXth  cent.  MS  reads  nectara, 
plural  ;  an  obvious  correction. 

27.  iocunda]  '  rejoicing,' as  if  the 
cross  were  endowed  with  life  and 
thought. 

fructu]  Cp.  33.  23  note,  36. 
10. 

fertili  may  be  translated  '  rich,' 
'abundant,'  but  is  really  an  epithet 


transferred  from  the  tree  which 
bore  the  fruit  to  the  fruit  itself;  cp. 
35.  9. 

28.  plaudis]  '  thou  clappest  thy 
hands,'  a  metaphor  taken  from  Ps. 
xcvii.  (xcviii.)  8  Jlnmina  plaudetit 
manu;  or  perhaps  from  Is.  Iv.  12 
et  omnia  ligna  regionis  plaudent 
manu.  \i  triumphum  nobilem  were 
better  supported  it  might  be  Fort.'s 
original,  in  which  case  plaudis 
would  be  transitive.  - 

For  triumpho  cp.  33.  2  note. 

29.  ara]  of  the  cross,  see  33.  18 
note. 

30.  '  on  account  of  the  glorious 
passion,'  this  being  both  the  cause 
and  the  subject  of  the  salutation, 
X.  i.  60  de  culpa  uapulat. 

31.  uita]  He  who  is  the  life  of 
the  world  ;  cp.  8.  3,  10.  27  etc. 

pertulit  is  used  as  at  31.  21, 
38.  17. 

A  different  ending  to  the  hymn, 
0  crux  aue,  spes  unica  etc.,  is 
given  in  some  uses.  See  Julian  ut 
sup. 


178  EARLY  LA  TLN  H YMNS 

Hymn  35 

The  following  lines  were  no  doubt  written  for  the  same 
purpose  as  33  and  34 ;  see  the  introduction  to  33.    They 
are  more  carefully  composed  than  most  of  Fortunatus' 
elegiacs  and  form  an  excellent  hymn.   Trench  (on  what 
authority  I   know  not)  says :   '  These  lines  are  only  a 
portion  of  a  far  longer  poem.'    But,  though  indeed  in  a 
very  few   MSS   certain    couplets    follow,   these   are   not 
genuine  and  were  evidently  written   by  someone  who 
failed  to  see  that  they  spoilt  the  effect  of  the  fine  close  of 
the  hymn.    The  interpolated  distichs  begin  thus  : 
Gloria  magna  deo  magnalia  tanta  patranti, 
qui  tarn  mir a  facit  gloria  magna  deo. 
The  MSS  which  contain  some  or  other  few  of  these  verses 
are,  I  believe,  the  so-called  Severinian  MSS  at  Paris  and 
in  the  Vatican  ;  Cassino  506  Q  ;  Bodl.  Douce  222  ;  Capit. 
Mutin.  O  I  n.  7  ;  Vat.  Urbin.  585.   Leo  did  not  come  across 
the  verses  in  his  more  ancient  codd.,  and  does  not  mention 
them. 

Et  Fc  Hbdm  Idf  Vcs 

Crux  benedicta  nitet,  dominus  qua  carne  pependit 
atque  cruore  sue  uulnera  nostra  lauit : 

mitis  amore  pic  pro  nobis  uictima  factus 

traxit  ab  ore  lupi  qua  sacer  agnus  oues  : 

4  quas  Hb^d. 

1.  crux... nitet]    Cp.  34.  2.  88.  27.    Leo  here  reads  lauat,  and 
came]   Cp.  33.  12,  34.  3.  at  Appendix   11.   60   (p.    277)   qua 

2.  uulnera]   Cp.  19.  r6.  Christus  dignans  adsumpta  in  cariu 
lauit]  Cp.  33.  21,  34.  II.  Coming  pependit  \  atque  cruore  suo  uuhiera 

between /^/^wfl^iV  and /rojrzV  it  is  no  nostra  lauit,  he  says  that  lauit  is 

doubt   perfect,    and   in   a   classical  not  perfect. 

poet  the  a  would  be  long.    But  Fort.  3  f.     '  Where   the   sacred    Lamb, 

gives  himself  much  metrical  licence,  made  a  gentle  victim  for  us  in  his 

— writing  deficerit  I.  vi.  20,  effugit  kindly  love  drew  the  sheep  from  the 

(perfect)  i.  xvi.  39,  petSbatur  v.  iii.  wolf's  mouth.' 

30 ;    cp.   also  fiigit  36.  48,  deiecit  4.    The  wolf  and  sheep  are  con- 


HYMN  XXXV.  FORTUNATUS 

transfixis  palmis  ubi  mundum  a  clade  redemit 

atque  suo  clausit  funere  mortis  iter, 
hie  manus  ilia  fuit  clauis  confixa  cruentis, 

quae  eripuit  Paulum  crimine,  morte  Petrum. 
fertilitate  potens,  o  dulce  et  nobile  lignum, 

quando  tuis  ramis  tam  noua  poma  geris, 
cuius  odore  nouo  defuncta  cadauera  surgunt, 

et  redeunt  uitae  qui  caruere  diem. 

5  transfixus  Vc,  transfixit  Et  If.     palmas  Et  If  Vc.     ibi  Hbr. 
quae  Vc.  1 1  huius  Hb^ 


179 


10 


stantly  mentioned  by  Fort.,  as  at 
II.  iii.  5  f.  qtiaeque  liipi  ftierant 
raptoris  praeda  ferocis,  \  in  cruce 
restituit  uirginis  agiius  oues. 

qua  is  misplaced,  as  to  a  less 
degree  is  ubi  in  5.  It  may  either  be 
a  conjunction,  '  where,'  correspond- 
ing to  ubi,  or  the  abl.  of  the  relative, 
'  on  which.' 

5.  The  first  half  of  the  line 
almost  recurs  V.  v.  59  in  cruce 
transfixus  palmis  pedibusque  p>e- 
pendit.  For  the  rhythm  cp.  vi.  v. 
71  extensis  palmis. 

clade]  '  destruction ' ;  cp.  Hii. 
Hymn.  III.  10  inter  tanta  dum  ex- 
sullat  nostrae  cladis  funera  ;  Sedul. 
Carm.  III.  45  populos  a  clade  leua- 
uit. 

6.  For  the  phrase  V/«««V  iter  cp. 
Prud.  Nol.  Epist.  XLIII.  7  cum 
hiems  nauigationem  et  itinera  clau- 
deret  metus. 

mortis  iter  occurs  at  Propert.  iv. 
vii.  2,  Fort.  l.  ii.  16,  36.  34. 

7.  clauis]  33.  24  note. 

8.  The  rescue  of  Paul  from  un- 
belief in  Acts  ix,  of  Peter  from 
prison  in  Acts  xii.  The  elision  of 
quae  is  very  harsh. 

9.  The  rhythm  /.  /.  comes  from 
V'erg.  Aen.  xi.  340  seditione  potens 
and  is  repeated  by  Port,  at  iv.  xxi. 
7,  \ll.  xiv.  1 1  ;  cp.  Vlll.  i.  35  pau- 
per tate  potens. 

10.  '  Seeing  that  on  thy  boughs 
thou  bearest  fruit  so  rare.'  quando 
is  one  of  Fort.'s  favourite  words,  as 


at  33.  10,  and  is  used  in  a  causal 
sense  X.  vii.  67,  Vit.  Mart.  \\.  57, 
2H,  IV.  144.  Here  it  explains y^- 
tilitate.    Cp.  33.  22  ff.,  34.  27. 

ramis]  of  the  arms  of  the  cross, 
as  at  II.  iv.  28  ramis  de  cuius  uitalia 
crismata  surgunt. 

tam  noua  is  an  unusual  phrase ; 
and  possibly  (as  Leo  suggests)  noua 
may  he  a  mistake  for  bona,  the 
copyist  of  the  archetype  of  our  Mss 
letting  his  eye  rest  on  nouo  in  ii. 
But  nouus  is  one  of  Fort.'s  especial 
words,  see  v.  ii,  2,  32,  v.  100  etc. 
Cp.  III.  ix.  92  atque  uetus  uiiium 
purgat  in  amne  noua. 

11.  cuius  odore  nouo  recalls  i. 
viii.  13  huius  amore  nouo. 

odore]  Cp.  II.  V.  10  (of  the  cross) 
dulce  mihi  lignum,  pie  maius  odore 
rosetis;  34.  25. 

nouo  probably  means  'unknown 
until  now' ;  6.  30,  12.  2,  31.  49. 

defuncta]  Cp.  Verg.  Georg.  iv. 
475  defunctaque  corpora  tiita  ',  Fort. 
X.  vi.  59  o  uo.v  sancta,  loqui  de- 
functa ccidauera  cogens. 

1 2.  uitae  may  be  gen.  after  diem, 
'  who  have  lost  the  light  of  life ' ; 
cp.  [Verg.]  Ciris  296  diem . .  .prodti- 
cere  uitae.  But  it  is  probably  dat. 
after  redeunt,  as  at  V.  v.  62  quod 
rediit  caelis,  testis  et  ista  dies.  Cp. 
X.  vi.  119  ducere  qui  meruit  de 
morte  cadauera  uitae,  xi.  15  qui  pie 
restituit  defututa  cadauera  uitae. 
The  reference  is  not  only  to  Mt. 
xxvii.  52,  but  also  to  the  quickening 


i86 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


nullum  uret  aestus  sub  frondibus  arboris  huius, 
luna  nee  in  nocte  sol  neque  meridie. 

tu  plantata  micas,  secus  est  ubi  cursus  aquarum, 
spargis  et  ornatas  flore  recente  comas. 


15 


13  uret  nullum  Id.     exuret  nuUos  {pro  n.  u.  aestus)  If  Vc.     aestum  Et. 
16  odoratas  {pro  et  orn.)  If  Vc.     micante  Vs. 


of  those  of  whom  Christ  was  the 
first-fruits. 

caruere]  Cp.  Verg.  Georg.  iv.  472 
umbrae... simulacraqtie  luce  caren- 
tttm  ;  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  46  sole  iatn 
quarto  carentem.  But  in  Symm.  i. 
291  luce  carentes  has  another  mean- 
ing., 

diem]  '  the  light  of  day ' ;  as  in 
Sedul.  Carm.  in.  104  filia  clauso 
functa  die.  The  ace.  after  careo  is 
found  two  or  three  times  in  Plautus, 
and  in  like  manner  Fort,  has  iv.  xi. 
\%  fruitur  uultum,  ix.  ii.  127  utentes 
pallam. 

13,  14  come  from  Ps.  cxx.  (cxxi.) 
6  per  diem  sol  non  uret  te :  neque 
luna  per  noctem ;  Rev.  vii.  16  nee  ca- 
det super  illos  sol,  neque  ullus  aestus. 
nullum  =  nemmem.  Fort,  (like 
Prud.  30.  3  note)  does  not  distin- 
guish between  the  two  words.  Cp.  i. 
xxi.  34  nullus  arare  potest,  V.  vi.  9 
quam  inter  omnes  litter  am  medi- 
tullio  conlocarem,  quae  sic  reciperet 
omnem  ut  offenderet  neminem. 

Fort,  lengthens  the  short  final  of 
uret  before  a  vowel,  also  of  uitis  in 
17,  and  olfundis  at  34.  25,  as  Verg. 
before  him  had  written  peteret  in- 
concessos.  And  he  could  so  easily 
have  said  uret  nullum,  that  it  looks 
as  if  he  had  lengthened  the  syllable 
of  set  purpose. 

noctem  is  better  supported  than 
fiocte,  but  probably  came  in  from 
the  wording  of  the  psalm.  Fort,  is 
given  to  rhyming  the  two  halves  of 
a  pentameter,  doing  so  in  1092  out 
of  the  3774  possible  cases;  so  that 
he  is  more  likely  to  have  lengthened 
the  e  of  nocte  than  to  have  misused 
in  noctem,  which  should  mean  'at 
nightfall.'     In   like    manner  many 


good  Mss  at  6.  17  read  procedens 
and  at  31.  i  ortu,  in  both  cases  in- 
fluenced by  the  psalm  referred  to. 

mSiidle  is  scanned  meridie ;  not 
necessarily  that  Fort,  did  not  know 
the  classical  quantities  ;  but  that  he 
wished  to  use  a  word  which  without 
taking  such  a  liberty  he  could  not 
fit  into  a  pentameter.  Similarly  he 
has  dnackdreta,  ceremonia,  erifmus, 
eccl^sia,  lu-resis  (ll.  ii.  29),  but  eccle- 
sia  I.  xvi.  34,  44,  haeresis  III.  xv. 
25,  when  it  suits  his  purpose.  The 
old  metrical  system  based  on  the 
quantity  of  syllables  was  dying  out, 
the  new  rhythmical  system  based  on 
accentuation  was  coming  in ;  cp. 
Trench  p.  9f. 

15.  Ps.  i.  3  et  erit  tamquam  lig- 
num, quod  plantatum  est  secus  de- 
cursus  aquarum,  quod fructum  suum 
dabit  tempore  suo.  We  have  the 
word  plantare  at  56.  7,  Fort.  ix.  ii. 
121  and  often  in  Vulg. 

micas]  like  nitet  in  i ;  or  perhaps 
it  is  of  the  fluttering  of  the  leaves. 
Cp.  36.  12. 

secus... ubi]  'hard  by  which'; 
secus  being  a  preposition,  as  in  the 
psalm  ;  here  governing  the  unex- 
pressed antecedent  of  ubi.  The 
adverb  secus  has  quite  another 
meaning,  '  apart '  or  '  otherwise.' 
In  the  time  of  the  grammarian 
Charisius  the  use  of  secus  as  a  prep, 
was  nouum  et  sordidum.  It  is  used, 
however,  by  Cato,  and  is  found  in 
inscriptions,  as  C.  I.  L.  in.  6418 
hie  est  occisus  secus  Titum  Jlumen. 
It  is  used  by  Jerome  and  Gregory 
of  Tours. 

16.  comas]  'foliage.'  The  idea  of 
spargis  appears  to  be  that  the  tree 
showers  its  beneficent  leaves  upon 


HYMN  XXXVI.  FORTUNATUS         i8i 

appensa  est  uitis  inter  tua  bracchia,  de  qua 
dulcia  sanguineo  uina  rubore  fluunt 

1 8  sanguinea  If  Vc. 

those  who  take  refuge  under  it, —  ex  illo  botryone  peregrino,  qui  sicut 
perhaps  with  a  reference  to  Rev.  xxii.  una  de  uiti,  ita  tile  in  came  crucis 
2.  Cp.  Passio  S.  Perpetuae  ii  qua-  pependit  e  ligno.  Cp.  Niceta  p.  4 
rum  folia  cadebant  sine  cessatione.  (ed.  Burn)  dulcedo  te  saeculi  de- 
17.  'The  cross  as  the  tree  to  which  lectat?  magis  ad  crucem  Christi 
the  vine  is  cHnging  and  from  which  conuertere,  ut  eius  uitis,  quae  in 
its  tendrils  and  fruit  depend,  is  a  cruce  pependit,  dulcedine  recreeris; 
beautiful  weaving  in  of  the  image  of  Sedul.  Carm.  v.  216  (of  the  im- 
the  true  Vine  with  the  fact  of  the  penitent  robber)  ore  uenenato  uUem 
Crucifixion.  The  blending  of  one  lacerabat  amoenam. 
image  and  another  comes  perhaps  appensa  est  is  probably  an  ex- 
yet  more  beautifully  out,  though  not  ample  of  a  pass.  part,  in  a  medial 
without  a  certain  incoherence  in  the  sense.  Cp.  Fort.  ix.  ix.  42  rupibus 
images,  in  that  which  sometimes  adpensis  pendet  et  ipse  legens,  where 
appears  in  ancient  works  of  Christian  Fort,  uses  it  in  the  sense  of  a  very 
Art, — namely,  Christ  set  forth  as  favourite  word  of  his — pendulis. 
Lamb  round  which  the  branches  of  nina]  plural,  partly  for  the  sake 
a  loaded  vine  are  clustering  and  of  the  metre,  as  at  91.  16.  So  Verg. 
clinging.'  Trench  p.  133.  Ambr.  uses  the  word  in  the  plur.  16  times, 
de  Fide  I.  135  poculum  nouum  de  the  sing,  seven  times.  Draeger  §  5. 
caelo  delatum  in  terrani,  expressum  18.   mbore]  see  8.  17  note. 


Hymn  36 

We  have  here  a  notable  example  of  hymns  of  the 
widest  use  being  made  out  of  a  poem.  For  36  is  an 
extract  from  the  longest  out  of  several  poetical  epistles 
addressed  by  Fortunatus  to  Felix  bishop  of  Nantes.  In 
it  he  dwells  with  much  poetical  force  and  with  deep 
religious  feeling  upon  the  beauty  of  spring,  which  has 
come  in  her  gayest  attire  to  greet  her  risen  Lord. 

In  this  poem  and  in  other  like  vivid  pictures  of  the 
awakening  of  nature  in  spring, — see  especially  VI.  i  and 
vi,  VIII.  vii,  IX.  iii, — Fortunatus  displays  his  powers  at  their 
best.  Not  only  does  he  give  a  brilliant  view  of  the  external 
aspect  of  things,  but  he  endows  nature  with  a  soul,  much 
as  a  modern  poet  might.  No  writer  has  with  truer  insight 
and  keenerobservationpourtrayedheroutburst  of  rejoicing 
after  the  winter  of  her  discontent  than  Fortunatus  has 


1 82  EA  RL  V  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

done  in  this  poem.  Each  verse  brings  a  fresh  trait,  a  new 
point  of  beauty  and  of  exultation,  and  all  this  rejoicing 
is  brought  into  connexion  with  the  resurrection  of  Christ. 
We  may  compare  Ambr.  in  Luc.  X.  34  hieme  arbores 
uentus  suo  honore  dispoliat  et  asperitas  frigoris  teneras 
frondes  in  speciem  mortis  interficit ;  uere  autem  resurgiint 
semina  et  tmnqiiam  noua  aestas  naturae  uiridantis  adolescit. 
uere  pascha  est,  quando  seruatus  sum. 

From  this  poem  (ill.  ix  in  Leo's  edition  and  consisting 
of  1 10  lines)  many  centos  were  made  in  various  churches 
to  serve  as  processionals  for  Easter,  Ascensiontide,  and 
Whitsuntide,  each  beginning  with  line  23  Salue  festa  dies, 
toto  uenerabilis  aeuo  :  to  say  nothing  of  hymns  for  other 
days,  which  in  many  cases  took  little  or  nothing  from 
the  poem  of  Fort,  except  this  opening  line.  Chevalier 
{Repertorium  II.  506  f.,  III.  552)  notes  more  than  thirty 
hymns  which  begin  therewith.  See  Daniel  I.  161,  II.  181  f., 
IV.  143,  V.  205  ;  Dreves  Analecta  L.  ^6  f.,  where  the  whole 
poem  is  printed  and  much  information  as  to  the  use  of 
several  of  the  centos  is  given. 

Et  Hm 
Tempora  florigero  rutilant  distincta  serene 

et  maidre  poli  lumine  porta  patet. 
altius  igniuomum  solem  caeli  orbita  ducit, 
qua  uagus  oceanas  exit  et  intrat  aquas. 
4  qui  Et. 

I.     florigero]  perhaps  first  used  sereno]  'fair  weather,'  as  at  22. 

by  Sedui.    Cartn.   ii.   2.    Such  pic-  5  ;  cp.  10.  2  (note), 

turesque   adj.'s    as   this    and   igni-  2.    'The  gate  of  heaven'  is  the 

tiomum   in    3  are  especially  found  sky  ;  cp.  Verg.  Georg.  III.  261  porta 

in  late  writers,  though  Lucr.  Ml.  u  tonat  caeli \    Lact.    Phoen.    2    qtia 

has  florifer.    Other  like  adj.'s  used  patet  aeterni  maxima  porta  poli; 

by   Fort,    are   aestifer,   altithronus.  Fort.  II.  vii.  i  ianita  celsa  poli  terra 

altiiiolans,  blandijluus,  falsiloquax,  pttlsante  patescit. 

flammicreinus  etc.    See  27.  8  note  3.    caeli  orb.]  '  his  track  through 

and  also  Draeger  I.  p.  xf.  heaven.' 

distincta]    Cp.   [Verg.]   Cul.  70  4.    uagus]  'in  his  swift  course.' 

distincta  coloribus  arua.  SoCatull.  LXIV.  271  uagi...solis\  ib. 


H  YMN  XXX  VI.  FOR  TUNA  TVS 

armatus  radiis  elementa  liquentia  lustrans 

adhuc  nocte  breui  tendit  in  orbe  diem, 
splendida  sincerum  producunt  aethera  uultum, 

laetitiamque  suam  sidera  clara  probant. 
rus  gaudens  uario  fundit  munuscula  fetu, 

cum  bene  uernales  reddidit  annus  opes. 
moUia  purpureum  pingunt  uiolaria  campum, 

prata  uirent  herbis  et  micat  herba  comis. 


183 
5 


5  armatis  Et  Hm. 


6  urbe  Et. 


10  reddit  Hm. 


LXin.  %() pede  uago,  'with  speeding 
foot ' ;  Hor.  Sat.  I.  viii.  2 1  uaga 
luna  ;  76.  8  iiagos  recursus  siderutn. 
oceanas]  '  of  ocean,'  which  for 
the  ancients  was  a  great  sea  en- 
compassing the  earth,  what  Ambr. 
Hex.  V.  28  calls  ultra  orbis  terra- 
rum  terminos  mare,  quod  nullae  in- 
terpolant  insuiae,  nee  terra  aliqua 
inter iacet  uel  ulterius  ulja  sit  posita ; 
and  the  sun  rose  from  it  and  set  in 
it ;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  iv.  1 29  oceanum 
interea  surgens  Aurora  reliquit,  cp. 
27.  3  note.  For  the  form  of  the  adj . 
cp.  Caes.  Bell.  Gall.  iir.  7,  Fort. 
VII.  xii.  56  mare  oceamim.  Fort, 
has  similar  forms  Rhodanas  aquas, 
Alexandras  urbis,  Romula  regna. 
The  accus.  after  exire  is  of  course 
quite  classical. 

5.  armatus  radiia]  The  sun's 
rays  are  likened  to  darts,  as  at  21.  6. 

liquentia]  'clear.' 

6.  adhuc... tendit]  'The  night  is 
short  and  he  stretches  out  the  day 
still  further.'  This  sense  oi  adhuc  is 
often  found  in  the  later  Latin  ;  e.g. 
Plin.  Epist.  VIII.  vii.  i  ego  adhuc 
Saturnalia  extendo.  adhuc  is  a 
spondee  as  at  Fort.  i.  xx.  23. 

7.  sincenun]  '  unmixed  with 
clouds,'  'bright';  cp.  vi.  i.  26 
sincere  luminc. 

producunt]  as  at  vii.  vi.  i  Luci/er 
ut  nitidos  producit  in  aetlura  uultus. 

aethera]  neuter  plural,  a  late 
usage ;  cp.  Vit.  .Mart.  ii.  345 
tenuata  per  aethera  lapsus  ;  ill.  424 
longitujita  per  aethera  tranat ;  39.  1 . 


Just  so  Fort.  i.x.  i.  141  aeratemperie 
faueant  tibi. 

8.  Clara]  i.e.  by  their  brilliance ; 
note  the  emphasis  laid  on  the  adj. 

9.  rus  graudens  is  found  in  all 
liturgical  Mss,  but  the  original  text 
of  Fort,  is  terra  fauens.  He  has  in 
mind  Verg.  Eel.  iv.  18  nulla  mu- 
nuscula cultu . . .  tellus . .  .fundet. 

fetu]  Verg.  Georg.  11.  390  largo 
pubescit  uinea/etu. 

10.  bene  as  often  in  Fort,  (see 
Leo  p.  393)  has  lost  its  special  sense 
as  the  adv.  of  bonus  ;  but  this  usage, 
borrowed  from  the  language  of  con- 
versation, is  found  in  several  writers, 
as  Plautus,  Terence,  Cicero's  Epis- 
tles and  others.  Cp.  Lucr.  V.  706 
plena  bene  lumine  fulsit,  and  the 
French  bien.  It  is  not  to  be  taken 
with  uernales,  but  with  reddidit  apes. 

11.  mollia... uiolaria]  Verg.  Eel. 
V.  }^pro  Hiolliuiola ;  ib.  li.  50 mallia 
uaccinia. 

purpureum  perhaps  refers  to  the 
colour  of  the  violet,  though  the 
word  is  often  used  by  poets  in  the 
sense  of  '  i)right,'  '  gleaming.'  Thus 
Verg.  Eel.  v.  38  applies  it  to  the 
white  narcissus  (cp.  Georg.  i.  405), 
Horace  to  swans,  Albinouauus  to 
snow ;  and  Fort.  vi.  vi.  i  has  hie 
uer  purpureum,  which  comes  from 
Verg.  Eel.  ix.  40. 

pingunt] '  pick  out, '  see  27. 6  note ; 
or  perhaps  '  paint,'  the  exact  force 
depending  on  the  sense  of/wr/z/r^-KW 
here.    A  like  question  arises  at  76. 3. 

1 2.  herbis  does  not  mean  '  wild 


1 84 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


paulatim  subeunt  stellantia  lumina  florum, 

arridentque  oculis  gramina  tincta  suis. 
ecce  renascentis  testatur  gratia  mundi 

omnia  cum  domino  dona  redisse  suo. 
namque  triumphanti  post  tristia  tartara  Christo 

undique  fronde  nemus,  gramina  flore  fauent. 
legibus  inferni  oppressis  super  astra  meantem 

laudant  rite  Deum  lux,  polus,  arua,  fretum. 

13  stillantia  Et  Hm. 


15 


flowers,'  as  it  does  at  i.  xviii.  4 
fragrat  odoriferis  blandior  herba 
comis;  VIII.  vi.  7  inter  odoriferas 
tamen  has  qtias  tnisitnus  herbas,  | 
purpureae  uiolae  nobile  germen  ha- 
bent.  As  the  second  half  of  the  line 
probably  refers  to  the  waving  of  the 
long  grass  (cp.  i.  xx.  14  fluctuat 
herba  comis),  herbis  here  means 
'  grass.'  At  XI.  xx.  i  me  pascitis 
heibis  it  means  ' salads. '  With  mi- 
cat,  comis  cp.  36.  15,  r6  above. 

13.  paulatim]  of  the  gradual 
growth  of  flowers  and  plants  ;  cp. 
Verg.    Eel.    IV.    28    molli  paulatim 

Jlatiescet  campus  arista. 

etellantla]  '  star-like.'  Lucr.  and 
Verg.  and  others  use  the  word  of 
the  nightly  heavens,  Ovid  Met.  i. 
723  gemmis  caudam  stellantibus  im- 
plet  of  the  '  eyes '  on  a  peacock's 
tail.  For  the  MS  spelling  stillantia 
cp.  note  on  destricto  24.  18. 

14.  arrident]  So  Vergil  speaks 
of  '  the  smiling  acanthus,'  Eel.  iv. 
20.    Cp.  Ps.  Ixiv.  (Ixv.)  14. 

gramina  are  the  grassy  fields,  as 
in  rS,  and  the  oculi  the  flowers. 

15.  renascentis]  The  birth  is  a 
long  process  still  going  on ;  but  the 
fact  that  it  has  begun  is  a  symbol 
that  the  resurrection  has  restored  all 
good  things. 

gratia]  '  beauty,'  cp.  Fort.  viii. 
viii.  15  gratia  Jlorum,  127.  4. 

17.  post... tartara]  i.e.  after  His 
sojourn  in  Hades.  Fort,  is  fond  of 
this  pregnant  use  o^  post;  cp.  III. 
ix.  85  post  tartara  came  resumpta ; 


IV.  vi.  i"]  post  tenebras  mundi  quern 
tenet  aula  poli,  ib.  xiv.  4,  xxvi.  143  ; 
VII.  xxi.  9  post  Italas  terras,  '  after 
their  stay  in  Italy ' ;  so  1.  19  post 
Herodem,  38.  3.  For  the  general 
sense  cp.  viii.  vii.  3  f.  tempore 
uernali,  Dominus  quo  tartara  ui- 
cit,  I  stir  git  aperta  suis  laetior  herba 
comis,  IX.  iii.  For  tartara  cp.  23. 
II  note. 

18.  fauent]  'smile  upon,'  're- 
joice with,'  cp.  Fort.  I.  xviii.  14  et 
fauet  auctori  uitiijicata  suo.    At  IX. 

iv.    14  perpetui  regtii  se  fauet  arce 
frui='^  rejoices.' 

19.  legibus  Infemi]  'the  reign 
of  hell.'  Cp.  35  infernae...legis ; 
Propert.  v.  xi.  3  infernas  leges ; 
Sedul.  Carm.  iv.  286  mortisque 
profundae  \  lex  peril.  Fort,  has 
caught  up  with  vigour  Hilary's 
repeated  reference  to  '  the  law  of 
death ' ;  see  Hil.  Hymn.  11.  23 
mors,  te  peremptafn  sentis  lege  cum 
tua\  III.  27  scit  terrenam  subiacere 
mortis  legi  originetn;  Fort.  II.  xvi. 
125  desponsata  uiro  mortali  lege 
iacebat ;  x.  xi.  8  infer nae  legis  rum- 
pere  uincla  potens. 

super  astra]  Fort,  is  especially 
fond  of  thus  denoting  heaven ;  cp. 
e.g.  VII.  xii.  48  ac  terris  recubat 
quod  super  astra  uolet,  lines  24,  52, 
39.27.  This  reference  to  the  Ascen- 
sion in  an  Easter  poem  is  explained 
by  the  fact  that  the  resurrection  was 
the  pledge  of  the  ascension,  see 
Joh.  XX.  17. 

meantem]  '  going,'  a  rarer  verb 


HYMN  XXXVI.   FORTUNATUS 


185 


qui  crucifixus  erat  Deus  ecce  per  omnia  regnat, 

dantque  creatori  cuncta  creata  precem. 
salue  festa  dies  toto  uenerabilis  aeuo, 

qua  Deus  infernum  uicit  et  astra  tenet, 
nobilitas  anni,  mensum  decus,  arma  dierum,  25 

horarum  splendor,  scripula,  puncta  fouens. 
Christe,  salus  rerum,  bone  conditor  atque  redemptor, 

unica  progenies  ex  deitate  Patris, 
aequalis,  concors,  socius,  cum  Patre  coaeuus, 

quo  sumpsit  mundus  principe  principium,  30 


than  the  compound  remeare  (used  at 
112.  6),  but  cp.  Lact.  Phoen.  52 
orbein  totum  protulit  usque  means ; 
Paul.  Nol.  Carm.  XV.  I44  quae 
mundi  per  membra  meat ;  Fort.  I. 
XV.  73,  III.  X.  16,  IV.  V.  3,  VI.  i. 
23,  XI.  XXV.  2.  Horace  has  quo 
sitiiul  mearis,  Od.  i.  iv.  17. 

20  is  the  strikingly  brief  expression 
of  the  thought  which  has  been 
elaborately  wrought  out  in  the  pre- 
ceding lines,  the  conclusion  to 
which  they  have  been  progress- 
ing. 

In  the  second  half  of  the  line  we 
have  again  the  threefold  division  of 
the  departments  of  nature  (see  23.  6, 
33.  21),  for  lux  zxiA  polus  form  but 
one  idea. 

21.   per  omnia]   Cp.  6.  31  note. 

23  is  an  echo  of  Ov.  Fast.  i.  87 
salue  laeta  dies.  In  the  various 
centos  made  up  from  this  poem 
lines  23,  24  are  always  put  at  the 
beginning ;  see  introduction. 

2f.  arma  dierum]  i.e.  Easter  is 
the  protection  and  guard  of  all  the 
days  of  the  year.  Fort,  uses  a  like 
phrase,  IV.  iii.  9  summus  honor 
regum,  populi  decus,  arma  paren- 
tum  ;  II.  V.  8  eripe  credentes,  Jidei 
decus,  arma  salutis,  cp.  IV.  x.  11, 
xi.  5. 

26.  scripula,  puncta]  '  minutes 
and  seconds.'  The  scripulus  {-urn) 
or  scrup.  generally  denoted  one 
24th  part  of  the  ninia,  but  also  the 


same  division  of  an  hour,  about  i\ 
of  our  minutes.  Cp.  Fort.  Append. 
XXIII.  5  (p.  287,  ed.  Leo)  scripulos 
nescimus  et  horas.  fovens  carries  on 
the  thought  of  arma,  'protecting,' 
as  at  6.  32. 

27.  sains  renun]  'salvation  of 
the  world  ' ;  see  note  on  38.  29. 

conditor... redemptor]  See  note 
on  33.  II. 

28.  deitate]  '  the  divine  nature,' 
a  word  not  used  except  by  Christian 
writers.  Here  it  represents  the  Ni- 
cene  iK  ttjs  ovfflas  rod  IIarp6s,  cp. 
XI.  1.  16  de  deitate  Patris  atque 
Filii.  Fort,  also  uses  it  as  a  synonym 
for  Deus  in.  xiv.  j  deitatis  amice. 

29.  Perhaps  the  writer  is  thinking 
of  Sedul.  Carm.  I.  32  i.  par  splendor, 
communis  apex,  sociale  ccuumen,  \ 
aeqiius  honor,  uirtus  eadem,  sine 
tempore  regnum,  \  semper  princi- 
pium, sceptrum  iuge,  gloria  con- 
sors....  Cp.  Fort.  VII.  X.  i";  aequalis 
concors,  ut  ab  omnibus  alme  uoceris. 

30.  principe]  Cp.  24.  10  note. 
The  word  is  chosen  here  because  of 
the  following  principium.  Fort, 
loves  to  set  kindred  or  like-sounding 
words  thus  side  by  side,  as  at  iv. 
xxi.  13  mortua  mors  est,  V.  vi.  1 
cum  nihil  uelleretur  ex  uellere  quod 
carminaretur  in  carmine,  VI.  v.  242 
iurat  iure  suo,  X.  ix.  47  flumina 
conjiua,  Fit.  Mart.  I.  326  incu'ti 
c7iltores  ruricolares,  \  ne  colerent 
melius  sua  si  cultura  periret  etc. 


1 86 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


qui  genus  humanum  cernens  mersisse  profundo, 

ut  hominem  eriperes,  es  quoque  factus  homo, 
funeris  exsequias  pateris,  uitae  auctor  et  orbis, 

intras  mortis  iter  dando  salutis  opem. 
tristia  cesserunt  infernae  uincula  legis, 

expauitque  chaos  luminis  ore  premi. 
pollicitam  sed  redde  fidem,  precor,  alma  potestas, 

tertia  lux  rediit,  surge,  sepulte  meus. 
31  quo  Et. 


35 


31.  For  the  tense  of  cernens  cp. 
Liv.  XXVII.  43  implicantes  {  =  cum 
impUciiissent)  edocuerunt ;  Tac. 
Ann.  Xll.  48  cognoscens  prodittim 
Mithridatem  uocat  consilium  ;  and 
the  imitation  of  the  present  passage 
by  Notker  XLI.  5  qui  cernens  itn- 
mersos  esse  barathro,  tua  quos  ador- 
nat  imago,  propter  nos  factus  es 
homo,  ut  nos  solueres  sanguine  tuo. 

mersisse]  intransitive;  cp.  Ambr. 
in  Luc.  IV.  51  qui  leprosus  merserat, 
fidelis  emersit ;  de  Myst.  2  r  ille 
Syrus  septies  mersit  in  lege ;  Fort.  I. 
xxi.  30  ungula  mergit  equi. 

profundo]  a  substantive,  as  often 
in  this  sense  in  the  Vulgate,  e.g. 
Is.  vii.  II.  Amhr.'s  profundo  mer- 
serat 7.  9  has  quite  another  mean- 
ing. 

32.  'To  rescue  man  Thou  wast 
even  made  man ' ;  or  perhaps  it  is  a 
clumsy  way  of  saying  'wast  Thyself 
also  made  man.'  quoque  has  lost  its 
proper  place  in  the  clause,  imme- 
diately after  the  word  it  emphasizes; 
here  it  apparently  means  '  even,' 
'actually,'  and  it  qualifies  the  fol- 
lowing words  factus  homo.  So  at 
III.  viii.  43  tu  quoque  ieiunis  cibus 
es ;  V.  V.  43  nam  Pater  et  Genitus, 
quoque  sane  t  us  Spirit  us  idem,  quo- 
que was  a  literary  word  avoided  by 
writers  of  popular  Latin,  and  it  did 
not  survive  into  the  Romance  lan- 
guages. Fort,  elsewhere  uses  it  for 
the  simple  'and,'  Vit.  Germ.  i.  i 
Ger  mantis... patre  Eleutherio  mat  re 
quoque  Eiisehia...procreatus  est. 

Note  that  ut  is  lengthentjd  before 


hominem,  the  h  being  reckoned  as  a 
consonant,  as  often  in  Fort.  Cp.  38. 
26,  28. 

33.  fimeris  exsequias]  lit.  '  the 
funeral  procession,'  here  'the  rites 
of  burial,' which  is  mentioned,  as  in 
the  creeds  and  as  at  32.  3,  37.  16, 
to  shew  the  reality  of  the  death  of 
Christ. 

34.  mortis  iter]  Cp.  35.  6 ;  Fort. 
X.  vi.  38  mors  ibi  perdit  iter.  The 
phrase  dando  salutis  opem  recurs  at 
Fort.  VIII.  xii.  8;  cp.  37.  4;  ib. 
V.  V.  86  ferat  salutis  opem  ;  X.  vii. 
42  salutis  opes.  For  the  abl.  gerund 
see  note  on  21.  11. 

35.  infernae... legis]  See  19 note. 

36.  cbaos]  'hell,'  'the  realm  of 
darkness.'  So  Sedul.  Carm.  iv. 
i^id  tremuit  letale  chaos;  Fort.  III. 
ix.  87  quos  habuit  poenale  chaos. 
See  27.  3  note. 

The  omission  of  the  ace.  of  the 
subject  {se)  before  the  inf.  {premi) 
is  a  common  usage  with  Fort.  .See 
Leo  p.  404  and  cp.  40.  17,  76.  15, 
84.  16.  The  infin.  is  not  — «^  pre- 
meretur,  but  rather  nearer  quia 
pressum  est. 

37.  Mt.  XX.  19.  Fort,  has  in 
mind  Ov.  Fast.  in.  366  pollicitam 
diet  is  luppiter  addefdem,  where  as 
here  the  deponent  is  used  in  a 
passive  sense  :  '  the  promised  ful- 
filment.' 

sed  is  often  thus  used  by  Fort, 
with  little  or  no  adversative  force 
and  not  first  in  its  clause ;  cp.  e.g. 
II.  vii.  33  tum  mulier  collegit  ouam 
et  condidil  artus,  \  una  sed  famula 


HYMN  XXX  VI.   FOR  TUNA  TUS 


187 


non  decet  ut  humili  tumulo  tua  membra  tegantur, 
neu  pretium  mundi  uilia  saxa  premant. 

indignum  est,  cuius  clauduntur  cuncta  pugillo, 
ut  tegat  inclusum  rupe  uetante  lapis. 

lintea  tolle,  precor,  sudaria,  linque  sepulcro, 
tu  satis  es  nobis  et  sine  te  nihil  est. 

solue  catenatas  inferni  carceris  umbras, 


40 


participante  sibi.  VVilh  its  use  in  the 
hymn  we  may  cp.  the  like  use  of 
dXXd  in  the  Greek  tragedians,  as  at 
Soph.  El.  4 1 1  to  OttA.  iraTp(fioi,  avy- 
yiveadi  y   dXXa  vvv. 

potestas]  Verg.  Aen.  x.  iS  0 
pater,  o  hominitm,  rerttmque  aetema 
potestas.  Fort,  often  uses  the  word 
in  this  concrete  sense;  as  at  viii. 
iii.  \i() praetexta potestas '■,  IX.  ii.  53 
celsa  potestas  \  Vit.  Mart.  III.  233 
augusta  potestas. 

mens]  for  the  usual  vocative  w», 
as  at  Ps.  xxi.  (xxii.)  2,  Fort.  vii. 
xii.  109  die  homo  note  meus\  already 
used  by  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  835  proice 
tela  manu,  sanguis  mens,  and  before 
him  by  Plaut.  Stieh.  764  tu  interim, 
meus  oculits ,  da  mihi  sauiiiin.  Verg. 
Aen.  I.  664  nale  nieae  uires,  mea 
magna  potentia  solus  is  similar  but 
not  identical. 

39.  ut  with  the  subj.  sometimes 
takes  the  place  of  the  ace.  and  inf., 
see  Leo  p.  421.  decet  stent  is  found 
in  Plautus,  decet  ut  fairly  often  in 
late  Latin.  We  find  the  normal 
construction  oi  decet.  Fort.  IV.  vi.  17 
non  decet... dejlere;  but  cp.  V.  v.  2 
condecet  ut  semper  laus  tua,  Christe, 
sonet.  For  the  lengthening  of  ut 
before  h  see  32  above. 

tegrantur]  often  so  used  by  Fort, 
as  at  IV.  V.  6,  viii.  6,  xviii.  6,  xxviii. 
6  lapis,  fulgida  metnbra  tegis,  IX. 
iv.  2  cutn  caput  orbis  humo  maesta 
sepulcra  tegunt;  cp.  vil.  xii.  29, 
47,  31.  84. 

40.  pretium  mundi]  33.  28  note, 
uilia   saxa]     Fort.    ii.    xiv.    22 

diuiliasijtu  Dei  uilis  harena  tegit. 

premant]  Fort.  iv.  iv.  32  tton 
pre  mil  urna  rogi. 


45 

41.  Is.  xl.  12.  YoxK.  Laus  Mariae 
141  cuncta  tegens  palma  sidera, 
rura,  freta  ;  39.  1 5  mundum  pugillo 
continens;  Commodian  Apol.  114 
solet  I  inde  pugillo  sua  coruludere 
circulum  orbis.  For  this  pushing 
forward  of  the  relative  clause,  see 
the  note  on  38.  11. 

42.  Cp.  Fort.  III.  x.  18  et 
Jluuium  docilem  monte  uetante  Ira- 
kis. 

43.  lintea... sudaria]  'the  linen 
cloths'  of  Joh.  XX.  6  f.,  cp.  ib. 
xi.  44. 

tolle]  '  away  with  ! '  as  being  no 
longer  needed. 

44.  satis  es]  Fort,  often  thus 
uses  an  adv.  as  a  complement  to 
esse;  cp.  e.g.  III.  xviii.  19  sit  tua 
uita  diu.  This  is  borrowed  from 
popular  Latin,  a  loan  taken  es- 
pecially by  Plautus,  Cicero  in  his 
Epistles,  Horace  in  his  Satires, 
Livy  and  Tacitus,  and  by  later 
writers  in  general.  Caesar  says 
longe  abesse  but  not  longe  esse,  which 
is  found  in  Verg.  Aen.  xil.  52. 
satis,  however,  is  more  than  an 
ordinary  adverb,  being  used  as  an 
adjective  by  Verg.  Aen.  vii.  470  se 
satis  ambobus  Teucrisgue  uenire 
Lalinisqiie  and  other  writers. 

sine  te  nihil  est]  Cp.  the  Pente- 
cost sequence  Daniel  il.  35  sim  tw> 
numine  \  nihil  est  in  homine,  \  nihil 
est  innoxium. 

45.  carceris]  Fort.  xi.i.  26  descen- 
dens  Oil  infernum  iniuriam  non 
pert  u  lit,  quod  fecit  causa  cUmentiae, 
uelut  rex  intrans  carcerem,  non  ut 
ipse  ttnerelur,  sed  tit  noxii  solturen- 
fur.  The  phrase  comes  from  i  Pet. 
iii.  19,  Rev.  ii.  10.    Cp.  120.  35. 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


et  reuoca  sursum  quidquid  ad  ima  ruit. 
redde  tuam  faciem,  uideant  ut  saecula  lumen, 

redde  diem,  qui  nos  te  moriente  fugit. 
eripis  innumerum  populum  de  carcere  mortis 

et  sequitur  liber,  quo  suus  auctor  adit, 
inmaculata  tuis  plebs  haec  uegetetur  in  ulnis 

atque  Deo  purum  pignus  ad  astra  feras. 
una  corona  tibi  de  te  tribuatur  ab  alto, 

altera  de  populo  uernet  adepta  tuo. 


50 


46.  The  line  is  no  mere  repetition 
of  45 ;  the  sense  is, '  restore  to  heaven 
everything  else  that  is  in  danger  of 
being  lost,'  as  well  as  the  spirits  in 
prison,  ruit  may  be  perf.,  but  the 
pres.  seems  more  likely. 

reuocareisone  of  Fort. 's  favourite 
words,  which  he  uses  of  restoring 
the  dead  to  life  (viii.  iii.  r8  etc.),  of 
restoring  a  church  (i.  xv.  41),  of 
winning  a  triumph  (ll.  xi.  17). 

48.  diem] '  the  light  of  day.'  The 
line  is  an  ennobled  echo  of  Martial 
VIII.  xxi.  I  Phospkore,  redde  diem : 
quidgaiidia  nostra  moraris  ?  Caesare 
uenttiro,  Phosphore,  redde  diem  ;  cp. 
also  Hor.  Od.  iv.  v.  5  lucem  redde 
tuae,  dux  bone,  patriae. 

fugit]  perfect,  cp.  note  on  36.  2 
lauit. 

49.  The  reference  is  still  to  'the 
harrowing  of  hell.' 

populum]  'a  multitude,'  0.% plebs 
in  51.  Fort,  may  be  thinking  of 
Sedul.  Carm.  IV.  3  inniitneras  rele- 
uans  a  clade  cateruas  ;  ib.  282  qui 
dabit  innumeras  post funera  surgere 
turbas ;  cp.  Fort.  x.  xi.  7  f.  ecce 
dies,  in  quo  Christus  surrexit  ab 
imo,  I  infernae  legis  rumpere  uincla 
potens,  I  quando  et  uinctorum  lacri- 
mantia  tnilia  soluit,  \  et  reuomunt 
multos  tartara  fracta  uiros. 

50.  quo . . .  adit]  quo  takes  the  place 
of  the  dat.  found  in  Fort.  X.  xiii.  12 
et  lapsae  fabHcae  fios  rediuiuus  adit 
(where  Leo  suggests  adest). 

51.  The  last  four  lines  are  in  the 
original   poem   addressed  to   Felix, 


but  as  used  in  the  hymn  they  are  of 
course  addressed  to  Christ. 

plebs  haec]  consisting  of  those 
who  having  been  newly  baptized  are 
present  for  the  first  time  at  the 
Easter  service  in  their  white  gar- 
ments. 

uegetetur]  '  be  nurtured,'  cp.  29. 
7.  They  are  already  '  regenerate.' 
Leo  suggests  uectetiir,  but  no  change 
is  required. 

in  ulnis]  because  the  newly  bap- 
tized are  regarded  as  infantes;  cp.  Is. 
xlix.  22  afferent  Jilios  tuos  in  ulnis  ; 
Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  il.  10  tnercis  onus 
suaue  est,  etsi  ueheretur  in  ulnis ; 
but  cp.  Fort.  V.  vii.  3  amplectens 
quem  corde  gero  pietatis  in  ulnis. 

52.  purum]  as  cleansed  by  bap- 
tism. 

pignus]  '  an  offspring,'  like  the 
pignora  of  30.  3,  31.  8,  only  here 
collective.  The  bishop,  like  Christ, 
is  the  spiritual  father  of  his  flock,  as 
1.  i.  18  et gradus  et  pietas  te  deditesse 
patrem. 

53.  de  te]  '  won  by  thee,'  i.e.  by 
thy  own  personal  merit,  de  in  late 
Latin  is  often  used  to  express  the 
instrument  or  means.  The  earliest 
instance  of  this  usage  may  be  Plant. 
True.  632  de  uento  miserae  condoluit 
caput;  a  clear  case  of  it  occurs  at 
Ov.  Trist.  III.  iii.  82  deque  tuis 
lacrimis  umida  serta  data.  Ronsch 
p.  392  f.  gives  many  examples  from 
later  writers. 

54.  '  May  another  crown  bloom 
for  thee  won  by  thy  people.'    The 


H  YMN  XXX  VI I.   FOR  TUNA  TVS  1 89 

people's  salvation   is   the  proof  of  So  Fort.   I.  xv.    34  creuit  adeptus 

theirbishop's,  and  of  their  Saviour's,  honor,   V.   iv.    4,   and    (the  simple 

worth.  Cp.  Phil.  iv.  i .  uerttet  shews  verb)    Plaut.     Trin.     367    ingenio 

that  the  athlete's  wreath  of  leaves  is  apiscitur  sapientia.   Sallust,  Tacitus 

the  crown  here  meant ;  cp.  7. 24  note.  and  others  use  adeptus  in   passive 

adepta]  passive,  as  at  119.    23.  sense. 

Hymn  37 

An  ancient  MS,  a  pontifical  written  at  Fort/s  own  city 
Poitiers  and  usually  assigned  to  the  Vlllth  century,  is 
the  one  MS  authority  for  this  hymn,  which  it  expressly 
ascribes  to  Fortunatus :  interim  canitur  uersus  Fortunati 
presbyteri  ad  baptizatos.  It  is  in  every  way  worthy  of  him, 
and  the  many  parallels  quoted  in  the  notes  from  his  un- 
doubted poems  seem  to  prove  that  he  was  the  writer. 

Leo  confidently  pronounces  it  spurious.  But  as  he  did 
not  so  much  as  take  the  trouble  of  reading  it  in  the 
ancient  MS  that  alone  contains  it,  it  would  seem  that  he 
took  its  later  origin  for  granted. 

It  appears  to  have  been  written  before  Fort.'s  con- 
secration to  the  episcopate.  His  latest  dated  poem 
(x.  xiv)  was  written  in  A.D.  591.    See  Elss  p.  22. 

The  poet  has  chosen  the  sprightly  Anacreontic  metre 
(catalectic  iambic  dimeter),  a  metre  already  used  by 
Prudentius  for  his  hymnus  ante  somniim  {Cath.  Vl),  from 
which  Hymn  26  is  an  extract. 

Fp 
Tibi  laus  perennis,  auctor, 
baptismatis  sacrator, 
qui  sorte  passionis 

I.     In  accordance   with    Fort.'s  2.     baptismatis    sacrator]    Cp. 

usage  perennis  is  to  be  taken  with  33.  20  note.                                         ^ 

laus,    rather   than  with   auctor,  as  3.     '  by  thy  death  and  passion, 

some  punctuate.  Cp.  Ii.  x.  26  laude  sorte,  thus  used  in  connexion  with 

perennis    erit;    VII.    v.    20    laude  death,  is  one  of  Fort.'s  characteristic 

perettne  re/ert.  words ;  thus  he  has  11.  v.  1  extorquet 

auctor]  used  by  Fort.  vil.  xxii.  5,  hoc  sorte  Dei  ueniabile  signutn  etc. ; 

36_  :j2.  IV.  ix.    I   ultima  sors;   xii.    i  sors 


I90 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


das  praemium  salutis. 

nox  clara  plus  et  alma 
quam  luna,  sol,  uel  astra, 
quae  luminum  corona 
reddis  diem  per  umbram; 

dulcis,  sacrata,  blanda, 
electa,  pura,  pulchra 
sudans  honore  mella, 
rigans  odore  chrisma ; 


inreparabilis  horae\  xvi,  4  sors 
rapit  una  uiros;  xx.  4  sors  inimica; 
xxii.  3  simili  sunt  sorte  sepulti  ;  cp. 
XXV.  19,  xxvi.  5  and  61,  and  155; 
xxviii.  5  eic. 

4.  das  praemium  salutis]  Cp. 
36.  34  dando  salutis  openi ;  Fort.  i. 
viii.  11  praeniia  salutis  ;  11.  vii.  3  f . 
salutis ..  .praemia  \  II.  vii.  37  dantur 
tnodo  dona  salutis  ;  X.  viii.  12  dona 
salutis  habent. 

5.  Clara  plus  et  alma]  i.e.  clarior 
et  almior.  plus  thus  used  for  jyiagis 
is  found  Fort.  iv.  xvii.  10  plus 
lacrimanda  ;  ib.  xxvi.  9  plus  nexa  ; 
VI.  V.  io<)  pia  plus,  and  often. 

nox  clara  are  placed  side  by  side 
in  sharp  contrast,  as  are  diem  and 
umbram  in  8.  Baptisms  took  place 
late  on  Easter  Even,  and  the  rest  of 
the  night  was  spent  in  vigil :  see 
Thompson  Offices  of  Bapt.  and 
Conf.  p.  19. 

6.  Fort,  constantly  uses  M^/ where 
et  might  be  expected.  Leo  quotes 
among  other  examples  ix.  i.  22  sic 
tibi  cuncta  simul,  terra  uel  astra 
fauent. 

8.  reddis  diem]  Cp.  36.  48  redde 
diem;  Fort.  x.  xiia.  10  orbato  huic 
patri  redde  uidendo  diem.  And  for 
the  whole  line  11.  xvi.  69  sacra 
lumeti  suscepit  ab  umbra,  luminum 
cor.  are  the  lights  with  which  the 
church  is  glowing. 

9.  For  this  truly  Venantian  list 
of  epithets  see  the  note  on  33.  19 
and  cp.  Fort.  IV.  iv.  21  mansuetus, 
patiens,     bonus,     aeguus,    amator. 


amandus;  i.  xv.  103  cara,  serena, 
decens,  sollers,  pia,  mitis,  opima. 

dulcis]  33.  24,  35.  9,  18,  Fort. 
III.  xxiifl.  7,  IV.  vii.  4,  xiv.  10  etc., 
VIII.  xvii.  5. 

sacrata]   Fort.  11.  xi.   r,  xvi.  95. 

blanda]  Fort.  i.  xviii.  16,  li. 
viii.  26  etc. 

ID.  electa]  line  30,  34.  19,  11. 
iv.  21  electa... pulchra  (X.  vii.  27). 

pura]  36.  52. 

IX.  sudans... mella]  comes  from 
Verg.  Eel.  iv.  30  stidabunt  roscida 
mella  ;  cp.  Fort.  vill.  iii.  270  aut 
hycu'intheo  sudat  honore  manus. 
The  use  by  Fort,  of  honore  amounts 
to  a  mannerism,  cp.  i.  i.  10  reddis 
honore  uicem,  iii.  8  nescit  honore 
mori,  viii.  2  tendit  honore  fides  etc. 
'  odor  is  an  extraordinarily  common 
word  of  Fort,  and  is  used  meta- 
phorically of  things  of  the  most 
distinct  nature'  (Elss  p.  25);  cp. 
also  34.  25,  35.  11,  vii.  xii.  120 
suauius  et  recreat  quam  quod  aroma 
refiat;  11.  xvi.  15,  in.  xii.  42,  xiii. 
3,  VI.  vi.  2 ;  Vit.  Mart.  i.  193 
mortis  odore.  Does  viella,  joined 
with  chrisma,  allude  to  the  milk 
and  honey  given  to  neophytes  ? 
Thompson  Offices  of  Bapt.  and  Conf. 
p.  35  says  that  the  custom  was 
confined  to  Rtme,  Africa,  and 
Egypt. 

12.  Fort.  II.  iv.  28  ramts  de 
cuius  uitalia  crismata  surgunt ;  IV. 
iv.  26  cum  sale  mella  rigans ;  V.  v. 
112  chrismatis  efHat  odor ;  VII.  xvii. 
9  puro  fotite  rigans  nectar. 


HYMN  XXXVII.   FORTUNATUS        191 

in  qua  redemptor  orbis 

de  morte  uiuus  exit, 

et  quos  catena  uinxit  15 

sepultus  ille  soluit ; 

quam  Christus  aperiuit 

ad  gentium  salutem, 

cuius  salubre  cura 

redit  nouata  plasma.  20 


17  aperuit  Fp. 

For  chrisma  (spelt  cr'isma  at  ll. 
iv.  28  so  as  to  fit  into  an  acrostic), 
see  26.  4  note. 

13.  in  qua] 'on  which  night.' 
redemptor  orbis]  Cp.  23.  15, 
33.  3,  36.  27.  It  seems  probable 
that  Fort,  intended  exit  and  perhaps 
redit,  as  well  as  sobtit,  to  be  taken 
as  the  past  tense,  contracted  like 
redisse  36.  16. 

15.  catena]  Here,  as  at  36.  45  f., 
the  reference  is  to  the  harrowing  of 
hell. 

16.  sepaltus]   Cp.  36.  33  note. 

17.  '  Night  which  Christ  revealed 
[made  known]  for  the  healing  of  the 
nations.'  aperiuit  might  also  be 
taken  in  the  sense  of  '  began,' 
'  opened  out,'  as  in  Claudian  de 
Sexto  Cons.  Honorii  640  nouum 
fastis  aperit  felicibus  annum  ;  but 
the  other  interpretation  is  perhaps 
the  simpler.  I  have  by  the  smallest 
possible  change  written  aperiuit  for 
aperuit  of  the  MS  which  Fort,  would 
never  have  written  in  this  place.  For 
this  form  of  the  perf.  the  Thesaurus 
quotes  Corp.  XI.  191  aperierit;  and 
Fort.  XI.  xxiii.  3  scans  aperlebam, 
which  is  perhaps  a  clue.  Ronsch 
p.  287  quotes  similar  forms  posiui, 
deposiui,  supposiui,  habiui,  sapiui 
etc.  And  for  the  scanning  dperiui, 
cp.  patibulo  34.  4,  as  well  as  alacer, 
cdmelus,  catholicus,  charisma  etc. 
all  found  in  Fort. ;  see  the  note  on 
35.  1 4  meridie. 

18.  ad  gentinm  salutem]    Cp. 
Rev.  xxii.  1   (Vulg)  ad  sanitatem 


19  salubri  Fp. 

gentium,  (Old  Latin)  in  curationem 
gentium. 

19.  cuius  refers  to  nox;  and 
cura  is  used  in  the  medical  sense, — 
perhaps  with  conscious  reference  to 
the  passage  in  Rev. 

salubre]  Cp.  Fort.  v.  ii.  49,  vu. 
V.  31  de fonte  salubri,  X.  x.  11.  For 
the  abl.  in  -e,  used  for  the  sake  of 
the  short  final,  see  note  on  33.  24 
duke  clauo.  It  is  quite  like  Fort, 
to  put  salubre  almost  immediately 
after  salutem ;  cp.  the  note  on  86. 
30  principe  principium. 

20.  redit] '  is  restored'  to  health. 
Very  similar  are  Fort.    Fit.  Mart. 

II.  53  excutiturque  lues...et  sudibus 
laceros  rediit  cutis  una  per  artus; 

III.  528  redeat  medicata  cicatrix, 
and  not  unlike  is  VII.  vii.  6  te  duce 
scd  nobis  hie  modo  Roma  redit. 

nouata] '  renewed '  in  baptism  ;  a 
Venantian  word.  Cp.  II.  xi.  8,  III. 
xxiii.  II,  VI.  iii.  27,  ix.  xiv.  11. 

plasma]  '  the  creation.'  This 
word  is  normally  neuter,  as  at  94. 
26.  But  Commodian  Apol.  311 
writes :  descendit  in  tumulum 
Dominus  suae  plasmae  misertus. 
And  Fort,  is  given  to  variety  in  his 
genders;  writing  v.  v.  113  pascha 
nouellum,  VIII.  ix.  15  gaudia  pas- 
chae ;  and  he  hns  II.  xvi.  135  misero 
aluo.  III.  iv.  2  tantus  iubar,  IV. 
XX  vi.  15  ingenium  mi  tern  ;  and  even 
II.  viii.  5  est  habilem  de  magnis 
magna fattri,  ib.  iv.  31  gemmanteni 
et  nobile  signum,  36.  7  note.  For 
the  word  plasma  cp.  V.  i.  i,  v.  54 


192 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


accedite  ergo  digni 
ad  gratiam  lauacri, 
quo  fonte  recreati 
refulgeatis  agni. 

hie  gurges  est  fidelis, 
purgans  liquore  mentes 
dum  rore  corpus  udat, 
peccata  tergit  unda. 

gaudete  candidati, 
electa  uasa  regrii, 

27  sudat  F^. 


25 


30 


huius  plasma  sutnus,  and  the  note 
on  23.  10. 

21.   accedite]  Cp.  107.  13. 

digni  agrees  with  the  subject  of 
accedite,  like  candidati  below. 

24.  ag^nl]  '  lambs,'  but  perhaps 
not  without  a  thought  of  the  mean- 
ing of  the  Greek  d7J'6s,  *  pure,'  cp. 
36.  52  puriim.  As  a  rule  Fort., 
with  the  other  writers  of  his  time, 
reserves  agnus  to  denote  Christ,  as 
at  33.  30,  35.  4  ;  II.  iii.  6  in  cruce 
restituit  uirginis  agnus  ones,  X.  xiii. 
3  ;  but  cp.  V.  iii.  23  muniat  inclusos 
pretiosi  uelleris  agnos ;    III.  xi.   19, 

IV.  iii.  3,  IX.  ix.  13;  Sedul.  Carm. 

V.  413. 

25  f.  The  use  of  the  six  words 
for  the  baptismal  water,  lauacri, 
fonte,  gurges,  liquore,  rore,  unda  is 
quite  in  Fort.'s  manner. 

gurges]  31.  41. 

fidelifi]  one  of  Fort.'s  character- 
istic words;  see  33.  22  note.  Leo 
}^x\x\.\.%  fideles  with  Luchi.  But  this  is 
not  the  MS  reading,  gives  an  inferior 
construction  {^est  purgans  =purgat) 
and  sense,  and  is  less  in  the  style 
of  Fort. 

26.  ptirgans]  Fort.  11.  ix.  92 
atque  uetus  uitium  purgat  in  amne 
nouo  ;  ib.  xi.  5  pater  orbis  \  pur- 
gauit  medicis  crimina  mortis  aquis. 

mentes]  2.  30. 

27.  rore  is  used  of  the  baptismal 


water   at   26.    3   by    Prud.,    whom 
Fort,  so  often  imitates. 

udat]  'wets.'  The  ms  reading 
sudat,  which  might  come  in  from 
siidans  in  11,  gives  a  poor  sense 
and  a  spondee  in  the  third  foot  of 
the  verse,  whereas  in  the  other  lines 
this  is  the  case  only  in  the  first  foot. 
No  mistake  is  more  common  in  Mss 
than  inserting  at  the  beginning  of  a 
word  when  this  begins  with  a  vowel 
the  final  consonant  of  the  preceding 
word.  For  the  sense  cp.  [Damas.] 
LXXII.  4  roborat  hie  antjnos  diuino 
fonte  lauacrum,  et  dum  membra 
madent,  mens  solidattir  aquis. 

28.  tergit]   '  washes  away,'  cp. 

7.3'. 

unda]  '  water,'  as  at  33.  20, 
34.  12. 

29.  candidati]  'in  your  white 
robes'  of  baptism  ;  cp.  Fort.  ill.  ix. 
91  candidiis  egreditur  nitidis  exer- 
citus  undis ;  IV.  xxii.  5  lotus  fonte 
scuro  prius  ille  recessit  in  albis  ;  v. 
V.  119,  136;  109.  2  stolis  albis  can- 
didi. 

30.  electa  uasa]  Fort.  iii. 
xxiiifl.  17  eligit  in  tali  Christus  se 
uase  recondi;  IX.  ii.  115  f.  sancto 
baptismate  puri . .  .stantes  ante  Deum 
uelut  aiirea  uasa  decoris  ;  X.  vi.  3 1  f. 
Of  course  the  poet  has  in  mind 
Acts  ix.  15  (cp.  13.  II  electionis  uas 
sacrae). 


H  YMN  XXX  VIII.   FOR  TUNA  TUS        1 93 

in  morte  consepulti, 
Christi  fide  renati. 

31.   Cp.  Rom.  vi.  4.    From  the  L.  85  punctuate.    Christi,  however, 

like  passage,  Col.   ii.   12  consepulti  would  make  perfectly  good  sense, 

ei  in  baptismo,  we  might  conjecture  either  with  morte  or  with  /ide,  and 

that  the  original  reading  in  32  was  perhaps  would  strengthen  the  end 

Christo  (dative),  and  that  this  was  of    the    poem,     consepulti    would 

altered  to  Christi  from  the  idea  that  in  that  case  imply  Christo  under- 

it   was   to   be   taken   with  fide,   as  stood. 
Daniel  IV.  159  and  Dx^wts  Analecta 

Hymn  38 

The  following  hymn  is  not  found  in  the  MSS  containing 
the  collected  poems  of  Fortunatus,  but  this  is  very  far 
from  proving  that  it  is  not  his  work.  For  in  the  first  place 
the  same  fate  has  befallen  34  other  poems  of  his,  which 
nevertheless  Leo  allows  to  be  genuine  and  prints  at 
length  on  pp.  271-292  of  his  edition.  Moreover  hymns 
far  more  easily  than  any  other  form  of  literary  writing 
were  apt  to  go  astray,  seeing  that  in  the  great  majority 
of  cases  they  would  be  incorporated  into  the  liturgical 
books  without  the  writer's  name.  We  know  that  Hilary 
and  Ambrose  wrote  hymns  which  are  not  contained  in 
MSS  of  their  collected  works.  The  fact  that  hymns  33-36 
are  exceptionally  included  among  the  poems  of  Fortu- 
natus is  due  to  the  fact  that  they  were  in  the  first  place 
occasional  poems,  afterwards  used  as  hymns.  In  like 
manner  Prudentius'  hymns  were  a  part  of  his  poems, 
not  being  originally  intended  for  singing  in  the  public 
services  of  the  church,  and  therefore,  having  been  handed 
down  in  the  MSS  along  with  these  other  poems,  can  be 
certainly  identified  as  his. 

Paul   the   Deacon    expressly  states   that    Fortunatus 

wrote  hymnos  singularum  festiiiitatum.   This  Christmas 

hymn  Agnoscat  omne  saeculum  may  be  one  of  them.  And 

Fabricius  says  that  he  found  it  in  the  second  book  of  the 

w.  «3 


194  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

poems  of  Fort,  in  a  Murbach  MS,  which  seems  no  longer 
to  be  extant. 

The  question  of  the  authenticity  of  38  hangs  with 
that  of  39  and  of  the  Laus  Mariae,  as  it  may  for  con- 
venience be  called,  a  poem  consisting  of  180  elegiac 
couplets,  regarded  as  spurious  by  Leo,  but  printed  by 
him  p.  371  f.,  and  until  the  appearance  of  his  edition  con- 
sidered genuine.  For  a  careful  reader  will  agree  with 
Ebert  I.  p.  533  note  that  39  and  this  longer  poem  were 
written  by  one  and  the  same  poet,  whoever  he  may  have 
been.  And  many  will  go  on  to  believe  that  he  was  no 
other  than  Fortunatus,  again  agreeing  with  Ebert,  who 
pertinently  asks  :  What  man  living  within  the  next  two 
hundred  years  was  capable  of  assimilating  his  style  so 
thoroughly?  See  the  question  worked  out  by  G.  M.  Dreves 
in  his  Hymnologische  Studien  zu  Venant.  Fort.  etc.  p.  6  f. 

Then  as  to  the  intimate  connexion  between  38  and  39, 
one  has  only  to  read  the  two  hymns  one  after  the  other 
in  order  to  recognise  it  as  at  least  likely.    In  especial  cp. 

38.  7  f  with  39.  9  f.,  38.  1 1  f.  with  39.   1 5  f.,  38.  3 1  f.  with 

39.  31  f.  However  Ebert,  who  swallows  the  metrical 
faults  in  39,  will  have  it  that  those  in  38  condemn  it. 
But  a  few  words  will  shew  that  the  metre  is  not  so  bad 
after  all. 

1.  Ebert  objects  to  the  hiatus  in  14.  fructiim  edidit. 
But  Fort.  VIII.  viii.  i  (according  to  the  MSS)  could  leave 
aii  (also  in  thesis)  unelided  before  aurum,  much  as  Ennius 
had  scanned  militum  octo,  and  Lucilius  sordidum  omne ; 
cp.  also  33.  9  inde  host  is. 

2.  He  objects  to  spondees  in  the  second  foot.  But  in 
13  lese  is  a  foreign  proper  name,  and  with  such  all  poets 
take  licence;  cp.  the  notes  on  11.  2,  31.  29.  And  as  to 
16  uirgd,  23  dignandd,  from  the  time  of  Juvenal  final  o 
was  generally  looked  upon  as  short.   And  so  Leo  (p.  425) 


HYMN  XXXVIII.   FORTUNATUS        195 

speaking  of  Fort.'s  usage,  says  o  finalis  in  nominatiuis 
nominum,  uerbis  et  adtierbiis  fere  correpta ;  cp.  34. 1 5  dicendd. 

3.  In  26  and  28  -us  is  made  long  by  the  stress  of  the 
verse  and  by  the  following  h,  cp.  36.  39  note.  Such  a 
strict  metrist  as  Verg.  Aen.  IV.  64  could  say  pectoribiis 
inhtans;  cp.  34.  2^fundis  aroma. 

Contrast  the  judgment  of  Clichtoveus  :  Praesens  hytn- 
nus  iambiciis  est  dimeter,  ubique  carminis  illius  leges 
exacte  seruans  praeter  id  quod  in  septimo  uersu  bis  secundo 
loco  pyrrichium  habet  pro  iambo.  Auctor  eius  Fortunatus 
episcopus. 

The  hymn  does  not  indeed  rise  to  the  supreme  ex- 
cellence of  33  and  34,  but  it  is  on  the  whole  not  unworthy 
of  Fortunatus  and  may  well  have  been  written  by  him. 
He  certainly  wrote  one  beginning  with  the  same  line, 

I.  xvi,  an  alphabetical  hymn  about  Leontius  bishop  of 
Bordeaux  ;  but  he  may  have  written  another  as  well. 

If  he  did  write  both  38  and  39,  we  are  confronted  with 
the  difficulty  that,  whereas  39  is  in  almost  every  hymnal 
from  the  IX-X  cent,  onwards,  38  found  its  way  into 
very  few.  However  the  same  has  happened  in  the  case 
of  several  of  Ambrose's  hymns,  e.g.  3  and  4. 

4.  In  9  we  find  conc^pit  and  in  27  dei^cit,  which  might 
have  been  presents  in  Lucretius  (see  Lachmann  on  Lucr. 

II.  951),  but  which  in  this  passage  are  certainly  perfects. 
See  the  note  on  35.  2  Iciuit,  which  is  also  perfect. 

Ehx^  Fs)3  Ga  Hcefgh  lach  Vs 
Agnoscat  omne  saeculum 
uenisse  uitae  praemium ; 
post  hostis  asperi  iugum 
adparuit  redemptio. 

1.  onrne  8.]  No  doul)t  a  reminis-  of  life,'  i.e.  'consisting  in  life': 
cence  of  6.  7.  that   Christ    who    is    our    life    has 

2.  uita«  praemium] '  the  reward       come  ;  cp.  8.  9  note. 


196 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


Esaias  quae  praecinit 
conpleta  sunt  in  uirgine, 
adnuntiauit  angelus, 
sanctus  repleuit  Spiritus. 

Maria  uentre  concepit 
uerbi  fidelis  semine ; 
quern  totus  orbs  non  baiulat, 
portant  puellae  uiscera. 

radix  lese  iam  floruit 
et  uirga  fructum  edidit, 
fecunda  partum  protulit 
et  uirgo  mater  permanet. 


15 


5  cecinit  Ehj.  10  uerbum  Ex^  Fs  Ih  Vs.     fideli  Ga.  11  orbis 

Fs  Ih.  12  portat  Fs  Vs.  13  om.  iam  Ga.  14  fructus  Ex, 

fructu  Vs. 


3.  post. .  .iugnm]  For  this  preg- 
nant use  oi post,  '  after  our  enduring 
the  yoke,'  cp.  36.  17  note.  Perhaps 
the  cruel  enemy  thought  of  is  Pha- 
raoh, typifying  Satan,  though  this 
thought  is  more  usually  connected 
with  Easter,  as  in  109. 

4.  adparuit]   Tit.  ii.  11,  iii.  4. 

5.  Isaiah  vii.  14. 

6.  in  uirg^nej  Cp.  14.  1 3  in  illo 
martyre. 

7.  Lk.  i.  35. 

10.  uerbi]  the  faithful  word  spoken 
to  her  by  the  angel ;  cp.  Prud. 
Apoth.  1 1 5  f.  uerbo  praestrinxit  uis- 
cera pur  ae  I  uirginis  et  uerbo  struxit 
puerilia  membra  \  Sedul.  Op.  1 1.  3 
puellae  credentis  in  utero  fidelis  uerbi 
mansit  adspirata  conceptio ;  Fort. 
VIII.  iii.  91  concipiente  fide  nulla  se 
semine  lusit,  where  see  the  context ; 
31.  16,  39.  II.  The  variant  uerbum 
would  refer  to  Job.  i.  14. 

fidelis]  33.  12,  34.  14,  37.  25. 

11.  quern...]  Fort,  is  especially 
fond  of  thus  beginning  with  the 
relative  clause,  the  antecedent  being 
omitted ;  cp.  i.  i.  10  qui  tibi  dipta 
dedit  reddis  honor e  tiicem;  vii.  12, 
xvi.    23,   II.  v.  2,  II.  vii.  41  quern 


Tfiale  credebas  obilu  finire  salutem,  \ 
dat  uitam  multis;  vi.  iv.  19  qui 
sine  ueste  iacet,  legmen  pielate  mi- 
nistras;  vii.  xx.  3  f.,  xxv.  26,  IX. 
ii,  75;  36.41,  39.  5f.,  23  f. 

ot\a\  =  orbis  (lerrarum),  a  late 
form  found  at  Fort.  ix.  iii.  14  orbs 
quoque  totus,  Vit.  Mart.  iv.  583, 
Laus  Mariae  358.  Ronsch  p.  263 
mentions  similar  syncopated  nomi- 
natives, nubs,  saeps,  slips. 

baiulat  makes  a  better  antithesis 
than,  and  is  therefore  here  put  for, 
the  usual  capit.   See  31.  1 1  note. 

12.  puellae  is  thus  used  of  the 
Virgin,  Fort.  viii.  iii.  85  respice  qui 
uoluit  nasci  se  uentre  puellae,  ib. 
95;  Laus  Mariae  3,  67,  142,  216, 
231  ;  cp.  VI.  i.  99,  VIII.  iii.  276, 
iv.  4,  23. 

13.  radix  lese]  Is.  xi.  i,  10, 
Rom.  XV  12,  1.  4.  Prud.  Cath.  xil. 
49  f.  iam  flos  subit  Dauiticus  \  ra- 
dice  lesse  editus,  \  sceptrique  per  uir- 
gam  uirens  \  rerum  cacumen  occupat. 

Dreves  and  others,  in  order  to 
bring  an  iambus  into  the  second 
foot  of  the  verse,  write  radix  lesse, 
omitting  iam  which  is  found  in 
almost  all  the  Mss.    But  see  intro- 


HYMN  XXXVIIL   FORTUNATUS        197 


praesepe  poni  pertulit, 
qui  lucis  auctor  exstitit : 
cum  Patre  caelos  condidit, 
sub  matre  pannos  induit. 

legem  dedit  qui  saeculo, 
cuius  decem  praecepta  sunt, 
dignando  factus  est  homo 
sub  legis  esse  uinculo. 

Adam  uetus  quod  polluit, 
Adam  nouus  hoc  abluit : 
tumens  quod  ille  deiecit, 


20 


25 


1 1  saeculi  Fs  Vs. 

duction  to  this  hymn.  And  P'ort.'s 
way  is  to  treat  initial  consonantal  i 
as  a  consonant  (as  at  Vlll.  iii.  286) 
or  to  disregard  it  (as  at  IX.  ii.  27), 
but  not  to  regard  it  as  a  vowel. 

14.  uirga]  The  poet  understands 
the  uirga  to  be  Mary,  and  plays 
upon  the  words  uirga  and  uirgo,  cp. 
Latis  Mariae  1 1  uirgo  haec  uirga 
ftiit,  de  qua  est  Jlos  Christus  abortus. 

fructum  ed.  is  not  in  Vulg.  or 
O.  L.,  but  it  is  a  natural  interpreta- 
tion, and  according  to  the  R.V.  a 
correct  one. 

16.  uirgO]  See  introduction  and 
cp.  Fort.  IX.  vii.  30  ib5,  61  scitti,  65 
ergd,  86  solttS. 

fj.  praesepe  ..pertulit]  Cp.  31. 
21  f.,  and  for  the  rhythm  of  the  line 
Fort.  I.  xvi.  9  celare  se  /ton  pertulit, 
and  for  the  abl.  in  e  instead  of  i 
33.  24  note.  Perhaps,  however,  the 
writer  imitating  Plautus  has  used  the 
abl.  not  oi praesepe  but  of  a  collateral 
form  of  the  word,  'though  we  are 
not  to  think  of  a  nominative  prae- 
sepes,^  Huemer  de  Sedulii . . .scriptis 
p.  26  f. ;  cp.  Plaut.  Cure.  228  ad 
praesepem  suani ;  Sedul.  Carnt.  II. 
62  Deus  in  praesepe  quieuit. 

18.  exstitit]  exstare  is  often  used 
by  Fort,  meaning  little  more  than 
esse,  as  at  vi.  \a.  20,  x.  xi.  28  et  re- 
leuate  inopes,  si  quis  et  exstat  egens. 


27  deicit  Fs  Vs. 

20.  pannos]  33.  14  note. 

21.  'He  who  gave  law  to  the 
world,  whose  are  the  ten  com- 
mandments, was  made  man,  deign- 
ing to  be  under  the  bond  of  the 
law.'  For  the  thought  of  the  stanza 
cp.  Laus  Mariae  255  factor  dans 
legem,  factus  sub  lege  minister; 
Sedul.  Carm.  11.  38  rerumque  crea- 
tor I  tmscendi  sub  lege  fuit ;  id.  Op. 

11.  3  prolesque  siderea  nasceiuii  sub 
lege  delittiit,  quae  cuncta  suo  nasci 
nutu  concessit.  All  such  passages 
are  based  upon  Gal.  iv.  3. 

23.    dignando]    Cp.  32.  26,  42. 

12,  26,  42,  104.  20.  For  the  use  of 
the  gerund  see  21.  1 1. 

25  f.  I  Cor.  XV.  45,  Eph.  iv.  22 
depone  re. . .  ueterem  honiinem . 

26.  nouus  hoc]  For  Fort.'s  treat- 
ment of  ^  see  36.  32. 

27.  'What  Adam  by  his  pride 
(shewn  in  disobeying  God)  over- 
threw, Christ  by  His  great  humility 
raises  up.'  The  neuter  words  ^«^rf... 
hoc  remind  us  of  31.  8  ne  perderet 
quod  condidit.  For  the  general  sense 
of  the  two  lines  cp.  Prov.  iii.  34, 
Lk.  i.  53,  Jas.  iv.  6,  i  Pet.  v.  5  and 
other  passages.  Fort.  VI.  ii.  33  cal- 
cauit  hostes  lumidos,  erexit  arnicas ; 
ib.   109  erigis  abiectos. 

tumens]  '  swelling  with  pride,'  as 
Deut,  i.  43  tumentes  superbia.    The 


198  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

humillimus  hie  erigit. 

iam  nata  lux  est  et  salus, 

fugata  nox  et  uicta  mors  :  30 

uenite,  gentes,  credite ! 

Deum  Maria  protulit. 

word  is  a  favourite  one  of  disparage-  utero  lucem  clausit;  ix.  ii.  43  mor- 

ment  with  Fort.;    cp.   iv.  xiv.   14  tern  gustante  salute  \  yi.  x,  ^  concepit 

discipulus  hutnilis,  qui  fuit  ante  tu-  uirgo   salutem  ;    Juvenc.    III.    356 

mens,  V.  v.  22,  viii.  iii.  290.  Dauidis  suboles^hominuvi  lumenque 

deiecit]  perf.  in  spite  of  the  short  salusque. 

penultimate,  for  which  cp.  note  on  30.    Cp.  i.  xv.  56  itox  ubi  uicta 

35.  2  Iduit.  fugit. 

28.  humiUimus]  Mt.  xi.  29,  31.  Cp.  Fort,  i,  xvi.  77  uenite 
Phil.  ii.  8.                                                   dues  flaudite;    v.    iii.    i  plaudite, 

29.  For  the  personal  use  of  the      felices popuU;  39.  32. 
abstracts   cp.    Fort.    i.    xv.  58  ilia  32.   Cp.  4.  29. 

Hymn  39 

For  the  authorship  of  this  hymn  see  the  introduction 
to  38,  probably  written  by  the  same  poet.  Here  we  have 
two  cases  of  hiatus  :  in  24  and  28. 

Eacdhjlsvi;/^  FdhpsjS  Gafm  Habcdefgi  Ibdghnotv  Vcs 

Quem  terra,  pontus,  aethera 
colunt,  adorant,  praedicant, 
trinam  regentem  machinam 
claustrum  Mariae  baiulat. 

cui  luna,  sol  et  omnia  5 

deseruiunt  per  tempora, 
perfusa  caeli  gratia 
gestant  puellae  uiscera. 

I .    For  the  triple  division  of  the  haps  nowhere  else  is  the  word  used 

elements  so  common  in   Fort,  see  so  absolutely  in  this  sense. 

23.  6,  33.  21  notes.  baiulat]  see  31.  11. 

aethera]    neuter    plural,    as    at  6.    per  tempora]  '  through  their 

36.  7.  seasons ' ;  cp.  2.  3  note,  and  the  in- 

3.  trinam  machinam]  see  23.  6,  troduction  to  that  hymn,  per  has 
cp.  Fort.  III.  vi.  52  et  Trinitatis  here  its  distributive  sense,  deserui- 
opem  machina  tnna  sonet.  The  sense       unt,  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.)  91. 

is  like  that  of  38.  1 1  f.  7.    Lk.  i.  26. 

4.  claustrum]  see  6.  14.    Per-  8.   puellae]  Cp.  38.  12  note. 


HYMN  XXXIX.   FORTUNATUS         199 

mirentur  ergo  saecula, 

quod  angel  us  fert  semina,  10 

quod  aure  uirgo  concipit 

et  corde  credens  parturit. 

beata  mater  munere, 

cuius  supernus  artifex, 

mundum  pugillo  continens,  15 

uentris  sub  area  clausus  est. 

benedicta  caeli  nuntio, 

fecunda  sancto  Spiritu, 

desideratus  gentibus 

cuius  per  aluum  fusus  est.  20 

o  gloriosa  femina, 

excelsa  super  sidera ! 

qui  te  creauit  prouide, 

lactas  sacrato  ubere. 

quod  Eua  tristis  abstulit,  25 

9  mirantur  Elv/i  Idho  Vs.  lo  nuntia  Gm.  1 1  uerbo  (pro 

aure)  Id.     concepit  Ecdhl^  Fp  Ido  Vs'.  13  Maria  (pro  munere)  He 

Ih,  muneris  Ha^.  15  contines  Hi-  17  beata  Eav^  Fdhp/S 

Ibgntv  Vcs-.  21  domina  E^  Fd-  lb.  24  lecta  Ec  Habc'd* 

Igh  Vcs.     sacrata  Ec. 

12.  credens]  Cp.  38.  10;   Fort.  19.     Construe  cuius  per  aluum 
VI 11.  iii.  91  concipienU fide.                      desideratus  gentibus  (from  Hag.  ii. 

13.  munere]  'in  her  office.'  8,  cp.  Gen.  xlix.  10)  fusus  est. 

14.  artifex]  'creator,'  cp.  Heb.  20.  fosus  est]  Cp.  24.  19  note, 
xi.  10  cuius  artifex  et  conditor  22.  excelsa]  vocative ;  cp.  Laus 
Deus  ;  Cypr.  de  Hab.  Virg.  2 1  Alariae  2 1 2  celsa  super  cedros ;  319 
estate  tales  quales  uos  Deus  artifex  0  decus  exce Ileus,  0  femina  forma 
fecit.  Here  cuius  goes  with  uentris,  salutis.  Fort,  takes  a  liberty  with 
not  with  artifex.  the  u  of  super. 

15.  pug^illo]   Cp.  36.  41  note.  23.    prouide]  91.  6,  \\ke  prudens 

16.  uentris  sub  area]   Cp.  Fort.  in  Horace. 

IV.  xi.  4  cuius  semper  hahet  pectoris  24.    Cp.    Fort.   VIII.  iii.    103  in- 

area  Deum;  vil.viii.  36;  Vit.  Mart.  temerata  Deum  suspendit  ad  ubera 

I.    185;     Laus   Alariae    154     infra  nalum,  et panem  caeli  munere  laetis 

arcam  ahscondensfulgida  luna  iuhar ;  alit ;  31.  23.   -to  ubere  forms  a  violent 

Vit.    Mart.    III.    443   quae  fades,  hiatus. 

oculi,  gena, pes,  manus,  area,  figura.  25.    Cp.   Sedul.   Carm.   \\.    30  f. 

There  is  probably  a  tacit  allusion  to  sic   Euae  de  stirpe  sacra   ueniente 

the  '  ark  of  the  covenant.'  Maria    uirginis    antiqitae  facinus 

17.  benedicta]  Lk.  i.  28.  noua  uirgo  piaret ;  Fort.  III.  ix.  99 


200  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

tu  reddis  almo  germine ; 
intrent  ut  astra  flebiles, 
caeli  fenestra  facta  es. 

tu  regis  alti  ianua, 

et  porta  lucis  fulgida :  30 

uitam  datam  per  uirginem 
gentes  redemptae  plaudite. 
26  aluo  Fh^.  28  est  Ec.  29  alta  El.  31  uita  data  Ed  Iv^. 

quos prius  Eua  nocens  infecerat,  has  person  ill.  vii.  \oiantiafida  Petrus. 

modo  reddit  \  eccUsiae  pastes  ubere,  Cp.  Amob.  adu.  Nat.   11.  65  hanc 

lacte,  sinu  ;   Laits  Mariae  125  hu-  u>tae,utitadixeritii,iani4am;Sedv\. 

mano generi genuit qtws Eua dolores.  Op.  V.    29  pia  genetrix...qitae  fuit 

curauit  genitus  uirgo  Maria  tuus.  nascentis  ianua.    There  is  doubtless 

26.  germine]  Is.  iv.  2  in  die  ilia  a  reference  to  Ezek.  xliv.  2. 

erit  germen  Domini.  30.    porta  is  used  of  the  \"irgin 

27.  astra]  'heaven,'  cp.  36.    19  Laus  Marine  i,\;  88.  i. 
note.  lucis]   Cp.  38.  29  note. 

28.  C'p.  Laus  Mariae  f,6  materna  31.  datrfvm]  sc.  esse,  as  1.  64  etc. 
et  puero  membra  fenestra  fuit.  Note  32.  See  38.  31  note;  Ps.  xlvi. 
the  hiatus.  (xlvii.)  2  omnes  gentes  plaudite  mani' 

29.  ianua  is  used  by  Fort,  of  a  bus. 


VII.    FLAVIUS 


Hymn  40 

The  most  ancient  authority  that  ascribes  this  hymn  to 
Flavius  is  the  pontifical  of  Poitiers,  cp.  introduction  to 
37  p.  189,  in  which  the  rubric  is  iiersus  Flauii  episcopi  ad 
niandatum  in  cena  Domini.  Flavius  was  bishop  of  Ch&lon- 
sur-Saone  and  died  A.D.  591. 

The  hymn  is  rhythmical,  mainly  based  upon  the  accent 
of  each  word,  and  spondees  are  freely  admitted  into  the 
second  foot  of  the  verse, 

Ednvx^  Fehmnrs  Gefgl  Hi  Im  Vhs 

Tellus  ac  aethra  iubilent 
in  magni  cena  principis, 
quae  protoplasti  pectora 
uitae  purgauit  ferculo. 

I  aether  Vs.  iubilant  Ed  Ge.  3  qui  Gel.  pectore  Vs.  4  fercula  Vs, 
ferculum  Im. 

1.  For  this  appeal  to  heaven  and  of  life  given  in  the  Eucharist,  but 
earth  cp.  Ps.  Ixviii.  (Ixix.)  34.  his  system  as  inherited  by  us  is  thus 

aethra]   'heaven,' strictly  a^M^/j  purified  and  healed. 
splendor  qui  seretio  caeli  conspicitur,  4.    ultae...ferculo]  'by  the  ban- 
as  Servius  notes  on  Verg.  Aen.  ill.  quet   of    life,'    i.e.    the    life-giving 
585.  banquet.     'The  food  of  life     is  a 

2.  principis]  24.  10  note.  reminiscence  of  the   'tree  of  life' 

3.  protoplasti]  Adam,  as  at  33.  and  of  the  '  bread  of  life.'  The  ex- 
4,  112.  16;  cp.  note  on  23.  10.  pression  is  caught  up  in  a  more 
Adam's  body  is  regarded  as  poisoned  famous  hymn  (the  Verbum  super- 
by  eating  of  the  forbidden  fruit ;  num  prodUns  of  Thomas  Aquinas, 
the  Eucharist  is  the  antidote, —  see  AnaUcta  L.  p.  588),  line  1  prius 
Ignatius'  (pap/naKov  deavafflas,  dfri-  in  uitae  ferculo  \  se  tradidit  discipu- 
5oToi  Tou  fiT]  dirodaveiv.  It  is  of  lis.  ferculum  originMy  meant  'a 
course  inexact  to  say  that  Adam's  charger '  or  '  dish,'  then  that  which 
own  system  is  purified  by  the  food  was  thereon. 


202 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


hac  nocte  factor  omnium 
potenti  sat  mysterio 
carnem  suam  cum  sanguine 
in  escam  transfer!  animae. 
a  celsis  surgens  dapibus 
praebet  formam  mortalibus, 
humilitatis  gratia 
Petri  petens  uestigia. 
pallet  seruus  obsequio, 
cum  angelorum  dominum 
ferendo  lympham  linteo 
cernit  caeno  procumbere. 


15 


6  potentis  at  mysterium  Ed^  Im  Vh  (p.  ad  m.  Ev),  potentis  ac  mysterii 
Gel,  potentiae  mysterio  En  (-ium  Vs).  9  accisis  {pro  a  celsis)  Im. 

10  praebens  Fe.  12  petit  Fe.  13  pallens  Im,     debet  Vs.     obsequi 

Vs.         15  ferentem  Fr.     limpha  Im.     linteum  Ge.         16  cena  Edv. 


5.  factor]  1.  9. 

6.  '  in  a  most  mighty  mystery.' 
sat  strengthens  potenti,  like  assai  in 
Italian.  Cp.  Is.  Ixiv.  9  ne  irascaris 
Domine  satis,  '  be  not  wroth  very 
sore '  and  many  other  places  in  the 
Vulg. ;  104.  24.  The  variants  shew 
the  perplexity  of  copyists.  The  text 
is  found  in  the  French  MSS  ehnr. 

8.  transfert]  '  changes,' — but  it 
is  a  curious  use  of  the  word.  Cp. 
Jude  4  gratiam  transferentes  in 
luxuriam. 

9f.  Joh.  xiii.  4f.  Cp.  Ambr.  de 
My  St.  31  lesus  in  euangelio  lauit 
pedes  discipiilis  suis...[Petrus^  tion 
adtiertit  inysterium  et  idea  minis- 
terium  recusatiit,  quod  grauari 
hnmilitatem  serui  crederet,  si  obse- 
quium  Domini  patienter  admitteret. 

celsis]  perhaps  in  reference  to  its 
Paschal  character,  as  well  as  to 
the  Eucharist,  is  in  contrast  with 
humilitatis  in  11. 

10.  praebet]  Cp.  Tit.  ii.  7  ie 
ipsum  praebe  exemplum. 

formam] '  a  pattern,'  cp.  2  Thess. 
iii.  9  ut  nosmet  ipsos  formavi  dare- 
mus  nobis  ad  imitandum  nos.    For 


the  general  sense  cp.  Joh.  xiii.  15, 
on  which  of  course  the  line  is  based. 

1 2 .  petens]  '  approaching.'  In 
late  Latin  this  verb  often  loses  all 
idea  of  '  seeking ' ;  see  124.  20. 
Fort,  uses  it  as  a  synonym  of  ire, 
cp.  I.  vi.  16  quacumque petit ;  Vlll. 
i.  52  super  astra  petit. 

uestigia]  'the  feet,'  as  at  34.  6; 
cp.  13.  13  note. 

13.  senilis  is  used  because  '  the 
Lord  of  angels '  is  waiting  upon 
him  (Joh.  xiii.  13),  and  probably 
with  a  further  reference  to  2  Pet.  i. 
r .  There  is  a  like  contrast  Domini.. . 
send  at  111.  1 8  f 

obsequio]  '  at  the  service  offered 
to  him ' ;  cp.  Ambr.  in  Luc.  v.  98 
deniqtie  \^Petrtis'\  alibi  lauari  sibi 
pedes  recusal,  ubi  mysterium  non 
agnoscit,  dum  dominico  grauatur 
obsequio;  Juvenc.  III.  609  hominis 
natus  sic  uestra  tninister  \  obsequio 
solus  proprio  pia  munera  geslat. 

15.  ferendo]  =7^rd?«/^w  of  some 
MSS  ;  see  21.  11. 

linteo]  '  together  with  a  towel,' 
Joh.  xiii.  4.  The  abl.  is  a  very  loose 
abl.  of  attendant  circumstance ;  ac 


HYMN  XL.  FLA  VI US 


203 


'  permitte  Simon  ablui ; 

acta  figurant  mystica, 

dum  summus  ima  baiulo, 

quod  cinis  seruet  cineri.'  20 

lauator  toris  accubat, 
uerbique  fauos  aggerat, 
quos  inter  hostem  denotat, 
necis  dolos  qui  ruminat. 

trux  lupe,  luda  pessime,  25 

fers  agno  miti  basia, 
das  membra  loris  regia 
quae  sorde  tergunt  saecula. 

18  figuram  Im,  figura  Gel.  19  sumus  Im.     baiulat  Env  Im  Vs 

(-let  Ed).  20  qui  Ed.     seruit  Ev,  seruias  Vs.  22  adgregat 

Fn  Gl.  23  hostes  Im.     deuotat  Vs.  24  necisque  dolos  Fh. 

25  luda  lupe  Fe.  26  raitti  Fe  Vh.  27  dans  Edv.     rigida  Vs. 

28  sordes  Ev  Im  Vs.     saeculi  Im  Vs. 


linteum  of  later  Mss  gives  the  same 
sense. 

16.  Note  the  exa^eration  of  '  in 
the  mud.' 

1 7  f.  The  stanza  contains  the 
words  of  Christ  to  Peter. 

1 7.  '  Allow  thyself  to  be  washed, ' 
'  consent  to  be  washed ' ;  the  subject 
of  the  inf.  (fe)  is  omitted.  See 
38.  17. 

18  f.  i.e.  My  actions,  which  thou 
understandest  not  {mystica,  cp.  Joh. 
xiii.  7),  depict  (are  a  type  of)  what 
respect  mortal  should  render  to 
mortal.  For  the  general  sense  cp. 
Gal.  vi.  2. 

19  f.  is  a  paraphrase  of  Joh.  xiii. 

13-15- 

19.  dum... bai.] 'in  carrying,' ex- 
planatory of  acta. 

ima]  the  water   and  towel,    the 
instraments  of  homely  work. 
baiulo]   Cp.  31.  11. 

20.  cinis]  one  who  is  but  dust 
and  ashes  ;  cp.  Gen.  xviii.  27. 

seruet  is  used  for  the  compound 
obseriiet. 


21.  lauator] =^»(  latter  at. 
accubat]  1.  29  note. 

22.  lit.  'and  heaps  up  honey- 
combs of  the  word,'  i.e.  'utters 
much  discourse  as  sweet  as  honey.' 
The  metaphor  is  a  very  common 
one,  cp.  e.g.  Ps.  xviii.  (xix.)  10, 
Prov.  xvi.  24,  Cant.  iv.  ti,  Ambr. 
in  Ps.  cxviii.  xiii.  23,  xiv.  2^  fauos 
ore  fingere,  nulla  ore  componere  ; 
Ennod.  Epist.  xiii.  dum  fauos 
loqueris\  Fort.  VII.  i.  19  aedificas 
sermone  fauos ;  vii.  vii.  74  construis 
ore  fauos. 

23.  quos  inter]  i.e.  in  the  course 
of  these  words. 

hostem]  viz.  Judas,  Joh.  xiii. 
21  f. 

24.  ruminat]  '  is  plotting.'  The 
word  in  this  sense  is  only  ante-  and 
post-classical.  Vergil  and  others 
use  it  in  its  literal  sense  of  cattle 
chewing  the  cud. 

26.  Mt.  xxvi.  48  f. 

27.  loris]  'to  the  thongs'  that 
bound  Him. 

28.  tergunt]   Cp.  7.  31,  37.  28. 


204 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


nexi  soluuntur  hodie 
carnis  ac  cordis  carcere ; 
unguen  sacratur  chrismatis  : 
spes  inde  crescit  miseris. 

uictori  mortis  inclitam 
pangamus  laude  gloriam, 
cum  Patre  et  sancto  Spiritu 
qui  nos  redemit  obilu. 


30 


35 


29  nexis  E0  GI.         30  cordis  ac  carnis  Fn  (cordis  a  carnis  Fe).     a  {.pro 
ac)  Fh  Im.  31   unguens  Fe  Im,  unguem  Ev,  unguentum  En  Gl 

(-to  Vs),  tingens  Ed.     sacri  \'s,  sacrantur  Im,  sacratus  Vh.     crismate  Ed. 
32  unde  Ev  Fn.     crescat  Ev,  datur  En  Gl.  33  inclita  Gefl  Vs, 

inclito  En  Fe  Gg.  34  laudem  Im,  laudis  Vs.     Christe  (/w  1.)  Fe. 

35  ac  {.pro  et)  Ed  Vs. 


29.  hodie]  '  on  this  day,'  when 
the  absolutions  were  pronounced  on 
those  who  had  undergone  penance 
dnring  Lent. 

30.  carnis... caxcere]  'from  the 
imprisonment  to  which  flesh  and 
heart  were  consigned  ' ;— '  flesh ' 
because  the  penance  partly  con- 
sisted in  fastings  and  other  bodily 
mortifications,  cordis  is  probably 
chosen,  rather  than  some  other 
word,  for  the  sake  of  the  alliteration, 
and  refers  to  the  humiliation  of  the 
soul.   For  a  comparison  of  the  peni- 


tential discipline  to  imprisonment, 
see  Cypr.  Ep.  LV.  20. 

31.  Cp.  27.  32 ;  Lact.  Phoen. 
119  unguine  balsa meo;  Fort.  V.  v. 
103  hinc  oleare  otiium  perfunditur 
unguine  uellus. 

chrismatis  is  the  identical  gen. 
See  26.  4. 

33.  inclitam  is  used  as  at  92. 
16  ;  cp.  also  89.   19,  104.  15,  126.  3. 

34.  pangamus]   Cp.  33.  i. 
36.    Imitated  from  31.  88. 
obitu]  '  by  His  death. ' 


VIII.   ANONYMOUS  HYMNS 

THE  EARLIER  HYMNAL 
Hymn  41 

We  now  come  to  the  second  class  of  hymns,  those  of 
which  the  writers  are  no  longer  known  by  name.  These, 
as  might  be  expected,  are  many  more  in  number  than 
those  which  can  with  any  degree  of  certainty  be  ascribed 
to  a  particular  writer. 

Daniel  IV.  28  quotes  a  passage  from  Ambrose  which 
the  writer  of  41  clearly  had  in  mind  :  in  Ps.  CXVIII.  viii. 
45  f.  docet  te  propheta  quomodo  teneas  Dominuni  lesum. 
media  node,  inquit,  surgebam  ad  confitendum  tibi.  lb.  47 
tempus  est poenae...non  enim  otiose  Dominus  Deus  noster, 
cum  posset  quocumque  momento  primitiua  Aegyptiorum 
exstinguere,  hoc  tamen  tempus  dolori  et  luctui  peccatoris 
opporttmius  iudicaiiit.  sic  enim  scriptum  est,  quia  media 
nocte primogeniti  Aegyptiorum  liberi  ab  extenninatore  sint 
interempti.  lb.  49  non  otiose  Paulus  apostolus  et  Silas 
trusi  in  carcerem,  media  tamen  nocte  surgebant  mentis 
uestigio,  exorabant  Dominum  et  laudis  sacrificium  defere- 
bant,  ideoque  ubi  tion  defuit  deuotionis  officium,  adfuit 
etiam  absolutionis  remedium.  subito  enim  media  nocte 
terrae  motus  /actus  est  grandis,  ita  ut  mota  essent  funda- 
menta  carceris,  ualuae  apertae,  omnium  uincula  soluta. 
lb.  52  solet  sponsus  media  nocte  uetiire :  caue  ne  te  dor- 
mientem.  inueniat,  caue  ne  facem  tuam  non  queas  somno- 
lentus  accendere. 

As  to  the  use  of  the  hymn  Caesarius  of  Aries  writes : 
alia  nocte  ad  primum  nocturnum  dicendum  est  Mediae 
noctis  tempus  est ;  i.e.  in  alternation  with  42  Rex  aeterne 
Domine]  cp.  Blume  Cursus  p.  37.    And  with  this  agrees 


2o6  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

the  witness  of  the  older  hymnals,  but  X/XI  cent.  MSS 
appoint  it  for  Nocturn  in  Lent. 

It  will  be  observed  that  this  hymn  differs  metrically 
from  all  that  have  preceded  it  in  this  volume.  Most  of 
them  have  been  guided  by  the  rules  of  classical  prosody, 
though  those  rules  have  been  freely  dispensed  with  from 
time  to  time,  especially  under  the  influence  of  the  accen- 
tuation of  the  words.  The  present  hymn  pays  little 
regard  even  to  accent,  none  to  quantity.  It  can  begin  a 
line  with  mediae  or  obuiam,  and  end  one  with  peccatorum 
or  mereamur.  To  cut  the  words  into  lines  of  eight 
syllables  each  is  almost  the  only  law  by  which  the  writer 
is  governed. 

As  to  the  writer :  Niceta,  Bishop  of  Remesiana  in 
Dacia,  was  a  writer  of  hymns,  though  no  complete  col- 
lection of  them  has  come  down  to  us.  He  also  composed 
two  tractates,  which  we  possess,  de  Vigiliis  and  de  Bono 
Psahnodiae.  What  if  the  hymn  Mediae  noctis  tempus  est 
should  be  one  of  his  hymns,  composed  for  singing  in  the 
vigils  for  which  he  contended  so  strongly  ?  in  the  night 
seasons  which  he  declares  to  be  hyninis  lectionibusque 
fecundas  (p.  56,  ed.  Burn)?  It  is  true  that  the  arguments 
for  observing  midnight  as  a  time  for  prayer  and  praise 
are  not  identical  in  the  hymn  and  the  tractate ; — but  in 
both  stress  is  laid  on  the  'prophetic'  passage,  Psalm  cxviii. 
62  (p.  60),  and  in  both  the  example  of  Paul  and  'Sileas' 
is  referred  to.  The  Trinitarian  doctrine  of  the  hymn  is 
that  of  Niceta:  see  p.  T,y  perfectam  Trinitatem  adorantes, 
and  fides  integra  Trinitatis  ;  cp.  p.  1 3  where  the  Nicene 
de  substantia  Patris  is  discussed.  The  phrase  Patri  in- 
genito,  contrasted  with  {Filio)  unigenito,  belongs  rather 
specially  to  the  age  of  Niceta;  cp.  Burn  pp.  20,  39. 
Particular  turns  of  expression  and  choice  of  words  in 
the  hymn  may  be  illustrated  from  Niceta.    Its  very  first 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLI        207 

words  inay  recall  nox  ecce  est  caligo  corporis,  p.  55.  In 
lines  17,  \?)  flebat  fortiter  is  WV^  fortiter  canens,  p.  71  ; 
funera  is  like  quae  et  qualia  eis  funera  manerent  (ib.) ; 
while  tantorum  =  tot  is  frequent  in  Niceta :  see  p.  1 1 
tantarum  reriim  immensitateni ;  p.  35  haec  tanta  ac  talia  ; 
p,  6 1  haec  et  humsmodi  tanta  et  talia ;  p.  78  cum  tantis  ac 
talibus  Sanctis.  The  combination  uigilemus  sobrie  in  37 
is  of  course  biblical,  but  Niceta  not  only  quotes  the 
passages  (pp.  63,  64) ;  he  insists  very  emphatically  upon 
the  sobriety  of  the  Christian's  vigil,  p.  66.  With  conlau- 
dantes  in  44  cp.  conlaudo  eos,  p.  68. 

If  Niceta  was  the  author  of  the  TV  Deum,  lines  3  f  and 
46  would  run  naturally  from  his  pen.  The  thought  of  the 
jiincla  peccatorum  in  47  occurs  on  p.  39  uincula  serpen- 
tijia,  quae  stringunt  aninias  hominum,  etc.  The  phrase 
sancte  credentimn  in  48  may  be  a  reminiscence  of  Jude 
20,  but  Niceta  is  fond  of  expressions  Wkeprofessio  sancta, 
p.  13  ;  omnia  pie  intellegenda  sunt,  p.  16;  fideliter  uene- 
rando  and  honorificent  integre  Trinitatem,  p.  36  ;  pia  con- 
fessio  in  Deum,  p.  40.  In  51  f  ut  mereamur . .  .concinere  is 
a  somewhat  common  kind  of  phrase,  but  we  may  com- 
pare quo  adiutus  a  Domino... canere possis  et  tu  aliquando 
merearis  dicere,  etc.,  p.  58.  From  p.  80  chori  concinentis 
and  its  context,  it  may  be  supposed  that  concinere  in  52 
has  its  proper  meaning  of 'singing  in  concert.' 

Eo  Fsi//  Hbdr  I^5n  Mafk  Vrs 
Mediae  noctis  tempus  est : 
prophetica  uox  admonet 
I  medium  Maf,  media  Vr.     tempore  Eo  Hr  Ma. 

1.  tempuB  est  is  shewn  to  be  that  of  the  Psalmist ;  the  reference  is 
the  original  text  by  the  agreement  to  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.)  62.  propheta  is 
in  wording  of  the  quotation  by  Cae-  used  of  David  at  60.  36,  62.  8,  66. 
sarius  with  the  oldest  MSS.  tempore  10,  82.  6,  cp.  Mt.  xin.  35,  Acts  11. 
would  come  from  line  41.  30,  and  very  often  m  Niceta. 

2.  '  The  voice  of  the  prophet '  is 


2o8  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

dicamus  laudes  ut  Deo 
Patri  semper  ac  Filio, 

sancto  quoque  Spiritui ;  5 

perfecta  enim  Trinitas 
uniusque  substantiae 
laudanda  semper  nobis  est. 

terrorem  tempus  hoc  habet, 

quo,  cum  uastator  angelus  lo 

Aegypto  mortes  intulit, 

deleuit  primogenita. 

haec  hora  iustis  salus  est, 

quos  ibidem  tunc  angelus 

ausus  punire  non  erat,  15 

signum  formidans  sanguinis. 

3  domino  (pro  ut  deo)  Eo  Hr  Mafk  Vr.  4  oin.  ac  Vr.     et  Mafk. 

7  quoque  (pro  -que)  Vr.  8  laudando  Mf.  9  terrorum  Hbd  Vrs. 

(pro  hoc  uersu)  medium  (mediae)  noctis  tempore  Mafk.         10  quod  Fs  Hd^ 
In  Vs.     quocumque  Hr.     pergens  (pro  quo  cum)  Mafk.  1 1  mortem 

Hbdr^  IXn  Vrs.  12  delet  EoS  diluit  Mafk.  13  iustis 

hora  Fs  Hbd  INn  Vs.  14  et  quos  idem  IX,  in  quos  idem  In,  in  qua 

idem  Fs  Hb  Vs,  in  quo  hisdem  Hd.  15  puniri  Hbd  IX  Vr. 

16  signi  Mf. 

6.  perfects,  Trinitas]  see  1.  60  Append,  iv.  6  quando  uel  wide  tut 
note.  Cp.  Niceta  de  Spir.  S.  22  nuntiet  aura  boni;  Mulomed.  C^iV. 
perfectam  Trinitatem  adorantes.  ^.  d)-; .  ^  infunditur  anacallidis  tritae ; 

7.  substantiae]  used  in  the  Vul-  175.  16  admisceto  mellis  quam  op- 
gate  of  Heb.  i.  3,  iii.  14  etc.  to  timi;  180.  16  stimilo  turis  boni. 
represent  the  iijr^trrafrts  of  the  Greek.  It  must  be  owned,  however,  that 
Here  it  is,  of  course,  to  be  taken  in  terroris  would  be  more  natural  in 
the  sense   which   it   bears,  for    in-  this  sense  than  the  plural. 

stance,  in  the  Quicumque  uult.  10.    quo]  'at  which.' 

9  f .    Exod.  xii.    The  variant  ter-  12.    primogenita]  neuter,  as  at 
rorum  is  perhaps  the  original,   as  Ps.  cxxxiv.  8,  because  'all  the  first- 
being   more   difficult,  and  may  be  born   of  beasts'   were   smitten,    as 
defended  by  such  passages  as  Plant.  well  as  of  men,  Exod.  xi.  5. 
Poen.  642   boni  de  nostra  tibi  nee  i3f.    Exod.  xii.  2  3f.,cp.  109.  9f. 
ferimus  nee  damns;    Most.   ioi7f.  14.    ibidem]  i.e.  in  Egypt. 
mecum  ut  ille  hie  gesserit,  \  dum  tu  15.   ausus... non  erat]   'did  not 
hinc  abes,  negoti?  Ter.  Phorni.  709  dare.'    For  the  force  of  the  pluperf. 
ante  brumam  autem  noui  negoti  in-  see  95.  10  note. 
cipere;    Fort.    vi.  v.    168  si  uenit,  17.      Exod.    xii.    30.     Aegypttis 
ipsa  mihi  nuntiet  aura  boni;    id.  stands   for    'the   Egyptians,'   as  at 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLI      209 

Aegyptus  flebat  fortiter 

tantorum  dira  funera, 

solus  gaudebat  Israhel, 

agni  protectus  sanguine.  20 

nos  uerus  Israhel  sumus  ; 
laetamur  in  te,  Domine, 
hostem  spernentes  et  malum 
Christi  defensi  sanguine. 

ipsum  profecto  tempus  est,  25 

quo  uoce  euangelica 
uenturus  sponsus  creditur, 
regni  caelestis  conditor. 

occurrunt  sanctae  uirgines 

18  natorum    Eo   Fs   Hbdr^  Vs,  tantarum  Mafk.     diro  funere   IX  \'r. 
%\  uero  Hbdr.  22  laetemur  Eo  F^  Hbd'r  In.  23  hostes  Fs 

Hb  Vs.     immanem  {pro  et  malum)  Hd  In,  immanes  Fs  Hb  Vs.     hostem 
prosternentes  malum  Mafk.  24  redempti  Vr.  25  {pro  hoc  iterum 

uersu)  medium  (mediae)  noctis  tempore  Mafk,  26  per  uocem  -am  Mk. 

oni.  quo  Maf.         29  occurrent  Hd^  Mafk. 

Ps.    civ.    (cv.)    38 ;    so   Itidaea   for  participle  in  the  sense  of  a  finite 

the  Jews  1.  52  note,  cp.  Israhel  in  verb  is  very  common,  see  e.g.  Leo's 

1 9.  Fortunattis  p.  4  u .   No  hymn  writer 

fortiter]  '  loudly,'  '  bitterly ' ;  cp.  would  shrink  from  using  spernentes 

Jud.  viii.  \  iutgantes  fortiter  \  Dan.  =spernimus.   ^/ (like  «/ in  3)  is  out 

V.    7    exclamauit... for  titer  \    Niceta  of  place,  as  often  in  late  poets,  cp. 

de  Psalmod.   4   in  cithara..  fortiter  Fort.  VI.  i.  42  molliter  incumbens  et 

canens.  inhaesitflammamedulUs.   It  was  no 

18.   tantorum]  'so  many,' a  late  doubt  the  difficulty  caused  thereby 

usage,  the  first  traces  of  which  we  that  made  some  of  the  later  copyists 

find    in     Propert.    I.    v.     10    milia  auhstitute /mwanem  (or  et  ma/um. 
qitatita.     It    became   common,  cp.  25.    profecto]    'moreover,'   here 

e.g.  Joh.  vi.  9  sed  haec  quid  sunt  used  as  a  particle  of  transition  to 

inter  tantos?  Fort.  xi.  ix.  7  portitor  another  point ;  cp.  its  use  at  14.  26 

ad  tantos  missus  non  sufficit  uiius.  note. 

See  the  references  to  Niceta  in  the  26  f.    Mt.  xxv.  i  f.,  especially  6. 

Introd.  27.   uenturus]  sc.  esse  which  is 

21.     uerus    Israhel]    'the    true  usually   omitted    with    the    future, 

Israel,'     answering    to    St     Paul's  often  with  the  past,  participle, 
phrase  '  the  Israel  of  God,'  Gal.  vi.  28.    There  is  a  reference  to  the 

(6,  cp.  Rom.  ii.  28,  ix.  6.  first   words    of    the    parable,    'the 

23.    'and  we  laugh  to  scorn  our  kingdom  of  heaven,'  Mt.  xxv.  i. 
malicious   enemy,'   viz.    the    devil,  29.     sanctae   is  contrasted  with 

cp.  6.  27  etc.    The  use  of  the  present  stultae  in  n- 


210 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


obuiam  tunc  aduentui,  30 

gestantes  claras  lampadas, 
magno  laetantes  gaudio. 

stultae  uero  remanent, 

quia  stinctas  habent  lampadas, 

frustra  pulsantes  ianuam  35 

clausa  iam  regni  regia. 

quare  uigilemus  sobrie 

gestantes  mentes  splendidas, 

aduenienti  ut  lesu 

digni  curramus  obuiam.  40 

noctisque  mediae  tempore 
Paulas  quoque  et  Sileas, 
Christum  uincti  in  carcere 
conlaudantes,  soluti  sunt. 

31  claras  gestantes  Mafk.  33  at  st.  Fs  Hbd  In  Vs,  quae  st.  Vr^ 

34  quae  exstinctas  omnes  exc,  Vr.  35  ianuas  Hb  IN,  ianua  Mfk. 

36  iam  clausa  Mfk,  clausam  i.  r.  ueniam  Ma.  37  peruigilemus  Eo 

F^  Hr.  38  stantes  Maf.     om.  mentes  Vr.     mente  splendidi  Ma. 

splendide  Mfk.  39  adueniente  Eo^  Fyp  Ma  Vr,  aduentui  Hd. 

40  digne  IN.     occurramus  Eo  F^  Hr  Mafk.  41  mediae  noctis  Mk, 

medium  noctis  Maf,  media  nocte  Vr.  44  laudantes  resoluti  Ma 

(laudando  res.  Mfk). 


31.    Cp.  120.  46. 

33.  stultae  is  a  trisyllable  to  be 
scanned  istultae ;  see  Index. 

34.  quia  is  to  be  regarded  as  a 
monosyllable,  as  at  Fort.  II.  xv.  8. 

stinctas  is  a  rare  and  poetical 
form,  and  has  been  ousted  except  in 
the  most  ancient  MS  by  the  better 
known  exstinctas,  which  might  and 
would  come  from  the  Vulgate  of 
Mt.  XXV.  8  quia  lavipades  nostrae 
exstingtitintur.  It  is  used  by  Lucr. 
I.  667  igties  in  coetus  stingui.  In 
our  hymn  elision  is  unlikely  in  view 
of  the  several  instances  of  hiatus  in 

39'  42.  43.  53- 

36.  reg^la]  'the  palace,  as  at 
27.  5. 

37.  uig^emus  is  to  be  scanned 


uig'lemus,  as  it  was  probably  pro- 
nounced by  the  vulgar  tongue.  Cp. 
Ital.  vegliare,  Fr.  veilUr.  So  mediae 
in  41  is  a  dissyllable,  medjae. 

For  uigilemus  sobrie  cp.  20.  7  and 
the  introduction  to  this  hymn. 

38.  The  epithet  splendidas  is  of 
course  chosen  with  reference  to  the 
lampades  in  the  previous  stanzas, 
but  we  may  compare  Ecclus.  xxx.  2  7 
splendidum  cor;  Hor.  Od.  IV.  vii.  21 
splendida  Minos  \fecerit  arbitria. 

40.    Cp.  104.  46. 

41  f.   Acts  xvi.  25  f. 

42.  Sileas]  a  by- form  of  Silas. 
See  the  critical  notes  to  Wordsworth- 
White  Vulgate  Acts  xv.  22  etc.  ; 
cp.  Niceta  d€  Vigiliis  7  (p.  63,  ed. 
Burn)  Paulus  et  Sileas  in  custodia 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLII      211 

nobis  hie  mundus  career  est ;  45 

te  laudamus,  Christe  Deus ; 
solue  uinela  peceatorum 
in  te  sancte  credentium. 

dignos  nos  fac,  rex  hagie, 

uenturi  regni  gloria,  50 

aeternis  ut  mereamur 

te  laudibus  concinere. 

gloria  Patri  ingenito, 

gloria  unigenito, 

simul  cum  sancto  Spiritu  55 

in  sempiterna  saecula. 

45  mundus  hie  IS.  48  Christe  F^.  50  futuri  IK.     gloriae 

Hbdri  IS.  51  aeternas  Fs  Hbd  In  Vs.  52  tibi  laudes  Fs  Hbd 

In  Vs. 

publica  circa  medium  noctis  orantes  the  more  easily  because  it  seems  to 

hymnum  audientibus  uinctis  dixisse  have  been  retained  in  the  '  Holy, 

memorantur  ;  ubi  repente .. .omnium  Holy,  Holy,'  even  in  Latin-speaking 

uincula  sunt  soluta.  communities  :  see  Passio  S.  Perpet. 

45.  Cp.  40.  30  note.  §  12. 

46.  Cp.  line  22  and  the  first  50.  uenturi  regni  no  doubt  refers 
words  of  the  Te  Deiim.  In  later  to  the  petition  in  the  Lord's  Prayer, 
hymns  such  indicatives  were  often  adueniat  regnum  tuum,  cp.  44^.  3, 
toned  down  into  subjunctives.  though  we  find  inVerg.  ^^«.viii.637 

47.  Cp.  Prov.  V.  22  funihus  uenturi... cuui.  Blume  xtaAsfuturi 
peceatorum  suorum  constringitur ;  with  the  Bangor  Antiphonary  ;  but 
Sacr.  Greg.  p.  123  (ed.  Wilson)  et  this  may  have  been  a  gloss  in  the 
quos  delictoruiii  catena  constringit,  first  place,  or  the  scribe  may  not 
miseratio  tuae pietatis  absoluat.  have  seen  the  full  meaning  of  uen- 

48.  sancte]     Probably     sancte       turi. 

here  is  an  adverb,  qualifying  ere-  gloriae  is  perhaps  the  original,  a 

dentium,   rather    than    a   vocative.  gen.    being   sometimes   found  with 

Cp.  Niceta  de  Ps.  Bono  13  Deum...  dignus,  cp.  1.  15  note. 
humiliter  sancteque  iaudauerint.  51.    •  that  we  may  be  permitted' 

49.  hag^e]  see  44.    17,  84.   21.  etc.;  see  4.  8  note. 
Perhaps  the  use  of  this  word  came 

Hymn  42 

The  first  thing  that  strikes  us  in  this  ancient  hymn  is 
the  number  of  lines  defective  in  metre.  In  view  of  them 
Bede's  words, — (Keil  Gramm.  Lat.  Vll.  259)  quomodo  et 
ad  ins  tar  ianibici  inetri  piilcherrinic  factus  est  hymnus  ilk 

14—2 


212  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

praeclarus  Rex  aeterne  Dojuine, — seem  somewhat  strange. 
But  at  any  rate  the  first  Hne,  which  seems  to  us  defec- 
tive, stood  as  it  does  now  long  before  Bede's  time. 
Caesarius  gives  the  first  words  as  Rex  aeterne  domine. 

Caesarius  and  AureHan  of  Aries  prescribe  the  hymn 
die  dominica  ad  priinos  nocturnos^  Caesarius  adding  the 
rubric  alia  node  ad  primuni  nocturnnm  dicendum  est 
Mediae  noctis  tempus  est.  See  Blume  Cursus  p.  37. 
Originally  it  was  written  to  commemorate  the  whole 
redeeming  work  of  Christ ;  but  from  the  Xth  century 
onwards  the  first  seven  stanzas  were  taken  by  themselves 
to  form  an  Easter  hymn,  for  which  purpose  they  are  not 
especially  suited. 

The  hymn  seems  indeed  to  fall  into  two  parts.  In  the 
first  seven  stanzas  one  or  another  case  of  qui  constantly 
recurs :  in  the  following  stanzas  tu  {tibi,  te)  takes  its 
place.  Did  these  first  seven  stanzas  originally  constitute 
a  separate  hymn,  which  was  added  to  in  the  early 
hymnal,  but  adopted  by  itself  in  the  later  one  as  an 
Easter  hymn  ? 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  first  seven  contain  not  one 
spondee  in  the  fourth  foot,  the  others  two  or  three,  in  37, 
49  and  perhaps  53.  Would  Bede  have  thought  nothing 
of  this  ?  Also  St.  VIII  joins  on  rather  abruptly  to  st.  VII, 
with  its  introductory  nam. 

Aefg  {a  uersu  45)  EKadgosi?/*  Fhmrsu^  Gam  Hdk  Ibhmov  Vs 

Rex  aeterne  Domine, 
rerum  creator  omnium, 

I  sempiterne  {p7-o  aet.)  Vs. 

I.  Perhaps  we  should  with  Daniel  diphthong  in  aet.  into  two  syllables, 

read  O  rex,  laying  the  blame  on  the  and  likewise  in  saecula  {v.  3). 

rubricator  of  the  archetype.    Knot,  2.   creator]   Cp.  the  note  on  1.  8 

we    must    presumably  resolve   the  factor. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLII     213 

qui  es  ante  saecula 
semper  cum  Patre  Filius ; 

qui  mundi  in  primordio  5 

Adam  plasmasti  hominem, 
cui  tuae  imaginis 
uultum  dedisti  similem ; 

quem  diabolus  deceperat, 

hostis  humani  generis,  10 

cuius  tu  formani  corporis 

adsumere  dignatus  es, 

ut  hominem  redimeres, 

quem  ante  iam  plasmaueras, 

et  nos  Deo  coniungeres  15 

per  carnis  contubemium. 

3  eras  Ed  Hd*k  Ib^  Vs^  7  cuius  Hk.     imagini  Ead^ij  Fhm  Gm 

Ihv  Vs,  imagine  E/a'  (tu  -ne  Hk),  imaginem  Es.  9  satanas  {.pro 

diab.)  Hd-.  11  cui  Iv.  13  redemeris  EXo  F^  Hk.  15  ut  EN. 

3.    es]    Perhaps  we  should  with  writers,    zahultts.     See    Ronsch   p. 

later    Mss    read   eras,    or   possibly  457,  41.  37  note. 
{nuiti\es,  as  in  Hilary  Hymn.  l.  i .  deceperat]  '  ruined,'  '  destroyed,' 

Cassander's  es  et  seems  to  be  due  the  usual  meaning  of  the  word  in 

to  his  own  conjecture.  late  Latin  ;  cp.  Juvenc.  Ii.  598  con- 

ante  saecula]  1.  8.  ciliis  trucibus  comlamant  decipien- 

5.  in  primordio]  'in  the  begin-  </«/«;  C.  I.  Z.  v.  ^7,-ji  pairiimom- 
ning,'  cp.  73.  3.  The  word  is  very  parabili  dicepto  a  Daciscis  in  bello; 
rare  in  the  singular.  Lucretius  and  C.  /.  L.  ix.  5012  hie  est  Simplicius, 
others  use  it  in  the  plural,  but  not  mxm  future  mersus  acerbo...prae- 
so  freely  as  exordia.  clams   sfttdiis,   primis  deceptus    in 

6.  plasmasti]  '  didst  fashion ' ;  annis.  See  Lofstedt  Spdtl.  Studien 
derived  from  -KKwaanv  through  p.  72.  Cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  v.  62  eo 
xXao-jiia,  found  in  the  Vulgate  at  quod  primus  amor  fefellerit  earn 
Job  X.  8  manus  tuae  plasmauerunt  dilecti  morte  deceptam  ;  Aug.  Conf. 
me  etc. ;  Ambr.  de  Farad.  5  quem  x.  46  scis  Esau  lenticulae  concupis- 
plasmauerat ;     Prud.     Apoth.     864  centia  deceptum. 

plasmasse .. .corporis  effigiem  ;    Fort.  Between  10  and  11  two  MSS,  Ed 

V.  vi.  3  plasmnta  est  Eua.  See  23.  and    Hk,   insert   the  two   couplets 

10  note  ;  Ronsch  253.  following,— /Vr/V/«««  ligni  uetiti  \ 

7  f.   Gen.  i.  27.  <:«/ is  a  dissyllable  mortis  propinans  poculum.  \  quique 

as  at  4.  25  note.  clausus  in  tenebris  \  gemebat  in  sup- 

iTti^TiiH  is  the  gen.  after  similem.  pliciis. 

9.     Gen.    iii.    if.     diabolus  is   a  11.   Cp.  36.  32. 

trisyllable:    this  pronunciation   ac-  16.  contubemium]  an  instance  of 

counts  for   the   form   of  the   word  a  word  ennobled  by  its  religious  use. 

found    in    Commodian    and    other  To  a  Roman  ear  it  generally  meant 


214 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


quern  editum  ex  uirgine 
pauescit  omnis  anima, 
per  quem  nos  resurgere 
deuota  mente  credimus. 

qui  nobis  per  baptismata 
donasti  indulgentiam, 
qui  tenebamur  uinculis 
ligati  conscientiae. 

qui  crucem  propter  hominem 
suscipere  dignatus  es, 
dedisti  tuum  sanguinem 
nostrae  salutis  pretium. 


20 


25 


19  et  nos  Ibv,  omnes  Vs. 
24  conscientia  EXs  Ga  Hk  lo. 

either  companionship  in  a  military 
tent  or  the  so-called  marriage  of 
slaves.  But  cp.  Wisd.  viii.  3  \sa- 
pientid\  contubernium  habens  Dei : 
so  this  line  means  'by  Thy  dwelling 
among  men.'  Perhaps  the  writer  is 
thinking  of  Joh.  i.  14  koX  6  \670j... 
iffKTjvwaev  iv  rj/uv. 

18.  pauescit  0.  a.]  Cp.  Phil.  ii. 
10  f. 

19.  Probably  ^uem  is  to  be 
scanned  as  a  dissyllable.  See  an  in- 
teresting tract  by  A.  M.  Harmon, 
'  The  Clausula  in  Ammianus  Mar- 
cellinus,'  in  which  he  shews  that  u 
may  count  as  a  syllable  in  the 
combination  qu- ;  that,  out  of  71 
clausulae  of  Ammian  in  which  a 
word  containing  qu-  appears,  the  u 
counts  as  a  syllable  in  35  of  these, 
while  in  36  it  does  not ;  and  that 
the  relative  pronoun  is  oftener  a 
dissyllable  than  a  monosyllable. 
Thus  we  have  i.  vii.  5  relaturi  quae 
audirent ;  I.  xcvi.  3  iste  quem  ui- 
demus.  In  accordance  with  these 
facts  we  find  reliquiis  and  aqiid ; 
cp.  Lachmann's  Lucretius,  p.  305, 
Munro  on  Lucr.  I.  560,  Ritschl  on 
Plaut.'TV/w.  14,  Lindsay  Lat.  Lan- 
guage p.  87.  See  also  the  note  on 
r;/i'4.  '25. 


21  baptismum  EKasj;  Gam  Hd'k. 

nos  resurgere] '  that  we  shall  rise 
again,'  We  should  according  to  rule 
have  the  future,  but  resurrecturos 
would  be  a  cumbersome  word  and 
could  not  be  fitted  into  the  verse. 
Both  in  ante-  and  post-classical  Latin 
thepresent  inf.  is  freely  used  for  future 
events  after  credo  and  like  verbs ; 
cp.  89.  18,  Fort.  Vit.  Mart,  i,  343 
credit  stare.  The  present  tense  gives 
a  more  general  sense  :  '  we  believe 
in  our  rising  again.' 

20.  deu.  mente]  '  devoutly ' ; 
the  mente  is  on  its  way  to  become 
the  adverbial  -nieiit,  -mente,  of  the 
Romance  languages. 

21.  If  we  read  baptismum,  qui 
again  will  be  dissyllabic ;  but  bap- 
tismata of  the  later  Mss  is  probably 
right.  The  plural  is  peculiar,  hut 
is  used  by  Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  11.  187 
ac  sua  perdiderint  baptismata  cri- 
mine  vtersi ;  Ambr.  in  Luc.  I.  35 
baptismata  populis  frequentata.  It 
seems  to  mean  baptism  as  applied 
to  each  penitent  in  succession ;  cp. 
Heb.  vi.  2  baptismatum  doctrinae. 

22.  indulgentiam]  'pardon,'  as 
at  86.  II,  94.  24. 

24.  conscientiae]  'a  bad  con- 
science,' 'consciousness  of  guilt,'  as 
at  98.  5. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLII      215 


nam  uelum  templi  scissum  est 
et  omnis  terra  tremuit, 
tu  multos  dormientium 
resuscitasti,  Domine. 
tu  hostis  antiqui  uires 
per  crucem  mortis  conterens, 
qua  nos  signati  frontibus 
uexillum  fidei  ferimus. 


30 


35 


tu  ilium  a  nobis  semper 

repellere  dignaueris, 

ne  umquam  possit  laedere 

redemptos  tuo  sanguine.  40 

qui  propter  nos  ad  inferos 

descendere  dignatus  es, 

29  nam  et  Hk.  31  tunc  multis  Eo  F^.  34  crucis  morte  Hk. 

conteris  Eo  F^  (-es  Vs).  35  signasti  Hk.  37  semper  a  n.  Vs. 

38  dignaberis  Ed. 

antiquus  of  Rev.  xii.  9,  xx.  i.  Often 
in  Bade. 

34.  crucem  mortlB] '  the  cross  of 
death,'  i.e.  on  which  Thou  didst  die. 

conterens]  in  fulfilment  of  Gen. 
iii.  15  il>sa  conteret  caput  tuum; 
cp.  Rom.  xvi.  ao  Dctis . . .conterat 
Satanam. 

35.  Cp.  26.  7  note. 
l().    uexUlom]    '  the    ensign,'   6. 

15  note,  26.  ii,  34.  i  note,  Victor 
Vitensis  Hist.  Persec.  I.  43  cuius 
cum  diu  cu  satpitis  tibias  torquendo 
iinnientihus  constringerent  (\Ji\i)rdis 
et  front  em,  in  qua  Christ  us  uexillum 
suae  fixerat  crucis. 

38.  dignaueris] 'do  Thou  deign,' 
perf.  subjunctive.  The  active  form 
digno  is  rare,  but  used  by  some  early 
and  late  writers.  As  however  the 
deponent  digiior  is  used  in  lines  n, 
26  and  42  of  this  hymn,  perhaps  we 
should  here  read  dignaberis.  The 
future  indicative  may  have  seemed 
strange  to  copyists,  but  would  be 
like  such  phrases  as  Ps.  xi.  (xii.)  8 
tu  Domine  seruaiis  nos. 

40.    Cp.  Rev.  V.  9,  Te  Denm  10. 


26.  suscipere]  Cp.32.  18,  Lact. 
Diu.  Inst.  w.  xix.  11  nisi...illam 
crucem  portandam  patiendamqiie  sus- 
ceperit.  The  word  is  perhaps  chosen 
with  reference  to  Christ's  own  words 
Mt.  xvi.  24  toll  at  crucem. 

28.  pretdum]  see  33.  28  note, 
I  Cor.  vi.  20,  vii.  23.  At  this  point 
the  hymn  ends  in  all  but  the  early 
MSS. 

29.  Mt.  xxvii.  51,  1.  43. 
nam]  '  moreover,'  '  then,'  used  as 

a  mere  particle  of  transition  to  an- 
other point,  as  at  Fort.  ix.  x.  13. 
We  find  it  with  almost  the  adversa- 
tive force  of  '  but,'  '  whereas,'  at 
Commodian  Apol.  256  sicut  erat 
scriptum,  quod  aues  sua  tempora 
norunt,  \  nam  populus  iste  non  me 
intellexit  adesse  ;  Fort.  iv.  xxvi.  30 
forma  peril  hominum,  nam  bene- 
facta  manent;  vii.  vii.  14. 

31.  For  the  repeated  tu  in  this 
and  the  following  lines  cp.  note  on 

1-  3- 

32.  resuscitasti]  Cp.  1.  24,  86. 
13,  104.  8. 

33.  hostis  antiqui]  the  serpens 


2i6  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

ut  mortis  debitoribus 
uitae  donares  munera. 

tibi  noctumo  tempore  45 

hymnum  deflentes  canimus, 
ignosce  nobis,  Domine, 
ignosce  confitentibus. 

quia  tu  testis  et  iudex  es, 

quem  nemo  potest  fallere,  50 

secreta  conscientiae 

nostrae  uidens  uestigia. 

tu  qui  nostrorum  pectorum 

solus  inuestigator  es, 

tu  uulnerum  latentium  55 

bonus  adsistis  medicus. 

tu  es  qui  certo  tempore 
daturus  finem  saeculi, 
...  tu  pro  cunctorum  meritis 

iustus  remunerator  es.  60 

43  morti  Vs,  mortem  F^  Hk.  44  donaris  ENo  Hk.  45  matutino 
(pro  noct. )  Aefg  EK  A's.  49  q.  ipse  es  (est  Af)  t.  et  i.  Af  Vs,  q.  tu  ipse 
t.  et  i.  es  Fs  [om.  es  Eo),  q.  tu  ipse  t.  es  et  i.  es  Hk.  52  nostra  EK  F^ 

(-am  Vs).  53  addidi  qui.    peccatorum  Hk.  56  assiste  Eo^, 

assistens  Eo^.  58  saeculo  F^t.  59  addidi  pro.   et  tu  V's. 

43.  mortis  debitor  is  a  variation  tu  ?  qui  would  easily  drop  out  after 
of  the  usual  reus  mortis  oi  Mt.  xxvi.  tu.  inuestigator  (Prov.  xi.  27)  goes 
66,  105.  18,  30  etc.  well  with  either  pectorum  or  pecca- 

44.  munera]  '  the  gift,'  plural.  torum.    The  spondee  in  the  fourth 

45.  At  this  point  some  of  the  foot  would  not  stand  alone  in  this 
Ambrosian  MSS  begin  a  new  hymn.  part  of  the  hymn. 

46.  deflentes]  Cp.  31.  38  note.  55.    uulnerum]    Cp.  66,  19.  16 
49.   quia]  a  monosyllable,  as  at      note. 

41.  34.  56.  adsistis,  as  at  66.  4,  has  some 

testis]  Rev.  i.  5,  iii.  14;  but  here  of  its  later  sense  of  '  assisting.'  The 

it  seems  10  mean  that  Christ  is  an  title  of  the  bonus  medicus  probably 

eyewitness  of  all  that  men  do.  comes  from  Mark  ii.  1 7  and  parallels, 

52.  uestigia]  'the  lowest  depths';  influenced  by  John  x.  11. 

as  Ambr.   in  Ps.  xxxix.   i  animi  59.     Perhaps  we  should  read  tu 

nostri  interiora  uestigia.  pro  cunctorum  meritis  ;  cp.  85.  i  x  f. 

53.  Should  we  read  peccatorum  reddetts  uicem  pro  abditis  \  iustisque 
with  later  MSS,  or  tu  qui  nos-  regnum  pro  bonis;  86.  15  non  pro 
trorum  pectorum,   or   possibly   tu,  reatu  ptiniat.     For   the   sense   cp. 


EA  RLIER  H  YMNAL.   H  YMN  XLIII     2 1 7 

te  ergo,  sancte,  quaesumus, 

ut  nostra  cures  uulnera, 

.  qui  es  cum  Patre  Filius 

semper  cum  sancto  Spiritu. 

I   Cor.    V.    10,    Heb.    xi,    6,    Rev.  more   than   doubtful    if    the    word 

ii.  23.  ever  bears  this  meaning  in  classical 

mentis]  'deserts,'  whether  good  writers,    except    Liv.   xxi.   8   dum 

or  bad.                                   _  uulnus  duels  curaretur,  and  even 

61.  sancte]   Cp.  32.  18  note.  this  may  mean  'while. ..was  being 

62.  cures]   'cure,'   'heal.'    It  is  treated.'   Cp.  <-«ra  in  37.  19. 

Hymn  43 
The  sense  of  43,  which  is  handed  down  in  just  three 
IXth  century  MSS,  is  difficult  and  the  grammar  abnormal. 
This  difficulty  seems  to  have  arisen  from  the  misplace- 
ment of  the  lines,  for  on  a  re-arrangement  it  disappears, 
and  the  hymn  runs  smoothly. 

[The  lines  as  given  in  Blume  Qirsus  113  read  thus: 

Tempus  noctis  surgentibus, 

laudes  Deo  dicentibus 

Christo  lesiique  Domino 

in  trinitatis  gloria, 

choro  sanctorum  psallimus, 

ceruices  nostras  flectimus 

uel  genua  prosterninms 

peccata  confitentibus. 

oremus  Deo  iugiter, 

uincamtis  in  bono  malum, 

cum.  fructu  paenitentiae 

uotum  perenni  reddere. 

Christum  rogemus  et  patrem 

sanctum  patrisque  spiritum, 

ut  det  nobis  auxilium, 

uincamus  hostem  iuuidum. 
Perhaps  the  transposition  is  less  effective  in  removing 
difficulties  than  Mr  Walpole  thought.] 


2l8 


EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 


The  hymn  In  matutinis  surgitmis  is  a  Mozarabic  re- 
casting of  43.  Daniel  I.  3  takes  it  from  Thomasius,  who 
in  turn  exactly  copies  the  inferior  text  of  the  breviary 
of  Ortiz  of  1502.  Blume  prints  it  more  correctly  from 
the  Xth  century  MS,  Madrid  1005  hh  60,  Analecta 
XXVII.  71. 

Eo  Fai/' 
Tempus  noctis  surgentibus, 
laudes  Deo  dicentibus, 
Christo  lesuque  Domino 
peccata  confitentibus, 

in  Trinitatis  gloria  5 

chorus  sanctorum  psallimus, 
ceruices  nostras  flectimus 
uel  genua  prosternimus. 


oremus  Deo  iugiter, 
ut  det  nobis  auxilium, 
uincamus  hostem  inuidum, 
uincamus  in  bono  malum. 


10 


2  laudis  Fa. 
bonis  Fa. 


3  Christi  Fa. 


6  choro  Fa^. 


9  deum  Eo. 


T .  '  Rising  at  night-time.'  tempus 
is  hardly  to  be  distinguished  from 
tempore,  which  would  stand  here 
in  a  classical  writer;  cp.  55.  lo 
quod,  '  at  which,'  60.  4  ttenturam 
HOC  tern. 

surgentibus,  dicentibus  (in  2), 
confitentibus  (in  4)  are  abl.'s  abso- 
lute, though  they  refer  to  the  subject 
of  the  finite  verbs  psallimus  etc. ; 
cp.  33.  17  note.  The  confitentibus 
might  have  the  same  construction 
at  the  end  of  stanza  n,  though  to 
us  it  seems  more  harsh  to  return  to 
the  odd  construction  after  once  get- 
ting clear  of  it. 

3.  -que  is  misplaced,  as  at  34.  24, 
and  comes  in  most  awkwardly,  if 
we  keep  the  MS  order  of  the  lines. 
In  the  proposed  rearrangement  the 


meaning  is  clear:  'and  confessing 
our  sins  to  Christ  Jesus  the  Lord.' 
In  either  place  Christus-lesns  is 
treated  as  a  single  name. 

5.  'in  our  praise  of  the  Trinity' ; 
gloria  as  at  40.  34  and  often.  There 
is  not  much  difference  in  Latin  of 
this  kind  between  in  gloria  and  in 
gloriam. 

6.  sanctorum]  i.e.  of  believers ; 
cp.  15.  i\  note. 

8.    uel]  '  and,'  as  at  37.  6. 

genua  prosternimus  is  an  unusual 
phrase  for  kneeling,  derived  from  the 
frequent  use  in  the  Vulgate  of  pro- 
sterno  to  express  the  eastern  prostra- 
tion of  the  whole  body,  cp.  Dan. 
iii.  6,  10  etc. 

11.  hostem  inuidum]  3.  14,  5.  27. 

12.  'That  we  may  overcome  evil 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLIV     219 

Christum  rogemus  et  Patrem 

sanctum  Patrisque  Spiritum, 

cum  fructu  paenitentiae  15 

uotum  perenni  reddere. 


13 


Christo  Fa. 


with  good,'  Rom.  xii.  21,  cp.  80.  ^o. 
The  use  of  in  to  express  the  instru- 
ment is  biblical. 

13  comes  from  6.  30,  cp.  65.  33. 
Notice  the  substitution  oi  sanctuniior 
Ambrose's  Chrhti.  The  Mozarabic 
version  referred  to  in  the  introduc- 
tion exactly  reproduces  5.  30,  and  in 
the  following  line  substitutes  repellat 
for  nincamns  :  perhaps  to  avoid  the 
sudden  change  of  subject. 


16  uota  Fa,  uoto  F^. 

16.  reddere  may  be  translated 
■•pay.'  In  the  MS  order  the  inf. 
depends  upon  uincamus,  as  at  Rev. 
V.  5  tiicit  leo...aperire  libriim.  But 
here  this  construction  would  be  ex- 
tremely harsh,  owing  to  the  inter- 
vening words.  If  reddere  uotum  is 
transferred  to  the  end,  it  would 
seem  to  mean  ut  reddanius:  uotum 
will  then  mean  •  our  desire.' 


Hymn  44 

This  poetical  hymn  is  not  mentioned  by  Caesarius 
or  Aurelian,  but  early  became  the  office  hymn  for 
Mattins  on  Sunday.  Probably  the  first  four  stanzas  are 
addressed  to  God  the  Father,  the  direct  invocation  of 
Christ  not  coming  until  stanza  V ;  see  the  note  on  3. 
But  sator  in  verse  2  may  be  vocative,  in  which  case  the 
address  to  Christ  begins  at  that  point. 

Eo  Fa^  [ad  8)  Hr  [in  parte) 

Deus,  qui  caeli  lumen  es 
satorque  lucis,  qui  polum 
paterno  fultiim  bracchio 

I  certe  (pro  caeli)  Fa.     est  Fa.  2  populum  Fa.  3  fultus  F^^, 

fluctus  Fa. 

I  note)  and  other  similar  words, 
sator  lost  its  special  meaning :  cp. 
68.  I  sator... temporum',  Arnob.  adu. 
Nat.  I.  34  sator  saeculorum  ac  tem- 
porum ;  ib.  II.  25. 

3.  fultum]  'firmly  set.'  The 
firmament  was  supposed  to  be  solid 
and  propped  upon  mountains  at 
either  end ;  sec  the  diagram  in 
Hastings  Diet,  of  Bible  l.  503. 


1.  caeli  lumen]  Rev.  xxi.  23, 
cp.  xxii.  5. 

2.  sator]  'creator,'  or  'father,' 
lit.  'sower.'  Perhaps  the  word  is 
chosen,  because  light  and  fire  were 
thought  to  spring  from  seeds ;  cp. 
27.  7  note,  Prud.  Cath.  ill.  i  o  crn- 
cifer  bone  Itidsator,  Fort.  V.  ii.  3  ut 
tenebras  anirnae  lux  sementiiia  fu- 
garet.    However,  like  inuentor  (27. 


220 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


praeclara  pandis  dextera ; 

Aurora  Stellas  iam  tegit 
rubrum  sustoUens  gurgitem, 
umectis  namque  flatibus 
terram  baptizans  roribus. 

currus  iam  poscit  Phosphorus 
radiis  rotisque  flammeis, 
quod  caeli  scandens  uerticem 
profectus  moram  nesciens. 


5  auroram  Fa.     teget  Fa.  8  terra  Fa. 

12  profectis  moris  Fa. 

'  The  arm  of  the  Lord '  is  a  meta- 
phor frequently  found  in  the  O.T., 
as  at  Exod.  vi.  6.  If  sator  is  taken 
as  nom.,  paterno  will  be  '  Thy  fatherly 
arm ' ;  if  as  voc,  '  Thy  Father's.' 

4.  pandis]  Cp.  Ps.  ciii.  (civ.)  2 
'  Thou...spreadest  out  the  heavens 
like  a  curtain.'  Job  ix.  8,  Is.  xl.  22, 
xlii.  5,  xliv.  24,  li.  13,  Jer.  x.  12. 
Here  however  pandis  seems  to  de- 
note the  opening  of  the  curtain  to 
give  light ;  cp.  46.  4,  1.  43. 

5  f.  '  Dawn  now  shrouds  the 
stars,  uplifting  her  ruddy  flood,  for 
with  damp  blasts  she  bedews  the 
earth.' 

Aurora  is  personified,  as  generally 
in  the  Latin  poets.  And  just  as  the 
darkness  is  regarded  as  a  material 
substance  (21.  5),  so  also  the  light 
(46.  7).  Arabr.  Hex.  IV.  11  implies 
the  objective  existence  of  a  man's 
shadow  uidemus  umbram  uel  homi- 
nis  uel  uirgulti  alicuius  a  lumine 
separari. .  .estenim,  ut  per  Mores  pro- 
bauerunt, . . .  umbra  terrae.  The  flood 
of  light  being  brought  up  from  ocean 
(Verg.  Aen.  iv.  129,  xil.  114  alto 
se  gurgite  tollunt  \  solis  equi)  is  of  a 
watery  nature. 

7.  namque  introduces  the  clause 
that  explains  this  use  of  gurgitem 
'a  flood  of  light':  elsewhere  gur- 
ges  means  'a  water-flood,'  as  at 
31.  41,  77.  3.  namque,  used  as 
it  is  here,  with  a  participle  instead 


1 1  celis  cadens  Fa. 


of  a  finite  verb,  seems  to  be  con- 
sidered as  synonymous  with  the 
kindred  nempe,  in  which  the  con- 
junctive force  is  often  lost,  and 
treated  a.s  =  scilicet,  quippe;  cp. 
Sedul.  Carm.  i.  78  totum  namque 
lauans  uno  baptismate  mundum. 
Otherwise  the  grammar  might  be 
helped  by  putting  only  a  comma  at 
roribus  and  attaching  baptizans  to 
Phosphorus.  But  the  free  use  of  the 
pres.  part,  instead  of  the  pres.  indie, 
is  remarkable  in  our  hymn ;  so  12 
nescietts,  16  suscitans. 

9.  '  Now  Phosphorus  calls  for 
his  chariot  with  flaming  spokes  and 
wheels,  because  in  his  ascent  to  the 
height  of  heaven  (i.e.  to  his  zenith) 
his  progress  knows  no  delay.' 

Phosphorus  (#w(r</>6poj,  the  light- 
bringer),  the  Latin  Ltuijer,  usually 
denotes  Venus  the  morning-star, 
but  here  seems  to  be  used  of  the 
sun.    Cp.  2  Pet.  i.  19. 

10  radiis]  '  spokes,'  as  at  Verg. 
Georg.  II.  444  radios  triuere  rotis; 
but  the  sun's  spokes  are  his  rays. 

12.  profectus,  if  a  substantive,  is 
hora  projicio,  and  is  here  either  nomi- 
native, or  genitive  after  moram,  '  his 
progress  is  unacquainted  with  delay,' 
or  'is  unacquainted  with  any  delay 
of  his  progress.' 

nesciens]  For  this  use  of  the  word 
cp.  3.  20,  28.  Pres.  part,  for  pres. 
indie,    this    time    combined    with 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLIVb    221 

iam  noctis  umbra  linquitur, 

polum  caligo  deserit, 

typusque  Christi  Lucifer  15 

diem  sopitum  suscitans. 

dies  dierum  hagius  es 

lucisque  lumen  ipse  es, 

unum  potens  per  omnia, 

potens  in  unum  Trinitas.  20 

te  nunc,  Saluator,  qliaesumus 
tibique  genu  flectimus : 
Patrem  cum  sancto  Spiritu 
totis  rogamus  uiribus. 

13  linquetur  Fa.  14  populum  Fa.  21  tunc  (pro  te)  Fa. 

qttod.   Not  unlike  is  Fort.  II.  ix.  64  20.    It  is  difficult  to  see  what  the 

horrea  quando  quideni  cottstruitura  writer  meant  by  these  lines.  Unlike 

Dei.  Atnbr. ,  he  seems  to  mean  Christ  by 

13.    linquitiu:]    'we    leave    the  unum  potens  per  omnia,  but  then 

shade    of  night ' ;    or   perhaps   '  it  influenced    by   the   recollection    of 

fails,'  'fades  away.'    Ovid  Her.  11.  Ambr.'s  hymn,  proceeds  to  identify 

130  uses  linquor  of  '  fainting.'  this  'one  Almighty' with  the  Trinity. 

15.  'And  Lucifer,  the  type  of  The  effect  is  somewhat  Sabellian. 
Christ,  awakens  the  day  from  its  Line  ao,  in  relation  to  19,  seems  to 
slumber.'  Like  Phosphorus  in  9,  mean  that,  as  the  Divine  power  ex- 
Lucifer  is  the  sun  ;  see  2.  9  note,  tends  over  all  things,  so  this  un- 
and  contrast  46.  5  f.  divided  power  resides  in  a  Trinity. 

17.  dies  dienun]  3.  4.  Probably  in  unum  is  to  be  taken  in 
hagius]  '  the  holy  one ' ;  see  note  its  adverbial  sense,  as  in  Ps.  xlviii. 

on  32.   18  sancte.    Or  possibly  'O  3,  cxxxii.  i,  Joh.  xi.  51,  xvii.  33, 

holy  one'   (nom.  for  voc),  'Thou  Acts  ix.  13  and  elsewhere, 
art  the  day  of  our  days.'    We  have  21.  quaesamusandin  24r<!^amwj 

had  hagius  ^t  41.  49.  {as  at  69.  3,  98.  11)  are  without  the 

18.  '  Thou  Thyself  art  the  light  usual  complement  expressing  that 
of  (all  earthly)  light ' ;  cp.  3.  3.  which  is  prayed  for. 

19  is  identical  with  8.  31.  24.   Xa\,'ia\  =  omnibus ,  as  at  13.  27. 

Hymn  44B 

The  following  hymn,  consisting  of  a  paraphrase  of  the 
Lord's  Prayer,  is  regarded  by  Blume,  against  Daniel  and 
Sievers,  as  an  integral  part  of  44.  But  the  last  stanza  of 
that  hymn  is  a  doxology,  and  forms  as  fitting  a  conclu- 
sion to  it,  as  the  next  stanza  Pater,  qui  caelos  contines. 


222  EA  RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

etc.,  makes  a  fitting  beginning  of  a  new  hymn, — a 
beginning  of  the  same  character  as  those  of  other  hymns 
of  this  series,  with  Pater  of  course  substituted  for  the 
usual  Deiis ;  see  the  first  Hnes  of  44,  57,  59  respectively. 

The  four  stanzas  of  44b  are,  to  be  sure,  written  in  the 
MSS  as  if  they  belonged  to  the  hymn  Deus  qui  caeli 
lumen  es.  But  this  has  happened  in  other  cases  as  well. 
Thus  the  Bern  MS  455  makes  one  continuous  hymn  of 
100  Meridie  orandum  ist,  99  Dei  fide  qua  uiuinius,  and 
54  Perfectutn  trinum  numerum ;  and  two  Mozarabic  MSS 
write  41  Mediae  noctis  ternpus  est  as  if  it  were  a  continua- 
tion of  the  hymn  lesu  defensor  omnium.  The  same  has  • 
happened  also  in  other  poems.  Propert.  III.  iv  and  v  are 
written  as  one  piece  in  the  MSS ;  Hor.  Epist.  I.  xvii  and 
xviii  in  many. 

To  support  his  argument  Blume  emphasizes  the  use 
of  the  Te  Deum  made  in  49  Christe  caeli  Domine.  But 
the  two  cases  are  not  parallel.  In  the  present  case  the 
paraphrase  of  the  Lord's  Prayer  contained  in  44b  is 
simply  tacked  on  to  44,  whereas  parts  of  the  Te  Deum, 
are  interwoven  into  the  very  texture  of  49  throughout. 

If  further  argument  for  separating  the  two  poems  were 
required,  it  might  be  found  in  the  respective  styles. 
While  44  is  full  of  imagery,  delights  in  unusual  words, 
and  abounds  in  grammatical  conundrums,  44b  is  abso- 
lutely simple  and  free  from  rhetorical  ornament. 

Eo  Fa 

Pater,  qui  caelos  contines, 

cantemus  nunc  nomen  tuum ; 

adueniat  regnum  tuum, 

fiatque  uoluntas  tua. 

I  contenis  Eo  Fa.  4  om.  que  Fa. 

I.    contines]  39.  15,  48.  5,  cp.  18.  2.   cantemns]  a  restricted  inter- 

I  note.  pretation  oi  sanctificetur. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLV      223 

haec,  inquam,  uoluntas  tua  5 

nobis  agenda  traditur : 

simus  fideles  spiritu, 

casto  manentes  corpore. 

panem  nostrum  cotidie 

de  te  edendum  tribue ;  10 

remitte  nobis  debita, " 

ut  nos  nostris  remittimus. 

temptatione  subdola 

indiici  nos  ne  siueris, 

sed  puro  corde  supplices  15 

tu  nos  a  nmlo  libera. 


7  sumus  fidili  Fa. 
14  sineris  Eo  Fa. 

5.  inquam] '  I  say,'  often  used  at 
the  repetition  of  the  same  word  or 
thought,  cp.  Ezek.  iv.  6  diem  pro 
anno,  diem  inquam  pro  anno ; 
Lucr.  II.  256  unde  haec  animantibus 
exstat,  I  unde  est  haec  inquam  fatis 
auolsa  uoluntas. 

6.  traditur]  The  tradition  of  the 
Church  teaches  it  us,  that  we  may 
work  it  out. 

7.  8  are  adapted  from  3.  18,  and 
8  recurs  at  46.  22. 

manentes] '  ever  abiding. '  nianeo 
was  a  favourite  word  in  late  Latin 
writers,  often  meaning  little  more 
than  sum,  especially  in  the  pres. 
participle,  which  is  wanting  in  sum 
(112.  26).  The  line  tacitly  con- 
trasts our  earthly  state  with  the 
heavenly. 

10.  de  te  edendum]  cp.  100.  3 
ut  ittbeat  nos  edere  \  de  suo  sancto 
corpore.   This  spiritualisation  of  the 


1 2  remittemus  Fa. 


13  temptalio  Fa. 


clause  was  already  traditional  when 
Tertullian  wrote  his  de  Oratione. 

11.  debita]  Cp.  Mt.  xviii.  27, 
Anibr.  Tob.  15  graue  uocabulum 
debitorum.  debita  peccata  dicuntur, 
debitores  quoque  criminosi  appellan- 
tur\  86.  \o  laxare patis  debitum. 

12.  nostris]  debitoribus ;  or  per- 
haps simply  'to  men  of  our  own 
kind.' 

1 3.  *  SuflTer  us  not  to  be  led  on 
by  treacherous  temptation.'  ^low- 
ever,  as  induco  is  usually  followed 
by  a  word  or  words  expressing  that 
into  which  one  is  led  astray,  and  as 
up  to  this  point  the  wording  of  the 
hymn  has  closely  followed  the 
original  of  Mt.  vi.  9  f.,  perhaps  the 
writer  intended  the  abl.  to  be 
governed  by  the  /'//  in  induct.  The 
difference  between  ace.  and  abl. 
after  in  tended  to  disappear,  like 
that  between  e/s  and  iv. 


Hymn  45 
This  beautiful  and  evidently  ancient  hymn  has  had  a 
remarkable  history.    It  comes  in  no  hymnal  or  breviary 
earlier  than  the  XVth  century,  nor  in  any  MS  of  what- 
ever kind  before  the  Xlth  century,  those  wiiich  contain  it 


224  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

being  generally  collections  of  poems  and  hymns.  Yet  of 
its  antiquity  there  can  be  little  doubt ;  and  to  judge  by 
its  contents  and  style  it  may  have  been  written  by  the 
author  of  44,  46,  47,  50, — if  indeed  these  were  all  written 
by  one  man.  Like  them  it  is  a  happy  copy  of  the 
Ambrosian  hymns,  in  style  though  not  in  scansion,  and 
is  especially  based  upon  2  Splendor  paternae  gloriae. 
Blume  is  of  opinion  that  48  and  49  were  also  the  work 
of  the  same  writer.  But  the  character  of  these  hymns 
seems  to  be  wholly  different  in  respect  of  their  subject- 
matter,  style  and  prosody. 

Most  of  the  codices  that  contain  45  give  Hilary  of 
Poitiers  as  the  author ;  but  it  is  strikingly  unlike  those 
hymns  of  his  which  Gamurrini  discovered  and  published 
(see  the  introduction  to  i,  p.  2),  and  it  is  most  unlikely 
that  he  wrote  it. 

[No  textual  notes  are  here  given.  The  hymn  is  not 
contained  in  any  of  the  MSS  which  Walpole  collated. 
The  reader  is  referred  to  Blume  Cursus  p.  115.] 

Lucis  largitor  splendide, 
cuius  serene  lumine 
post  lapsa  noctis  tempera 
dies  refusus  panditur, 

tu  uerus  mundi  lucifer,  5 

nen  is  qui  parui  sideris 

I.    largitor]  'generous giver,' 98.  with  the  genitive.    The  variant  op- 

I,  107.  18.  time  would  come  from  66.  i,  73.  i. 

splendide   seems   to  be    on   the  2.     sereno]   '  bright,'   see   10.    % 

whole    better   than   splendidae.     It  note. 

matches  with  the  similar  verse  of  5  f .   'Thou  the  world's  true  morn- 

46,    aeterne    lucis   conditor,  and   is  ing  star, — not  he  who,  the  herald 

probably  an  allusion  to  3.  i  splendor  of  the  light  to  come,  shines  with  a 

paternae    gloriae,    though    this    is  small  star's  tiny  gleam,  but  brighter 

brought  out  more  at  line  14.     On  than   all   the   sun.   Thyself  art   all 

the   other  hand    splendidae   would  light  and  day, — lightening  the  in- 

give   a  good  sense   and  would    be  ward  fibres  of  our  hearts.'   The  first 

like  47.    i,  where  the  epithet  goes  three  stanzas  are  taken  up  with  the 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLV      225 

uenturae  lucis  nuntius 
angusto  fulget  lumine, 

sed  toto  sole  clarior 

lux  ipse  totus  et  dies,  10 

interna  nostri  pectoris 

inluminans  praecordia : 

adesto,  rerum  conditor, 

paternae  lucis  gloria, 

cuius  amota  gratia  15 

nostra  patescunt  corpora ; 

tuo  quae  plena  Spiritu 

secum  Deum  gestantia 

nil  rapientis  perfidi 

diris  pateant  fraudibus,  20 


invocation,  the  prayer  itself  does 
not  come  until  line  13.  In  some  of 
Horace's  Odes  e.g.  iv.  iv  the  apo- 
dosis  is  deferred  to  a  very  late  place. 
Incifer]  here  the  star,  and  not 
the  sun  as  at  44.  15. 

6.  The  writer  perhaps  has  in 
mind  Prud.  Cath.v.  129 f.  nonsicut 
tenebras  de  face  fiilgida  \  surgens 
oceano  Lucifer  inbuit,  \  sed  terris 
Domini  de  cruce  Iristibus  \  maior 
sole  nouum  restiluetis  diem. 

7.  Cp.  71.  10. 

10.    identical  with  46.  2,  cp  65.  2. 

12.  praecordia]  'the  heart," 
strictly  the  membrane  that  separates 
the  larger  from  the  smaller  entrails, 
the  midriff  or  diaphragm ;  cp.  88. 
15.  It  is  here  and  there  (as  at  Is. 
xxvi.  9,  Nicet.  de  Psalmod.  5)  used 
for  the  heart,  but  rarely. 

13  is  an  echo  of  2.  i,  as  line  r4 
is  of  3.  I. 

16.  patescunt]  '  lie  open  '  to  the 
onset  of  the  devil,  a  thought  carried 
on  in  the  next  stanza ;  cp  68.  8 
telis  patescant  inuidi.  The  variant 
pauescunt  does  not  go  so  well  with 
the  subject  corpora. 

17.  '  May  these  full  of  Thy  Spirit, 
bearing  God  with  them,  in  no  way 


lie  open  to  the  dread  wiles  of  the 
ravening  traitor.' 

quae  refers  to  corpora  in  16.  The 
usual  reading  is  tuoque,  but  this 
coupling  of  the  indicative  patescunt 
with  the  subjunctive  pateant  would 
be  very  harsh,  quat  for  -que  is 
merely  another  way  of  reading  the 
Mss,  many  of  which  (e.g.  V^at.  reg. 
11)  use  q:  for  either  word.  A 
modern  poet  would  avoid  pateant 
so  close  to  patescunt ;  but  not  so 
these  hymns,  cp.  e.g.  lumitu  in  1 
and  8. 

18.  Our  bodies  bear  God  with 
them  so  far  as  they  are  filled  with 
the  Spirit ;  cp.  28  below  and  i  Cor. 
vi.  19  f.  membra  uestra  templum 
sunt  Spiritus  sancti. .  .portate  Deum 
in  corpore  uestra ;  Ambr.  in  Luc. 
V.  24  hunc  tolle  in  animum  tuum, 
consecra  in  templo  tuo,  tolU  in  cor- 
pore tuo,  sicut  scripium  est ;  iollite 
deum  in  corpore  uestro ;  ib.  IX.  1 1 
disce...gestare  Christum. 

19.  nil]  '  in  no  way,'  as  at  88.  14. 
rapientis]  '  ravening ' ;  the  devil 

being  compared  to  a  lion  greedy  for 
prey;  cp.  Ps.  xxi.  (xxii.)  14  siait 
leo  rapiens  et  rugiens. 

perfldl  being  regarded  as  a  subst. 

15 


226  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

ut  inter  actus  saeculi, 
uitae  quos  usus  exigit, 
omni  carentes  crimine 
tuis  uiuamus  l^bus. 

probrosas  mentis  castitas  25 

carnis  uincat  libidines, 
sanctumque  puri  corporis 
delubrum  seruet  Spiritus. 

haec  spes  precantis  animae, 

haec  sunt  uotiua  munera,  30 

ut  matutina  nobis  sit 

lu^c  in  noctis  custodiam. 

is  qualified  by  rapUns.  It  is  used  as  shewing  wherein  the  tUlubrum  con- 

an  adj.,  of  the  devil  84.  24.  sists,  and  Spiritus  is  the  gen.  of  the 

1 1 .   actns  saeculi]  '  our  worldly  possessor,  both  connected  with  de- 

actions,'  cp.  13.  2  diem  saeculi.  lubrum ;  which  generally, — always 

22.  usus  ezigit]  Cp.  Ambr.  in  the  Vidgate, — <lenotes  the  shrine 
Hex.  V.  47  hie  usus  est  uitae ;  Fort.  of  a  false  god ;  but  cp.  Juvenc.  II. 
X.  i.  ^1  non  nobis  necesse  sit  ad  escam  1 74  cogtumere  uiri proprio  de  corpore 
amplius  quant  cotidianus  usus  exigit  Christum  \  delubrum  dixisse  Dei ', 
ut  quaeramus  re  uera ;  Prud.  Psych.  Fort.  i.  vi.  5  condidit  ergo  aruis 
609  nil  uelle  super,  quam  postulet  delubra  Leontius  alma. 

usus  I  debitus ;  Hor.  Epist.  i.  xii.  4  29  f.    '  This  is  the  hope  of  the 

has  the  phrase  rerum  usus.  ■  supplicating    soul,    these    are    the 

23.  crimine]  1.  35  note.  prayers  which  we  present,  that  the 
25.  probrosas]  10.  4.  morning  light  may  endure  for  us 
27.    *  and  may  it  {castitas  in  25)  until  the  night  watch.' 

keep  holy  the  temple  of  the  Spirit  32.    noctis  costodiam]    Qp.  Ps. 

consisting  of  a  pure  body.'  i  Cor.  iii.  cxxix.  (cxxx.)  6  a  custodia  matutina 

16  templum  Dei  estis,  et  Spiritus  Dei  usqtie  ad  noctem  speret   Israel   in 

habitat  in  uMs...  templum  enim  Dei  Domino.  In  this  sense  of  a  watch  of 

sanctum  est,  cp.  i  Cor.  vi.  19,  62.  5.  the  night  r^arded  as  a  point  of  time 

corporis  is  the  gen.  of  definition  uigilia  is  much  the  commoner  word. 


Hymn  46 

The  use  of  46  in  the  old  series  wjis  for  Mattins  on 
Tuesday,  feria  tertia  ad  matutitias  laudes.  In  the 
Mozarabic  breviary  it  was  appointed  for  Lauds  on  the 
Saturday  infra  hebdomadatn  primam  qtiadragesintae ; 
Analecta  XX VII.  77. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLVI     227 


Eo  Fai^  Hr  Mx  Vr 

Aeterne  lucis  conditor, 
lux  ipse  totus  et  dies, 
noctem  nee  uUam  sentiens 
natura  lucis  perpeti : 

iam  cedit  pallens  proximo 
diei  nox  aduentui, 
obtendens  lumen  siderum 
adest  et  clarus  lucifer. 

iam  stratis  laeti  surgimus 
grates  canentes  et  tuas, 
quod  caecam  noctem  uicerit 
reuectans  rursus  sol  diem. 


10 


(         2  lucis  (^pro  totus)  Mx.  4  naturalis  Fa. 

\     Mx  Vr.  5  cedet  Eo,  cedat  Mx. 

8  adstet  Fa.  9  strati  Fa,  stratum  Mx. 

12  reuertat  Mx. 


perpete  Eo,  perpetim 

7  obtundens  Eo  Fa^^. 

10  gratis  Fa^. 


1 .  aeterne  is  better  than  aeternae, 
which  Daniel  l.  39  reads.  For  not 
only  is  the  line  based  on  2.  i  aeterne 
rerum  conditor,  but  aeternae  lucis 
would  give  a  wrong  sense :  the 
phrase,  could  referVonly  to  God  the 
Father,  as  at  Wisd.  vii.  26  candor 
est  enim  lucis  aeternae,  cp.  48.  i,  or 
to  Christ,  as  at  Ambr.  in  Luc.  II. 
1 2  Pater. .  .genitor  lucis  aeternae,  84. 
2,  neither  of  which  would  go  well 
with  conditor. 

2.  Cp.  46.  10. 

3.  Cp.  I  John  i.  5  ;  there  is  no 
darkness  in  God's  everlasting  nature 
of  light. 

5.  pallens]  '  colourless,'  cp.  22.  2 
pallens. .  .caecitas. 

7  f.  '  The  bright  morning  star 
also  is  with  us  shrouding  the  light 
of  the  stars,'  with  the  solid  light  of 
dawn,  cp.  44.  5  note,  Amb.  Hex. 
IV.  9  fulgorem  illam  lunar  em  stel- 
larumque  omnium  sol  exorlus  abs- 
condit. 


obtendens]  'shrouding'  by  a 
veil,  cp.  Sil.  Punic,  x.  228  obtendit 
pulttere  lucem.  See  also  44.  5.  The 
variant  obtundens  would  mean 
'  striking  against '  and  then  '  dul- 
ling,' cp.  Lucr.  IV.  619  uox  obtun- 
ditur ;  Arnob.  adu.  Nationes  II.  58 
obtunsi  luminis.  Lines  7  and  8 
might  have  changed  places,  when 
the  connexion  would  have  been 
easier;  but  the  jwet  wishes  to  put 
the  emphatic  Lucifer  at  the  end  of 
the  stanza,  et  is  displaced  in  the 
same  way  two  lines  below ;  cp. 
41.  23. 

10.  The  line  is  an  echo  of 
6.  9f. 

11.  uicerit  should  regularly  be 
uicit :  quod  when  it  gives  the  actual 
reason  (here  the  grounds  on  which 
we  give  thanks)  takes  the  indicative. 

12.  reuectans]  intensive  in  form, 
not  in  sense  ;  characteristic  of  late 
Latin,  reuectare  is  not  used  by  any 
classical  writer. 


228 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


te  nunc,  ne  carnis  gaudia 

blandis  subrepant  aestibus, 

dolis  ne  cedat  saeculi  15 

mens  nostra,  sancte,  quaesumus: 

ira  ne  rixas  prouocet, 

gula  ne  uentrem  incitet, 

opum  peruertat  ne  famis, 

turpis  ne  luxus  occupet.  20 

sed  firma  mente  sobrii 
casto  manentes  corpore 
totum  fideli  spiritu, 
Christe,  ducamus  hunc  diem. 

13  nee  Eo.  14  subrepat  Vr.  15  nee  Fa.  17  iram 

Eo  F^.     riec  Fa.    rixa  Eo.  18  gulam  Eo  F^  Vr.     nee  uenter  Eo  Fa^. 

19  opem  Fa^.     nee  Eo  Fa.        20  nee  Eo  Fa.     lux  Fa.        21  firmamento 
Mx  Vr.  22  manente  Fa.  23  toto  Fa  Mx  Vr.     fidele  Eo. 

24  Christo  Eo  Fa^.     dicamus  Fa. 


14.  blandis]  'alluring,'  cp.  67. 
1 2.    It  has  a  better  meaning  at  47. 

II,  in.  21. 

subrepant]  of  evil  stealing  on  us 
unawares,  as  at  67.  13. 

aestibus]  originally  '  burning 
heat,'  '  sultriness,'  as  at  11.  8,  36. 
1 3  ;  here  of  the  undue  heat  of  pas- 
sion as  at  67.  12,  101.  11  and  fre- 
quently in  classical  authors.  So  are 
used  also  uapor  6.  24,  calor  17.  6, 
ardor  58.  13. 

1 6.  sancte]  i.e.  Christ,  32.  18 
note. 

17  from  Prov.  xv.  18  tiir  iracun- 
dtis  protioiot  rixas. 

18.  grula]  properly  'the  gullet,' 
hence  'gluttony';  cp.  Juv.  i.  140 
quanta  est  gula,  quae  sibi  totos  \  ponit 
apros!  Ambr.  in  Luc.  iv.  17  tria 
praecipue  docemur  tela  diaboli,  qui- 
bus  ad  comiulnerandam  mentem 
hominis  consuetiit  artnari,  gulae 
unum,  aliud  iactantiae,  ambitionis 
tertium. 

19.  opum... famis]    'hunger   for 


riches,'  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  in.  57  quid 
non  morlalia  pectora  cogis  \  auri 
sacra  fames;  Hor.  Od.  in.  xvi.  17 
crescentem  sequittir  cura  pecuniam  \ 
maiorumque  fames  \  Prud.  Hamart. 
256  auri  ftamque  fames  parto  fit 
maior  ab  auro ;  Sedul.  Op.  II. 
p.  228  ed.  Huemer  sunt  istis  uitiis 
et  plura  similia,  quibus  arnica  sem- 
per fames  auri  conmilitat;  50.  33. 
For  the  form  famis  see  60.  34. 

20.  occupet]  50.  25  ;  Job  iii.  5 
occupet  eum  caligo. 

21  f.  based  upon  3.  18  f.  See  note 
on  42.  20. 

sobrii]  3.  23,  5.  16,  20.  7,  10. 

22.  manentes]  repeated  from 
44  b.  8. 

24.  The  reading  Christe  is  pre- 
ferable to  Christo,  which  might  well 
come  from  the  parallel  passage  50. 
38  f.,  where  Christo  is  governed 
by  plcuentes.  The  vocative  in  the 
closing  stanza  is  not  unlike  the  use 
of  Redemptor  at  15.  29,  of  Christe 
in  20.  13  etc. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLVII    229 

Hymn  47 

This  hymn  was  appointed  by  Caesarius  of  Aries  ad 
primam  from  October  to  Easter.  See  Blume  Cursus 
p.  38  deinde  dicenda  est  prima  cum  psalmis  sex,et  hymniis 
Fulgentis  aucior  aetheriSy  lectiones  duae,  una  de  ueteri, 
alia  de  nouo  testamento,  et  capitellum.  hoc  modo  dominica 
uel  sabbato  et  maioribus  festiuitatibus  fieri  debet.  In  the 
old  use  it  was  to  be  sung  feria  quarta  ad  matutinos,  i.e. 
at  Mattins'  on  Wednesday,  in  the  Mozarabic  breviary 
feria  secunda  post  oct.  epiphaniae. 

Eo  Fa^  Mx  Vr 
Fulgentis  auctor  aetheris, 
qui  lunam  lumen  noctibus, 
solem  dierum  cursibus 
certo  fundasti  tramite ; 

nox  atra  iam  depellitur,  5 

mundi  nitor  renascitur, 
nouusque  iam  mentis  uigor 
dulces  in  actus  erigit. 

laudes  sonare  iam  tuas 

dies  relatus  admonet,  10 

r  fulgentes  Ft^  Vr.  i  lunae  Mx.  3  diei  P'a.         5  repellitur  Mx. 

7  nouis  Fa.     oin.  que  Eo^  8  actos  Eo  Fa'^,  actis  Fa',     in  ahum 

egerit  Mx.  9  tuus  F^.  10  relictos  Fa. 

2  f .   Gen.   i.    16.   'Who  hast  set  4.     txamite  generally  means  'a 

the  moon  to  lighten  the  night,  the  side   path,'    here    'an   orbit';    cp. 

sun  with  fixed  orbit  to  lighten  the  117.    3.     For   the    allusion   to   the 

days'  course.'  regularity  of  the  heavenly  bodies, 

noctibus,  dierum]    These  words  see  introduction  to  2. 

are  often  used  in  the  plural  when  6.    nitor  is  used  of  the  brightness 

the  reference  is  general,  that  is  to  of  dawn  by  Lucr.  iv.  540. 

say  when  no  particular  night  or  day  7.   nouus]  as  being  reinvigorated 

is  thought  of,  see  6.  18,  66.  10,  69.  by  sleep. 

13,  83.  6.  8.     dulces]  'delightful,'  because 

3.    cursibus  is  sometimes  used  in  it  is  now  a  delight  to  do  them, 

the  plural,  where  we  might  expect  9.    Cp.  2.  31. 

thesingular,see3. 29note.  But  here  10.    admonet]   Cp  61.  3. 
it  is  used  because  diertim  is  plural. 


230  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

uultusque  caeli  blandior 
nostra  serenat  pectora. 

uitemus  omne  lubricum, 

declinet  praua  spiritus, 

uitam  facta  non  inquinent,  15 

linguam  culpa  non  inplicet: 

sed  sol  diem  dum  conficit, 

fides  profunda  ferueat, 

spes  ad  promissa  prouocet, 

Christo  coniungat  caritas.  20 

11  uultu  Mx.  12  serena  Eo',  serenet  Mx.  13  ergo  {pio  omne)  Fa. 
1 4  declinat  F^,  declinent  Vr.  15  factam  Eo  Fa.     inquinet  Fi/-  Mx. 

16  lingua  culpam  Fa  \'^r.     implicent  Fa.  19  adprouocet  Fa. 

11.  Cp.  21.  16  f.  stead  of  the  usual  ne  is  once  used 
blandior]    'more  pleasant'  than       hy  Cic.  pro  Clueni.  f,-]  a  legibus  non 

in  the  dark ;    contrast  the  sinister  recedamus,  and   is   ifound   in   early 

meaning  of  ^/ir7«(/«j  at  46.  14.  writers,   in    Liv.  vi.   41    non   leges 

12.  serenat]  'brightens,'  'illu-  auspicaloferantur,  non  magistratus 
minates ' ;  cp.  10.  2  note,  Verg.  creentur,  in  Verg.  Georg.  i.  456  and 
Aen.  I.  255  uultu  quo  caelum  tern-  Hot. Sat. 11.  v.  ()inon. .. sileas,  Epist. 
pestatesque  serenat;  ibid.  iv.  477.  I.  i.  29  tion...co7itemnas.  In  later 
The  general  meaning  is  rather  like  writers  it  became  common,  cp.  60. 
that  of  Ps.  xxix.  (xxx.)  6 'Heaviness  17,  19,  25,  33,  58.  9,  82.  17. 

may   endure   for  a   night,  but  joy  inquinent]  22.  12. 

Cometh  in  the  morning.'  16.  inplicet]  'entangle.'  For  the 

13.  lubricum]  3.  12  note.  sense  cp.  Prov.  xxix.  5  f. 

14.  declinet  p.]  The  Thesaurus  17.    conficit]  '  completes.' 

gives  a  good  many  instances  of  this  18.     For  the  theological  virtues 

use    of    declinare,    beginning   with  cp.  16.  21  note. 
Cic.  Plane.  ()i  i4rbem...amia'ssimam  fides... ferueat]  3.  19. 

declinaui.  profunda]  '  to  its  depths.' 

15.  non  with  the  subjunctive  in- 


Hymn  48 

This  hymn  is  remarkable  and  difficult.  Not  only  are 
some  of  its  expressions  hard  to  explain,  but  it  is  not  easy 
to  see  to  whom  the  several  stanzas  are  addressed.  The 
last  four  seem  to  be  addressed  to  Christ — the  first  also 
may  be — the  second  invokes  the  Father,  and  the  third, 
or  rather  the  first  two  lines  of  it,  the  Trinity. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  XLVIII   231 

Biraghi,  p.  26,  has  some  criticisms  on  I3f.,  against 
those  who  would  claim  the  hymn  for  Ambrose.  '  Come 
mai  Ambrogio  avrebbe  cantato  di  cotale  stranezze  ?  Che 
e  questo  settimo  trono  ?  Come  appellar  Dio  1'  onnipotente 
Sabaoth,  Dio  lo  Hosanna  ?  Ambrogio  sapeva  benissimo 
che  Sabaoth  e  un  plurale  che  vale  eserciti,  che  Hosanna 
e  un  ottativo  Salva  noi  di  grazia,  Evviva.  Forse  a  questi 
versi  Adalberto  di  Magonza,  famoso  impostore,  attinse 
quella  sua  cabalistica  preghiera,  condannata  poi  dal  Con- 
cilio  Romano,  nell'  Azione  3,  nell'  anno  745  a  istanza 
di  san  Bonifacio.  Qui  sedes  super  septimum  thronum... 
Angele  Sabaoth... Angele  Simiel...e  simili  altre  peco- 
raggini  e  ribalderie.  Se  questo  fosse  vero,  bisognerebbe 
supporre  que  quest'  Inno  anteriore  a  quella  condanna, 
non  piu  sia  stato  dippoi  accolto  fra  la  viva  liturgia.'  See 
Dreves  Ambrosius  p.  17  note,  Labbe  Vlll.  305. 

However  the  hymn  was  undoubtedly  in  liturgical  use, 
— being  appointed  for  Mattins  on  Thursday  in  the  old 
Benedictine  series,  and  for  the  Iw^s^^y post  oct.  epiphamae 
in  the  Mozarabic  breviary,  Analecta  XXVII.  70.  Therefore 
an  orthodox  meaning  for  all  its  expressions  had  to  be 
found. 

Eo  Fai/'  Mx  Vr 
Deus,  aeterni  luminis 
candor  inenarrahilis, 
uenturus  diei  iudex, 

I  aeterne  Eo  Fa. 

I.     'Inexpressible   brightness   of  Although  the   coniing  to  judge   is 

the  eternal  light'  comes  from  Wisd.  generally  connected  with  the  Son, 

vii.  26  candor  est  enim  lucis  aetcrnae,  it  is  possible  also  to  connect  it  with 

a  passage  used  also  Heb.  i.  3.  and  the  Father,  as  in  Acts  "v";  3'- 

by  Prudentius,  see  27.  30  note  and  3-   .dieij. '  «f  1'^"'  '^  u   •*'"  ^^l 

3'  ,  note  done  m  this  life  :  cp.  Joh.  ix.  4.   Or 

'  It  is,  however,  possible  that  the       it  may  refer   to   the  day  of  ludg- 
author  intended  aeUrni  lumims  to       ment  (cp.  1  ^or-  "^    13.  »v-  3).  but 

go   with    Deus,    'God    of    eternal       '" 'h^' ^^f^^'^  ^.''"''^."Pf JJ^l^ 
light,'    addressed    to    the    Father.       word  qualifying  ^»« :     M«/ day    or 


232 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


qui  mentis  occulta  uides, 

tu  regnum  caelorum  tenes,  5 

et  totus  in  uerbo  tu  es, 
per  Filium  cuncta  regis, 
sancti  Spiritus  tu  fons  es. 

trinum  nomen,  alta  fides, 

unum  per  omnia  potens,  10 

mirumque  per  signum  crucis 

tu  rector  inmensae  lucis. 

4  uidens  Fa.  5  tenens  Fa.  8  sancto  Mx.     spiritui  Mx  Vr, 

spiritu  Fa.  9  nominum  F^.     uides  Vr.  10  potes  Vr.  1 1  om. 

per  Fa. 


'  the  last  day.'  The  word  is  used, 
apparently,  to  suit  the  early  morning 
hour  at  which  the  hymn  was  to  be 
sung. 

4.  occulta] 'secrets,' Rom.  ii.  16, 
1  Cor.  xiv.  25,  22.  13,  66.  14. 

5.  for  the  repeated  use  of  tu 
in  this  line,  and  in  12  i.  etc.  see 
1.  3  note. 

6.  Cp.  3.  32. 

8.  Neale  quoted  by  Daniel  IV.  29 
argues  that  this  line,  clearly  de- 
claring the  procession  of  the  Spirit 
from  the  Father  alone,  shews  that 
the  hymn  was  written  before  A.D. 
700.  The  reasoning  is  precarious ; 
for  on  the  one  hand  the  doctrine  of 
the  double  procession  was  taught 
long  before  that  date  (see  Ambr. 
de  Sfir.  S.  I.  152;  and  cp.  Swete 
History  of  the  Doctrine  of  the  Pro- 
cession p.  120);  and  on  the  other 
hand  to  ascribe  the  procession  to 
the  Father  without  mentioning  the 
Son  is  no  denial  of  the  double  pro- 
cession, being  merely  a  reference  to 
John  XV.  26.  Nevertheless  the  fact 
that  the  hymn  was  in  the  Old 
Series  (see  Introduction)  shews  that 
it  is  very  ancient.  The  reading 
of  Fa  Spiritu  seems  to  indicate  an 
original  Spiritus  tu,  which  we  have 
restored.  Otherwise  the  line  must 
be  scanned  sancti  i Spiritus  fons  es  ; 
see  41.  33. 


9.  '  Threefold  the  name,  lofty  the 
faith' ;  cp.  Sedul.  Carm.  i.  324  (of 
Arrius  and  Sabellius)  iste  fidem 
ternam,  hie  nou  amplectitur  unani  ; 
Fort.  V.  V.  41  est  Deus,  alta  fides, 
unus  trinus  et  trinus  untis.  '  The 
name '  is  used  in  its  pregnant  sense, 
so  common  in  Scripture,  the  nature 
and  essence  of  God  as  made  known 
to  men.  But  possibly,  as  no  name 
has  been  mentioned,  we  should  read 
numen  ;  cp.  27.  39  nuniine  triplici, 
and  the  note  on  91.  29  hoc  mystico 
sub  nomine.  With  the  constant  con- 
fusion in  our  Mss  of  o  and  u  a 
copyist  might  write  the  more  familiar 
word  nomen  for  numen ;  10.  11 
note. 

10  from  5.  31.  The  order  of  the 
words  is  altered  for  the  sake  of  the 
rhyme, — the  //  being  hardly  sounded 
before  s  in  Latin,  potens  stands  for 
potens  es,  or  in  loose  apposition  to 
nomen. 

11.  The  Son  is  once  more  ad- 
dressed, inirum  qualifies  signum; 
cp.  Analecta  LI.  p.  85  Signum  crucis 
mirabile. 

12.  rector]  17.  i,  29.  5,  66.  2. 

inmensae  lucis]  '  with  incom- 
prehensible light,'  a  kind  of  descrip- 
tive gen.  For  inmensae  cp.  1.  69 
note,  and  for  the  phrase  Commodian 
Apol.  1 1 4  quidijuid  est,  unus  est  in 
inmenso   lumine.     How    our    Lord 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLVIII   233 


»S 


tu  mundi  constitutor  es, 
tu  septimo  throne  sedes 
iudex,  ex  alto  humilis 
uenisti  pati  pro  nobis. 

tu  sabaoth  omnipotens, 
hosanna  summi  culminis, 
tibi  laus  est  mirabilis, 
tu  rex  primus,  anastasis. 

tu  fidei  auditor  es, 
et  humiles  tu  respicis, 
tibi  aha  sedes  thronus, 
tibi  diuinus  est  honor. 


14  in  s.  Vr.  15  alta  F^.  18  tu  osianna  Vr.  10  tu  es  Mx. 

prima  Vr.  23  altae  sedis  Eo,  alta  sedis  Fa,  ahum  uides  thronum  Mx. 

24  tibique  Eo.     honor  est  Eo. 


20 


reigns  by  means  of  the  Cross  needs 
no  explanation. 

14.  septimo  throno]  i.e.  on  the 
throne  of  the  seventh  and  highest 
heaven;  for  which  cp.  Juvenc.  i. 
358  caeli  septemplicis  aethra,  Prud. 
Cath.  VII.  36  caeli  principem  sep- 
tetnplicis  ;  Paul.  Nol.  Carm.  xxxii. 
182  f.  hoc  etiain  caelum,  quod  tios 
sublime  uidemus,  I  sex  aliis  infra 
est...f>ostqiu  thronos  seplem,  post  tot 
caelestia  regna  \  cetera  pars  omnis, 
quae  cunctis  eminet  ultra.  There 
were  seven  heavens  because  there 
were  seven  planets,  Plin.  Hist.  11.  6. 
[See  Irenaeus  Demonstration  of  the 
Apost.  Preaching  10,  with  J.  A. 
Robinson's  important  note,  and  p.  41 
of  his  Introduction  (S.P.C.K.  1920).] 

17.  sabaoth]  (like  'hosanna')  is 
treated  as  a  name  of  Gfxl.  Cp.  (e.g.) 
Sibyll.  Or.  I.  316  6  ni-ya^  Za^awd 
Sf  xoXw^ety,  and  the  famous  sequence 
'Alma  chorus  Domini  compangat 
nomina  summi :  Messias,  Soter,  Em- 
manuel, Sabaoth,  Adonai '  (Mone  i. 
p.  5).  It  was  commonly  understood 
as  a  kind  of  adjectival  epithet ;  see 
Ambr.  de  Fide  iv.  i.  14. 


18.  hosanna]  'Thou  art  the 
Hosanna  of  the  highest  height' 
The  gen.  is  a  loose  one  of  quality. 

20.  rex  primus  answers  to  Rev. 
i.  5  prriuceps  regtim.  Daniel  I.  69 
reads  prima  and  sees  a  reference 
to  '  the  first  resurrection '  of  Rev. 
XX.  5  ;  but  to  say  that  Christ  is 
the  first  resurrection  would  be 
strange. 

anastasis]  'the  resurrection,'  cp. 
Joh.  xi.  25.  It  we  might  read 
primae,  the  meaning  would  be 
'  Thou  an  the  King  of  the  first 
resurrection ' ;  we  have  anastasis  as 
a  genitive  at  110.  4.  Cp.  Commod. 
Insir.  II.  iii.  i.  The  writer  loves  an 
imposing  foreign  word. 

21.  fidei  auditor]  '  the  hearer  of 
faithful  piayer.'  The  glossator  of 
Eo  (Bodl.  Jun.  25),  who  writes  the 
gloss  der  du  helfant  bist,  evidently 
translates  adiutor,  which  would  refer 
to  Mk.  ix.  23  adiuua  increduli- 
tat  em  meant. 

22.  Lk.  i.  48. 

24.  diuinus]  because  the  praise 
lauds  Thee  as  God  ;  cp.  49.  20. 


234  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

Christo  aeternoque  Deo  25 

Patri  cum  sancto  Spiritu 
uitae  soluamus  munera 
a  saeculis  in  saecula. 

25.    Here,  as  in  5.  29  and  other  saectili,  and  soluamus  as  at  82.  12. 

hymns,   the   doxology  begins  with  uitae   munera    has    quite    another 

Christ ;  so  does  the  apostolic  bless-  sense  at  42.  44. 
ing  2  Cor.  xiii.  14.  It  is  noticeable  that  the  rhyme  in 

27.    The   meaning  seems  to   be  « or «',  which  has  been  carried  through 

'let   us   perform    (lit.    'pay'  as  in  as  far  as  line  22  (see  the  note  on  10), 

2.    32)   the  duties  of  life  '  ;    rather  there  ceases :  final  0  or  it,  and  in  the 

like  45.   22.    uitae  is  for  the  usual  last  two  lines  a,  are  put  in  its  place. 

Hymn  49 

This  fine  if  rugged  hymn  continually  reminds  us  of 
the  Te  Deuiu,  upon  which  it  is  based,  and  phrases  of 
which  it  incorporates.  The  text  seems  to  have  suffered 
in  the  course  of  its  transmission  no  less  than  that  of  42. 
There  are  several  defective  lines  as  these  are  handed 
down  in  the  MSS,  viz.  i,  3,  17,  29,  33,  34,  35,  38.  Of  them 
29  and  33  f.  being  quotations  from  Scripture  may  perhaps 
have  been  unmetrical  from  the  first.  The  defects  of  the 
other  lines  are  probably  due  to  mistakes  made  in  the 
copying.  Even  in  rhythmical  hymns  spondees  are  very 
rare  in  the  last  foot  of  the  verse,  but  here  they  occur  at 
lines  9,  II,  13,  15,  19,  21,  23,  29,  31,  33,  37,  39,41,  43,47. 

In  the  old  series  the  hymn  was  appointed  for  Mattins 
on  Friday.    It  did  not  pass  into  the  Mozarabic  use. 

Eo  Fav^  Vr 
Christe,  caeli  Domine,' 
mundi  saluator  maxima, 
qui  nos  crucis  munera 
mortis  soluisti  legibus, 

I  rex  caeli  Vr  manu  poster.  3  hoc  crucis  Vr  manu  post->.  4  legimus 
F^,  crimine  Vr^. 

I  f.  In  Vat.  reg.  11  a  later  hand  the  line  rex  after  Christe,  and  in  3 
of  about  the  Xth  cent,  adds  above       hoc  after  nos. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XLIX     235 


te  nunc  orantes  poscimus,  5 

tua  conserues  munera, 

quae  per  legem  catholicam 

cunctis  donasti  gentibus. 

tu  uerbum  Patris  aeterni 

ore  diuino  editus,  10 

Deus  ex  Deo  subsistens, 

unigenitus  Filius. 

te  uniuersa  creatura 

mundi  fatetur  dominum, 

iussu  Patris  inchoata,  15 

tuis  perfecta  uiribus. 

tibi  omnes  angeli 

caelestem  praestant  gloriam, 

te  chorus  archangelorum 

diuinis  laudant  uocibus.  20 

5  te  orantes  Vr^  te  deprecantes  Vr-.  6  conseruas  Fa,  conseruis  Vr. 

7  quern  Fa.  9  aeterne  Fa/-.  11  consistens  Vr.  14  fatentur  Vr. 

16  perfectis  Eo.  15.  16  patris  inch,  tuis  perfecta  uiribus  iussu  F^. 

1 7  et  ang.  Vr  manu  post.  20  laudibus  {pro  uocibus)  Fa. 


4  is  based  upon  Acts  ii.  24,  Rom. 
viii.  2  lex  enim  spiritus  uitae  in 
Christo  lesu  liberauit  tne  a  lege... 
mortis  ;  cp.  36.  19  legibus  infertii 
with  the  note  ;  66.  22,  111.  13. 

6.  munera]  '  the  gifts '  of  life  and 
salvation.  The  '  catholic  law '  is 
opposed  to  'the  laws  of  death'  in  4. 

9.  uerbum]  1.  3  note.  Prud. 
Cath.  XI.  17  ex  ore  quanilibel  Pa- 
tris I  sis  ortus  et  uerbo  editus,  \  tainen 
paterno  in  pectore  \  sophia  callebas 
prius.  I  quae  prompta  caelum  con- 
didit,  I  caelum  diemque  et  cetera,  \ 
uirtute  uerbi  effecta  sunt  \  haec 
cuncta,  nam  uerbum  Deus. 

Patris  aeterni]  Cp.  Te  Deum  2 
te  aeternuni  Pattern  otnnis  terra 
ueneratur. 

10.  editus  agrees  in  gender  with 
the  sense  of  the  passage. 

1 1.  Cp.  Oebv  iK  deov  of  the  Nicene 
creed  ;  36.  28. 


13.  Rev.  V.  13.  creaiura,  seni- 
orum  in  21,  and  beatoruvt  in  41  are 
to  be  scanned  as  trisyllables. 

14.  Cp.  Te  Deum  i  te  Dominum 
confitemur. 

15.  Cp.  1.  10  omniumque  tu 
creator,  quae  Pater  nasci  iubet ;  44. 
4,  60.  5  f. ;  Ambr.  Hex.  vi.  8 
\_Moyses  descripsit\  quod  produxerit 
terra  iuxta  Dei  omnipotentis  im- 
perium  operationemque  domini  lesu 
uirgulta  de  terris  et  omnetn  animam 
uiuentem  secundum  genus. 

1 7.  We  should  perhaps  read  with 
the  corrector  of  Vat.  reg.  1 1  et  an- 
gelt. 

18.  caelestem]  because  the  angels 
who  give  the  praise  dwell  in 
heaven. 

gloriam]  'praise'  as  at  61.  t6, 
79.  7  and  often. 

19.  cborus]   Cp.  Te  Deum  7. 

20.  diuinla]  because  the  words 


236 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


te  multitude  seniorum, 

bis  duodenus  numerus, 

odoribus  plenas  gestans 

supplex  adorat  pateras. 

tibi  cherubin  et  seraphin  25 

throno  paterni  luminis 

senis  alarum  plausibus 

clamore  iugi  personant. 

sanctus,  sanctus,  sanctus, 

Dominus  Deus  sabaoth  ;  -30 

omne  caelum  atque  terra 

tua  sunt  plena  gloria. 

hosianna  filius  Dauid  ! 

benedictus  es  a  Patre, 
21  seniorum  mult.  Vr.        23  odoramentis  Eo  Fa  Vr,  (omentis  Fi/').    plena 
Vr.   gestant  omnes.        24  adorant  ow«^j.        26  throni  omnes.       27  ala  Fa. 
28  clamorem  F^,  clamori  Fa.         34  om.  es  omnes  exc.  Vr  manu  poster. 


uttered  praise  Christ  as  God ;   cp. 
48.  24  diuinus  honor. 

2 1  f.  '  Thee  the  company  of  elders 
...humbly  worship,  bearing  bowls 
full  of  incense.'    Rev.  v.  8. 

22.  numerus]  as  in  45,  Te  Deum 
8  prophetarum  laudabilis  numerus  ; 
Cyprian  Epist.  xi.  g/oriosus  marly- 
rum  numerus;  Damas.  xii.  5  hie 
numerus  procerum,  seruat  qui  cUtaria 
Christi. 

23.  odoribus]  The  ms  reading 
gives  a  syllable  too  many.  It  may 
have  come  in  from  the  Vulgate 
of  Rev.  V.  8  phialas  aureus  plenas 
odorameniorum,  and  the  right  word 
here  may  be  odoribus,  which  easily 
comes  to  mean  'incense';  cp.  Plaut. 
Menaechm.  354  incendite  odores ; 
TibuU.  II.  ii.  3  ttraniur  odores  \  quos 
tener  e  terra  diuite  mittit  Arabs ; 
Juvenc.  I.  10  cum  forte  adytis  arisque 
in/erret  odores  \  Zacharias ;  Ambr. 
Hex.  V.  79  phoenix... facit  sibi  the- 
cam  de  ture  et  murra  et  ceteris  odori- 
bus. 

25  f.  Is.  vi.  2,  Rev.  iv.  8.  tibi, 
the    MS   reading,    may   have    come 


from  the  Te  Deum  4  :  if  kept,  it  is 
to  be  scanned  with  the  following 
che-  as  an  anapaest  or  tribrach. 
But  perhaps  we  should  read  te... 
personant,  'sound  Thy  praise,'  as  at 
110.  I  ;  cp.  47  below  and  2.  31. 

26.  tlirono]  The  ms  throni  is  so 
strange  a  gen.  that  I  can  but  think 
that  throno  was  the  original.  Either 
word  must  mean  '  at  the  throne ' ; 
^Ar<?«?  would  come  from  the  following 
genitives,  throno  would  be  an  abl. 
like  caelo  in  42,  cp.  Fort.  11.  xiy.  25 
sidereo  chorus  iste  throno  cum  carne 
locandtis.  The  ^XwSi&e paterni  luminis 
recurs  at  66.  i.  [Conceivably,  how- 
ever, throni  is  nom.,  and  intended 
for  the  title  of  an  order  of  angels,  in 
which  case  the  writer  probably  under- 
stood that  they  were  so  called  from 
forming  a  throne  of  the  paternum 
lumen,  like  the  Cherub  of  Ezekiel.] 

27,  'with  the  beatings  of  their 
six  wings.' 

29  f.    Is.  vi.  3. 

30.    Cp.  Burn  Niceta  p.  xcvi. 
33  f.     Mt.  xxi.  9  ;   cp.  Ps.  cxvii. 
(cxviii.)  25  f.,  104.  33  f. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL,   HYMN  XLIX     237 


qui  in  nomine  Domini  35 

uenisti  ex  celsis  Deus. 

tu  agnus  inmaculatus 

datus  es  terrae  uictima, 

qui  sanctorum  uestimenta 

tuo  lauisti  sanguine.  40 

te  multitudo  beatorum 
caelo  locata  martyrum, 
palmis  insignis,  coronis, 
ducem  sectantur  gloriae : 

quorum  nos  addas  numero,  45 

te  deprecamur,  Domine ; 
una  uoce  te  sonamus, 
uno  laudamus  carmine. 

35  dei  omnes.  36  de  F^.     domine  {pro  Deus)  omnes.         38  addit  es 

\t  manu  post.  42  caeli  F^  Vr.            43  psalm  is  Fa.     signis  Eo  Fa^. 

et  cor.  omnes.  46  precamur  Vr.             47  sonemus  F^,  desonamus  Eo 

(desonemus  Fa).  48  unum  Vr.     laudemus  Fa^. 


bosianna  of  Vat.  reg.  11  is  as 
correct  a  transliteration  as  the  usual 
kosanna.  Or  we  might  read  hosanna 
Jilio  Daiiid,  cp.  104.  36  ;  but  this 
coming  direct  from  Mt.  xxi.  9  would 
scarcely  have  been  altered.  [Words- 
worth and  White  give  osianna  or 
ossianna  as  the  reading  of  several 
Mss  of  the  Vulg.  ad  loc.  Sabatier  at 
Mt.  xxi.  15  gives  the  same  form  for 
the  Old  Latin.] 

35.  For  the  sake  of  the  metre  I 
follow  Blume  in  reading  Domini  in 
35,  Deus  in  36. 

36.  I  omit  de  as  not  required. 
Perhaps,  however,  it  is  a  relic  of 
an  original  Deus :  uenisti  Deus  ex 
celsis. 

37.  I  Pet.  i.  19,  cp.  Exod.  xii.  5. 
39  f.    Rev.  vii.  14. 

42.  caelo  locata]  see  note  on 
line  26. 

43.  I  have  taken  the  reading  in- 
signis of  Vat.  reg.  ii,  but  have 
omitted  the  et  which  mars  the  metre 


without  helping  the  sense ;  if  we 
keep  it,  coronis  must  be  scanned  as 
a  dissyllable.  We  have  had  several 
cases  in  these  hymns  of  words  un- 
connected by  any  particle,  e.g.  34. 
20  sanguis,  unda  profluit,  cp.  Fort. 
X.  XV.  10  pal  ma,  corona  decus.  s  ignis 
of  the  other  mss  seems  to  be  a  cor- 
ruption. 

F'or  the  combination  palmis... 
coronis  see  24.  8  note. 

44.  sectantur]  Rev.  viii.  17,  xix. 
14,  cp.  19.  10.  d.  gloriae  like  rex 
gloriae  in  the  Psalm. 

45.  Cp.  16.  30,  and  Te  Deum. 
The  words  addas  numero  here  per- 
haps indicate  that  the  writer  found 
numerari  not  munerari  in  Te  Deum 
(Blume  Ursprung  des  Ambronan- 
ischen  Lobgesanges  p.  1 4). 

47.  te  sonamus]  like  2.  31  te... 
sonet. 

48.  uno  is  more  vigorous  than 
unum  which  Blume  reads. 


238  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

Hymn  50 

This  hymn  was  in  the  old  series  appointed  for  Mattins 
on  Saturday:  himnus  die  sabati  dicendus  is  the  rubric 
in  Vat.  reg.  1 1. 

Eo  Y24  Vr 

Dial  luce  reddita 
primis  post  somnum  uocibus 
Dei  canamus  gloriam, 
Christi  fatentes  gratiam ; 

per  quem  creator  omnium  5 

diem  noctemque  condidit, 
aeterna  lege  sanciens 
ut  semper  succedant  sibi. 

tu  uera  lux  fidelium, 

quem  lex  ueterna  non  tenet  10 

'.    ■  .  noctis  nee  ortus  succedens, 

aeterno  fulgens  lumine, 

Christe,  precamur,  annue 

orantibus  seruis  tuis, 

iniquitas  haec  saeculi  15 

ne  nostram  captiuet  fidem. 

4  fatente  gratia  Fa,  fauente  gratia  Eo  F^.  6  condens  Vr. 

lo  aeterna  Eo  Fa^.  ii  noctetn  nee  ortu(orto)  Eo  F^.     sucidis  Fa, 

occidens  Vr.  1 3  annuas  Vr,  abnue  Fa.  1 5  ne  {^pro  haec)  Vr. 

16  oin.  ne  Vr. 

1.    Cp.  2.  31.  [Perhaps  the  reading  which  would 

5.    Cp.  49.  15  note.  best  explain  the  variants  would  be 

creator  omnium]  5.  i.  noctis  nee  ortu  succidens,   '  neither 

6f.    Cp.  18.  2  f .  succumbing  to  the  rise  of  night.'] 

8.    sibi]  '  each  other.'  In   our  hymn,   as   in  45,   the  first 

9  f.    '  Thou  the  true  light  of  the  three  stanzas  are  taken  up  by  the 

faithful,  shining  with  eternal  light,  invocation  and  the  prayer  is  not  ex- 

who  art  not  bound  by  the  ancient  pressed  until  stanza  iv. 

law  (viz.  of  constant  change,  men-  uera  lux]  Joh.  i.  9,  cp.  3.  5. 

tioned  in  line  7),  nor  by  the  rising  10.   ueterna]    This  rare  word  is 

of  each  successive  night ' ;  cp,  6.  31  more  likely  to  have  been  changed 

note.    Not  unlike  is  Sedul.  Carm.  into  aeterna  than  vice  versa. 

'V-  \})  genitor  rerum,  qui  mundum  11.     noctis... ortus]    see    6.     10 

lege  cohercet  \  et  nulla  sub  lege  manet.  note. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  L         239 


non  cogitemus  impie, 
inuideamus  nemini, 
laesi  non  reddamus  uicem, 
uincamus  in  bono  malum, 
absit  nostris  e  cordibus 
ira,  dolus,  superbia; 
absistat  auaritia, 
malorum  radix  omnium. 

uinum  mentem  non  occupet 
ebrietate  perdita, 
sed  nostro  sensui  conpetens 
tuum  bibamus  poculum. 

conseruet  pacis  foedera 
non  simulata  caritas, 

30  bonum  Fa.  26  perpeti  (-te)  Eo  Fa^. 

Vr^  (nost.  sensus  Vr*). 


25 


30 
27  sit  nostris  sensibus 


12.   aetemo-.-lumine]  48.  I. 

15.  Cp.  60.  I.  'Grant... that  this 
iniquity  of  the  world  may  not  bring 
our  faith  into  captivity.'  Cp.  Ambr. 
Apol.  Datiid  49  praecedit  iniquitas, 
peccatum  sequitur.  radix  est  iniqui- 
tas,  Jructus  autem  radicis  est  culpa, 
utide  uidetur  iniqitiias  ad  mentis 
itnprobitatem  referri,  peccatum  ad 
prolapsionem  corporis,  grauior  ini- 
quitas  tamquam  materia  peccatorum. 

16.  captiuet]  Cp.  Rom.  vii.  23 
legem ..  .captiuantem  me  in  lege  pec- 
cati;  109.  19. 

The  MS  Vr  omits  17  and  18,  and 
begins  19  with  the  words  non  cored- 
damus. 

17.  non  cogitemus]  Cp.  47.  15 
note. 

19.  Cp.  Rom.  xii.  17,  i  Thess. 
V.  15,  1  Pet.  iii.  9. 

reddere  uicem  means  to  requite 
either  with  good  (as  at  Jud.  ix.  16 
reddidistis  uicem  beneficiis  eius,  Fort. 
I.  vii.  12  red<le  benigne  uicem),  or 
with  evil  (as  here,  cp.  Fort,  iv.vi.  f2 
nesciit  offensis  ira  rcferre  uices).  At 
Lam.  iii.  64  reddes  eis  uicem  Doinine 
iuxta  opera  manuum  suarum,  and 


at  86.  II  it  means  '  recompense ' 
whether  with  good  or  evil. 

20.    Rom.  xii.  21,  cp.  43.  16. 

23  f.  I  Tim.  vi.  lo,  where  the 
Vulgate  translates  (piXapyvpla  by 
cupiditas.  Prud.  Hamart.  257  f. 
auri  namque  fames... inde  seges  sce- 
lerum.  radix  et  sola  mcUorum. 

absistat] =a^i^;V  as  at  81.  10. 

25.  Eph.  V.  18. 
occupet]  as  at  46.  20. 

26.  perdita] 'abandoned,' hence 
'  uncontrolled.'  The  reading  perpeti 
would  come  from  32. 

27.  sensui]  a  dissyllable,  unless 
we  read  sensu,  which  would  here 
presumably  be  a  dative.  But  con- 
petens 'suitable  to,'  'compatible 
with  our  intelligence,'  is  sometimes 
found  with  abl.  [Was  not  the 
original  reading  sed  nostri  sensus 
compotes  ?] 

28.  Cp.  3.  22.  '  Christ's  cup '  is 
not  that  which  He  drank,  but  the 
drink  which  He  gives  (J oh.  iv.  14, 
vii.  37). 

29.  pacis  foedera]  78.  16.  Cp. 
Eph.  iv.  3. 

30.  Cp.  2  Cor.  vi.  6,  I  Tim.  i.  5. 


240  EA  RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

sit  inlibata  castitas 
credulitate  perpeti. 

addendis  non  sit  praediis 

malesuada  semper  famis ; 

si  affluant  diuitiae,  35 

prophetae  nos  psalmus  regat. 

praesta,  Pater  ingenite, 

totum  ducamus  iugiter 

Christo  placentes  hunc  diem 

sancto  repleti  Spiritu.  40 

31  sed  Eo  Ys.\}/.  33  adtendis  Fa.  34  mala  suadet  ¥^  (-dat  Fa). 

35  affluent  ¥\j/,  ut  se  fluant  Vr,     diuitiae  si  affl.  Fa.  36  propetiae  non 

ps.  redgat  Fa. 

31.  castitas  and  fides  are  thus  nom.  famis  which  is  used  by  Prud. 
linked  together  at  3.  18,  6.  23,  and  Psych.  479  and  some  other  late 
often.  Lact.  Diu.  Inst.  i.  xvii.  11,  writers.  Cp.46.  19;  Rdnsch  p.  263. 
VI.  xxiii.  36  uses  the  phrase  inlibata  35.  '  If  riches  increase  '  from  Ps. 
castitas;  and  inlibata  recurs  at  87.  Ixi.  (Ixii.)  11.  'The  prophet'  is  the 
II.  psalmist,  cp.  41.  2  note. 

32.  credulitate] 'faith,' cp.  Fort.  From  ajffluo  come  our  words 
XI.  i.  \  in  qua  et  integritas  creduli-  'affluent,'  'affluence';  cp.  92.  20 
talis  ostenditur ;  1.  6i  note.  affluis.    This    use   of   the   word   is 

33  f.    '  Let  there  be  no  greed  that  common  in  classical  writers,  as  Sail, 

ever  prompts  to  evil  in  the  piling  up  Cat.  xxxvi.  4  cu>n...domi  otium  at- 

of  estates.'  When  Aeneas  visited  the  que  diuitiae,  quae  prima  mortales 

lower  regions  malesuada  fames  was  putant,  affluereul.    Especially  does 

one  of  the  grisly  forms  that  he  saw  Cic.  use  affluens^abundans. 

at  the  mouth  of  hell,  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  37.    ingenitus    is    seldom    thus 

276.   So  Prud.  Psych.  404  speaks  of  used   without   its    correlative    uni- 

malesuada    luxuries,    Plant.    Gapt.  genitus,  as  at  41.  33  f. 

325   odi  ego  aurum  .    multa  multis  38  f.    Cp.46.  23  f. 

saepe    suasit  perperam.     Note   the  40.    Eph.  v.  18 


Hymn  51 

Hymn  51  was  in  the  old  series  appointed  for  daily  use 
at  Prime  throughout  the  year.  It  was  adopted  in  the 
later  hymnal  also  and  was  therein  reserved  for  Prime 
during  Lent,  its  former  place  having  been  taken  by 
hymn  81  lam  lucis  orto  sidere.  It  was  originally  written 
for  monastic  use :  see  the  notes  on  lines  4,  6,  and  13. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LI        241 


1  -nas  laudes  PIb. 
familia  Hr.  7  oremus  omnes. 

10  simul  et  Eo  Fr  Hr. 

I.  '  After  the  mattin  lauds  which 
we  have  sung  to  the  Trinity.'  post 
in  late  Latin  came  to  govern  an 
abl. ;  cp.  Ronsch  p.  408.  Blume  in- 
geniously makes  one  word  of  post- 
matutinis,  and  explains  '  in  the 
after-mattin  lauds,'  identical  with 
'  Prime.'  In  that  case  the  rursus 
would  presumably  mean  'as  we  did 
yesterday  and  other  days ' ;  but  this 
is  not  nearly  so  natural. 

3.  admonet]   Cp.  47.  10. 

4.  The  word  paterfamilias  is 
borrowed  from  the  parable  of  the 
labourers  in  the  vineyard,  Mt.  xx. 
I  f.,  upon  which  stanzas  I  and  11  are 
based,  as  is  hymn  66.  The  use  of 
the  word  here  denotes  that  the  hymn 
was  in  the  first  place  written  for 
household  (monastic)  use,  as  indeed 
we  might  conclude  from  septies  in 

6.  '  lest  the  service  of  God  pass 
by';  cp.  66.  5  f .  \^Opus  Dei  is  a 
technical  word  in  Benedictine  lan- 
guage for  divine  service :  for  instance 
S.  Bened.  Reg.  l  agant  ibidem  opus 
Dei  ubi  operantur...non  eos  praeter- 
eant  Iiorae  constitutae.\  The  last  two 
syllables  oi praetereat  coalesce  ;  -eat. 


Eo  Farsi^  Hbr  Ih  Vbs 
Post  matutinis  laudibus, 
quas  Trinitati  psallimus, 
psallamus  rursus  admonet 
uerus  paterfamilias. 

simus  semper  solliciti 
ne  praetereat  opus  Dei, 
sed  adoremus  sedule 
sicut  docet  apostolus : 
psallamus  mente  Domino, 
psallamus  simul  spiritu, 
rie  uaga  mens  in  turpi  bus 
inertes  tegat  animos. 

2  trinitatis  Hr,  trinitate  Fa. 
8  decet  Fa. 


4  ueris  F^. 
apostolos  Eo^  Fa. 


7.  The  MS  reading  sed  oremus 
sedule  is  defective  in  metre.  I  would 
read  adoremus,  the  word  used  in 
I  Cor.  xiv.  25  cadens  in  faciem 
adorabit  Deum,  to  verse  15  of  which 
chapterallusion  is  made  immediately 
after.  The  writer's  eye  would  pass 
on  from  the  doi sed;  and  moreover 
adorare  meaning  '  to  pray '  was 
much  rarer  than  the  simple  orare. 
The  reference  in  8  seems,  however, 
to  be  to  what  follows,  not  to  line  7. 

gf.  I  Cor.  xiv.  15  orabo  spiritu, 
orabo  et  mente:  psallam  spiritu, 
psallam  et  mente,  82  21  f.  It  seems 
to  me  that  the  writer  reversed  St 
Paul's  order  of  words,  writing  mente 
...spiritu,  to  suit  the  metre,  but 
that  the  older  Mss  have  spoilt  this 
by  inserting  et  before  spiritu  from 
the  recollection  of  the  et  before 
mente.  I  would  therefore  omit  the 
et,  for  which  simtd  is  substituted. 
If  it  be  retained  simul  et  must  be 
scanned  as  a  kind  of  tribrach. 

11.  uaga  mens]  67.  15,  82.  27, 
94.  14  ;  cp.  20.  1 1  note,  Prud.  Psych. 
312  luxuria...ocults  uaga. 

12.  tegat]  'shroud,'  as  with  a 
pall  of  darkness  ;  cp.  21.  5  note. 

16 


242  EA RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

sed  septies  in  hac  die 

dicamus  laudes  Domino, 

diuinitati  perpeti  15 

debita  demus  gloriae. 

15  diuinitate  Fa  Hr^.     perpetim  Eo  Hr.  16  debitani  Fs  Vs. 

gloriam  Fs  Vs,  gloria  Hb. 

1 3.  septies]  i.e.  at  the  seven  1 5  f.  '  Let  us  give  the  eternal 
canonical  hours,  the  observance  of  Godhead  His  due  of  glory,'  cp. 
which  was  as  yet  confined  to  monas-       49.  18. 

tic   use,   derived    from    Ps.   cxviii.  16.    debita... gloriae]  Cp.  5.  13 

(cxix.)  164  ;  cp.  82.  9.  cordis  i?na  (note).    Daniel  reads  de- 

14.  Identical  with  63.  i.  /^//aw  ^/£)r/a;«  with  the  later  Mss. 


Hymn  52 

52  was  of  course  always  sung  at  Terce :  see  line  3. 
The  rubric  in  Vat.  reg.  1 1  is  Hymnus  ad  tertia  cotidian., 
in  Rheinau  34  hymnus  priuatis  diebus  ad  tertiam.  The 
hymn  passed  into  the  Mozarabic  use  {Analecia  xxvil. 
103),  but  not  into  the  later  hymnal. 

Eo  Fas^  Hr  Max  Vrs 

Certum  tenentes  ordinem 
pio  poscamus  pectore 
bora  diei  tertia 
trinae  uirtutis  gloriam  : 

ut  simus  habitaculum  5 

illi  sancto  Spiritui, 

qui  quondam  in  apostolis 

hac  bora  distributus  est. 

I  certo  Vr^.   ordine  Fa^.        2  pascamus  Vr  (paschamus  Fa).        4  gloria 
Fa,  gloriae  Eo  Y\l>  Hr.     uirtutem  trini  numinis  Max.  8  haec  Fa. 

I.    certum] ' fixed,' cp.  27.  2  note.  in  habitaculum  Dei  in  Spiritu  ;  cp. 

1.   '  Let  us  with  dutiful  heart  pray  46.  ayf.  habitaculum '\%\x%qA^\.ZQ.  id 

to  the  glory  of  the  threefold  might,'  of  the  body  as 'the  abode 'of  the  soul, 

i.e.    to   the   glorious   Trinity.     For  6  f .   Acts  ii.  i  1.  and   15,  16.   if. 

this  use  of  the  abstract  gloriam  see  illi  is  used  emphatically  as  at  19.  2. 

the  Index.  7.   in  apostolis]  The  abl.  is  here 

5.    Eph.  ii.  22  uos  coaedificamini  used  in  the  same  sense  as  the  accus. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LUI       243 


hoc  gradientes  ordine 

ornauit  cuncta  splendide  10 

regni  caelestis  conditor 

aeternae  uitae  praemiis. 

9  quo  [pro  hoc)  Max.     ordinetn  Mx.  lo  splendida  Eo  Hr*. 

I   celesti  Fa.  12  praemia  Eo  (-miae  F^),  praemium  Fa. 


9  f.  '  Them  that  walk  in  this 
order  (according  to  this  rule)  the 
founder  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven 
has  rewarded  in  all  respects  glori- 
ously, even  with  the  gifts  of  eternal 
life.'  Perhaps  we  should  read/r^/r- 
mia.  The  use  of  the  doub'e  ace. 
(which  in  classical  writers  was  con- 
fined to  a  few  words  of  asking, 
teaching,  concealing)  was  wide  in 
early  and  late  Latin.  Any  verb 
which  takes  an  ace.  of  the  person  or 


of  the  thing  may  take  both  ace's 
together,  as  Ter.  Phorm.  947  argen- 
turn  quod  habes  condonamus  te.  Act. 
Fratr.  Arual.  Corp.  p.  550.  7  uic- 
tores  palmas  et  coronas  argenteas 
iwHorauenint.  In  late  Latin  among 
many  instances  we  find  in  an  in- 
scription aetatem  tantos  onerare  do- 
lores,  and  Commodian  Apol.  418 
qt4em  et  polauerunt  secundum  scrip- 
turas  acetunt. 


Hymn  53 

The  rubric  in  the  MSS  is  either  ad  sexta  or  ad  sextam 
except  in  Rheinau  34  which  has  ad  sextain  pHuatis 
diebus'. 

Eo  Fai/'  Mx  Vr 

Dicamus  laudes  Domino 

feruente  prompto  spiritu, 

hora  uoluta  sexies 

nos  ad  orandum  prouocat : 

quia  in  hac  fidelibus  5 

uerae  salutis  gratia 

beati  agni  hostia 

crucis  uirtute  redditur : 
^  feruenti  Vr.     promptu  Eo  Fai^.     rursus  {^pro  pr.)  Vr. 
5  qui  Faf.     hoc  Mx.  6  uera  Mx.     gloriae  Eo. 

8  crucem  Fa(?)^.     uirtutes  Eo  Fa. 


3  uolata  Fa. 
7  agnis  Fa. 


1.  Identical  with  61.  14. 

2.  Blume  reads  prompti,  but 
prumptu  of  the  MSS  points  to  an 
original  prompto,  which  comes  from 
16.  3  dignare  promplus  ingeri: 
'with    ready    and    fervent    spirit.' 


rursus  of  Vat.  reg.  1 1  might  come 
from  61.  3. 

4.  prouocat  has  a  good  sense  as  at 
47. 19, 112.  29,  cp.  108. 1 7.  Cp.  Heb. 
X.  24.    Here  it  governs  dicamus. 

5  f.    '  Hecause   at    this   hour  the 

16 — a 


244  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

cuius  luce  clarissima 

tenebricat  meridies :  lo 

sumamus  toto  pectore 

tanti  splendoris  gratiam. 

9  lux  Fa.  lo  meridie  F^,  meridiem  Fa.  12  gratia  Faf, 

gratiae  Vr. 

grace  of  true  salvation  is  restored  to  midday  is  darkened.'  The  first  refer- 

believers    by   the    sacrifice    of    the  ence  is  to  Mt.  xxvii.   45 ;    cp.   56. 

blessed  Lamb,  by  the  power  of  the  1 3  f- ;    but  the  author  seems  at  the 

cross,'  Joh.  xix.  14.    Or  there  may  same  time  to  wish  to  suggest  that 

be  a  reference  here  already,  as  there  the   midday   sun   is   dark   in  com- 

is  in  1 1  f.,  to  the  midday  communion  parison  with  Christ, 

on  a  fast  day  as  at  100.  2  f.  when  we  10.    tenebricare  is  used  in  the 

should  translate  '...by  the  grace  of  Old  Latin,  but  not  in  the  Vulgate, 

our  true  salvation  (Christ)  the  sacri-  of  Amos  viii.  9,  Lk.  xxiii.  45  ;  cp. 

fice  of  the  blessed  Lamb  is  restored  Ronsch  p.  159. 

to   believers....'     For    salutis  thus  11.   sumamus]   Cp.  107.  16. 

used  cp.  23.  14,  36.  27,  38.  29.    In  12.  tanti  splendoris]  = /aw  j//^«- 

either  interpretation   beati  agni  is  didi:    of    Him   who   was   splendor 

the  gen.  of  definition.  paternae  gloria e,  Z.  i. 
9.   'by  the  brilliant  light  of  whom 

Hymn  54 

The  original  use  of  54  was  ad  nonam  throughout  the 
year,  and  so  also  in  the  Mozarabic  breviary,  Analecta 
xxvn.  p.  105.  It  was  adopted  in  the  later  series  of 
hymns,  and,  as  in  that  series  hymn  i%Rerum  Deus  tenax 
uigor  was  the  usual  one  for  this  hour,  our  hymn  was 
appointed  for  None  during  Lent. 

Ecdhjlov  Fais^  Gm  Hbcd/3  lop  Mx  Vrs 

Perfectum  trinum  numerum 
ternis  horarum  terminis, 
laudes  canentes  debitas 
nonam  dicentes  psallimus. 

I  perfecto  -no  -ro  Ev  lop  Vs.  3  debita  Vr.  4  nona  F^  (nota 

Fa)  Vr.     dicente  Vr. 

I.     'The   threefold   number   ac-  kind  of  apposition  to  nonam  in  4; 

complished  in  periods  of  three  hours  or  they  may  be  ace.  absolute,  as  the 

each,'  i.e.   'the  ninth  hour  having  later    copyists  who   wrote    perfecto 

come.'  trino    numero    probably   took    the 

The   ace's   in-  i    may   be  in    a  passage;  see  33.  16  note. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LV        245 

sacrum  Dei  mysterium  5 

puro  tenentes  pectore, 
Petri  magistri  regula 
signo  salutis  prodita, 

et  nos  psallamus  spiritu 

adhaerentes  apostolis :  10 

qui  plantas  adhuc  debiles 

Christi  uirtute  dirigant. 

6  purum  Fa.  canentes  Mx.  pectori  EIv.  7  patris  Mx.  magistra 
F^.  regulam  Ecv  Vr,  regulae  He.  8  signum  Fa^  Ip  Vr.  proditam  Vr, 
proditum  He.  9  at  Edo.  om.  nos  Fa.  spiritum  F^  H/3,  spiritus  Vs. 
10  apostoli  H/3.  n  mentes  Mx.  habeni  (pro  3.Ahnc)  omnes  praeierVx. 
12  uirtutem  Fi  Gm  Hb|3  lo.     diligant  Eel  Fi  Gm  Hc/3  lop,  dirigunt  Vr. 

3.  Cp.  16.  3.  psallamus  (cp.  Ul.    10)  and  adhae- 

4.  nonam]  i.e.  the  office  so-called,  rentes.  Y ox  adhaerentes  apostolis  c^. 
'  None.'  10.  15  note. 

5.  'holding  the  saered  mystery  11.  ' And  may  they  (the  apostles) 
of  God  in  a  pure  heart ' ;  this  mys-  make  straight  our  feet  (ankles),  that 
tery  being  the  faith  in  the  Trinity.  are  yet  weak,  by  the  power  of 
See  I  Tim.  iii.  9  habentes  viysteritim  Christ.'    For  dirigant  in  this  sense 

fidei  in  conscientia pira,  which  pas-  cp.  Ceisus  viii.  x.  1  frangi  riirsus 

sage  the  hymn-writer  has  in  mind.  ossa  et  dirigi  dehent ;  Prosper  in  Ps. 

7  f.  '  after  the  rule  of  our  master  cxxxiv.  18  diriguntur  pedes  claudo- 
Peter  made  known  to  us  by  the  rum.  The  variant  habent  would  be 
miracle  of  healing,'  viz.  that  of  the  due  to  the  copyists  not  understand- 
lame  man  ;  see  Acts  iii.  i  f.  and  ing  the  construction  here, 
especially  St  Peter's  words  in  t/.  16.  plantas]  strictly  'the  soles'  of 
magistri  — ^viho  taught  us  thus  to  the  feet,  probably  connected  with 
do.'  planus,  but  here  used  for  talos,  as 

9.    '  Let  us  also  (as  well  as  the  in  Acts  iii.  7  consolidatae  sunt  bases 

lame  man.  Acts  iii.  8)  sing,  clinging  eitis  et  plantae  (rd  a<pvpd). 
in  spirit  to  the  apostles '  (ibid.  11).  Chr.    uirtute]   'by   the    healing 

psallamus  looks  back  to  psallimus  power,'  in  reference  to  Acts  iii.  12, 

in  4.   spiritu  seems  to  go  with  both  iv.  7. 


Hymn  55 

The  rules  of  Caesarius  and  Aurelian  prescribe  this 
hymn  ad  sextam  tempore  paschali  (Blume  Cursiis  pp.  i(>, 
40).  In  Vat.  rag.  11,  the  one  MS  that  contains  it,  the 
rubric  is  simply  ad  sexta.  The  metre  is  noticeably 
correct,  except  in  lines  2,  6,  34,  36.    The  hymn,  though 


246  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

appointed  for  sext,  is  here  placed  after  hymn  54,  because 
of  its  special  appointment  by  both  bishops  of  Aries  as  an 
Easter  hymn. 

Vr 

lam  sexta  sensim  uoluitur 

ter  binis  hora  cursibus, 

diesque  puncto  aequabili . 

utramque  noctem  respicit. 

uenite,  serui,  supplices  5 

mente,  ore,  extollite 

dignis  beatum  laudibus 

nomen  Dei  cum  cantico. 

hoc  namque  tempus  illud  est 

quod  saeculorum  iudicem  10 

iniusta  morti  tradidit 

mortalium  sententia, 

cum  sol  repente  territus, 

horrore  tanti  criminis 

mortem  minatus  saeculis,  15 

diem  refugit  impium. 

6  inseruit  et  Vr^  manus  recentior. 

I .   sensim  refers  to  the  gradual  often  in  late  writers,  cp.  Quint,  x. 

passing  one  by  one  of  the  first  six  iii.   14  ncc  dissimiilauit   adulescens, 

hours.  iertium  iam  diem   esse,  quod...non 

uoluitur]  63.  3,  56.  1,69.4.  inuemrei ;    Aetheriae   Peregrinatio 

3f.    'the  day  from  an  equidistant  li.  zkis  diebus,  qtiod sanctus  Moyses 

point   (i.e.    midday)    regards    both  ascendit  in  montetn  Domini.  A  third 

nights,'  viz.  the  night  past  and  the  interpretation  would  make  quod  the 

night  to  come.  nom.  to  tradidit.,  and  sententia  abl. 

5.  Ps.  cxxxiv.  1  laudate  serui  saeculorum]  '  of  the  world,' and 
Dominum  ;  82.  18.  so  in  15. 

6.  mente,  ore]  'with  mind  and  13 f.  Mt.  xxvii.  45,  cp.  1.  43, 
mouth,'  cp.  16.  5.  Probably  there  63.  9;  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  79  f.  sol 
is  an  allusion  to  i  Cor.  xiv.  15.  refugit  et   lugubri  sordidus  ferru- 

8.  Ps.  Ixviii.  (Ixix.)  30  laudato  gine  \  igneum  reliqiiit  axem  seque 
nomen  Dei  cum  cantico.  maerens  abdidit :  |  fertur  horruisse 

9.  Joh.  xix.  14.  mundus  noctis  aetemae  chaos.   The 

10.  quod]  'at  which,'  in  a  clas-  darkening  of  the  sun  was  to  be  a 
sical  writer  would  be  quo,  cp.  43.  i  sign  of  the  end  of  the  age  {mortem 
note.    Or  perhaps  quod  may  be  a  saeculis),  Mt.  xxiv.  29,  cp.  120.  9. 
conjunction    meaning     'when,'    as  18.    Gen.  xviii.  2  f.    The  MS  read- 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LV       247 

hoc  et  beatus  tempore 

Abraham  fideh'ter  rei 

peritus  in  mysterio 

tres  uidit,  unum  credidit.  20 

banc  ad  precandum  congruam 

saluator  horam  tradidit, 

cum  diceret  fideUbus 

Patrem  rogandum  seruulis. 

nee  non  et  ille  pertinax  35 

hostis  fidei  gratiam, 

quam  praedicauit  gentibus, 

hoc  est  adeptus  tempore 

et  nos  amore  debito, 

timore  iusto  subditi,  30 

aduersus  omnes  impetus, 

quos  saeuus  hostis  incutit, 

unum  rogemus  et  Patrem 

Deum  regemque  Filium 

18,  19  reperitus  Vr.         26  usus  hostis  Vr.         33  inseruit  et  manus  rec. 

ing   Abraham   fideliter    re  peritus  fldeliter]     Abraham's     faith     is 

needs  correction.    I  would  by  the  dwelt  upon  in  Rom.  iv.  3,  Gal.  iii. 

addition  of  a  stroke  (perhaps  already  6,    Heb.  xi.    8  ff.,  Jas.  ii.    23,   cp. 

added  by  the  corrector  of  the  MS)  i  Maccab.  ii.  52. 
read     rei;      'By     faith     {fideliter)  19.   peritus  is  often  found  with  a 

Abraham  knowing  the  truth  saw  in  gen.  ofthe  thing  known,  e.g.  Liv.  ni. 

a  mystery  three  and   believed  but  ^\  peritus  rertim popularium. 
one.'     The  phrase  became  a  com-  2 if.    Joh.  iv.  6. 

monplace :  cp.   Ambr.  de  Cain  30  23.     Perhaps   the  author  under- 

tres  tiidet,  unum  adorat ;   de   Fid.  stood    the   '  hour '    in  Joh.    iv.    33 

Res.  II.  96  Abraham... fidelis  Deo...  to  mean  the  hour  of  the  day.    The 

Trinitatem  in  typo  uidit,... tres  sus-  emphasis  is  on  Patrem. 
piciens,    unum    adorans  \    Aug.    c.  25.   Acts  xxii.  6,  xxvi.    13.   The 

Maxim.    Ar.   II.    xxvi.    8    et    ipse  allusion  is  to  St  Paul's  conversion. 
Abraham  tres  uidit  et  unum  ado-  27.    gentibtis]  to  the   Gentiles; 

rauit',  Prud.  Apoth.  28  f.;  Fort.  v.  Acts  ix.  15,  Rom.  xi.  13,  Gal.  ii.  7, 

v.  47  tres  uidet  aequales,  unum  ue-  Eph.  iii.  8. 

neratiis  adorat.    It  came  to  be  re-  29.     et    nos]    like    those   whom 

garded   as   a   biblical   text.     '  And  Saul  persecuted  and  then  joined, 
there  he    satt    and   saughe   3   Per-  33.    Cp.  6.  29,  43.   13.    Perhaps 

sones,  and  worschipte   but  on  ;   as  intended  as  an  echo  of  24. 
Holy  Writt  seythe,  7>-<?j  z'/V//V  ^/ «««  34.    regrem]    Cp.   1.    2,    15,  70; 

adoravit''    (Maundevile's    Travaile  11.  19,  28.  4,  34.  i,  18. 
p.  66,  ed.  Halliwell). 


248  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

simulque  sanctum  Spiritum  35 

in  Trinitate  Dominum, 

ut,  quos  redemit  passio 
isto  peracto  tempore, 
possit  sub  ipso  tempore 
seruare  deprecatio.  40 

38  sto  Vr. 

37  f.    'that  our  prayer  may  avail  often  meaning  no  more  than  hie; 

to  keep  us  safe  at  this  time  whom  cp.  Aeth.  Peregr.  11.  j,  placuit,  ut... 

the  Passion  redeemed  at  that  past  per  niediam  uailetn  ipsani...redire- 

time.'    One  is  tempted  to  correct,  w;<j;  ib.  xv.  i  requisiui  de  eo,  quam 

with  most  editors,  to  peracta:  but  longe  esset  ipse  locus. 
in  these  hymns  peractus  is  always  sub]  *in,' a  late  usage,  cp.  Jerome 

used  as  an  adj.  meaning  '  past,'  cp.  Epist.  LXXVII.   10  sub  una  aestate, 

5.  9,  33.  16,  115.  14.  and  (on  an  inscription)  teneris  sub 

39  f.    Cp.  84.  23  conserua  nos  in  annis. 
tttnpore  \  hostis  a  tela  perfidi.  40.    deprecatio]  Cp.  19.  13  note. 

ipso]    '  this   present '  time,     ipse  The  word   is  often  so  used  in  the 

lost  much  of  its  force  in  late  Latin,  Vulgate,  e.g.  Ps.  vi.  10,  xvi.  i  etc. 

Hymn  56 

This  hymn,  which  in  point  of  style  and  metre  is  well- 
nigh  worthy  of  Ambrose  himself,  is  prescribed  by 
Caesarius  and  Aurelian  for  None  in  the  Easter  season 
(Blume  Cursus  pp.  36,  40).  In  Vat.  reg.  1 1  the  rubric  is 
(erroneously)  Hymnus  ad  iiesperuin  in  die  ieiunii.  On 
these  last  words  Blume  Analecta  LI.  p.  18  notes  that,  in 
view  of  the  above  appointment  by  the  two  bishops  of 
Aries,  the  reference  is  to  the  fast  on  Wednesdays  and 
Fridays  in  Eastertide,  not  to  Lent ;  see  the  note  on  line  29. 

['Easter,'  however,  was  not  defined  in  ancient  times  in 
the  same  manner  as  with  us,  and  /;/  die  ieiunii  may  have 
been  intended  for  the  day  or  days  preceding  Easter, 
which  would  agree  with  Caesarius'  words  iti  die  primo 
Paschae.'] 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LVI       249 

Vapr 
Ter  hora  trina  uoluitur, 
redire  qua  Christus  solet 
mercede  largus  uineam 
locare  mercenariis. 

decet  paratos  sistere,  c 

ne  transeat  merces  Dei, 
plantare  quae  uitem  solet 
Christumque  cordi  adfigere. 

haec  hora,  quae  resplenduit 

crucisque  soluit  nubila,  10 

mundum  tenebris  exuens, 

reddens  serena  tempora. 

haec  hora,  qua  resuscitans 

lesus  sepulcris  corpora 

prodire  mortis  libera  15 

2  quia  Vr.  3  mercedem  Vap.     uineae  Vap.  9  qua  Vr. 

10  om.  que  Vp.     uincula  Vr.  13  quae  Vap. 

I.    ter]  to  be  taken  with  Irina,  5.    sistere]  'to  take  our  stand,' 

not  with  uoluitur.  with  a  view  to  being  hired. 

2  f .    Mt.  XX.  I  f,  especially  5.  6.    transeat]   'pass  by  us,'   cp. 

redire . . .  solet] '  comes  once  more. '  praetereat  61.  5  f . 
For  this  force  of  redire  cp.  36.  38  ;  7.     plantare]     If    a   parable   is 

and  for  the  periphrasis  with   solet  still    in    view,  it  seems  to  be  that 

lines  7  and   30.    For  the  common  of  the  Vineyard,   not    that   of  the 

use   in   late    Latin    of    such    peri-  Vine,   in  which  case   cordi  affigere 

phrastic    expressions    see    Lcifstedt  will    express   plantare.     Ambr.    in 

Aeth.  p.  207  f.  Lttc.   IX.    29  agricola  quippe  omni- 

3.  mercede  largnis]  'generous  in  potens  pater,  uitis  est  Christus. ..ut 
His  payment':  Mt.  xx.  5,  although  uitis  maritatur  arboribus;  Hex.w. 
at  the  ninth  hour  only  three  hours  quid prodest ponereuitem...adiungere 
of  work  remain,  the  payment  is  still  ulmis  et  quodam  conubio  copulare...? 
the  same ;  Ambr.  Hex.  11.  10  Deus  This  attachment  is  the  result  of 
...intnensus  in  remuneratiotu.  God's  God's  'mercy'  {quae  solet). 
payment  is   His  grace  or  'mercy'  9  f .    Mt.  xxvii.  45. 

and   in    this    sense   we    often   find  haec  hora]  '  this  is  the  hour ' ;  so 

merces  used;  see  Leo's  Fottunatus  also  in    13,  and  in  4.  9,  of  which 

p.  407.  passage  the  writer  is  thinking. 

4.  locare]  'in  order  to  let  out,'  12.    serena]  'bright,'  cp.  10.   2 
cp.  Mt.  xxi.  33  locauit  earn  agricolis.  note. 

There   appears   to   be   a   confusion  i3f.    Mt.  xxvii.  52  ;  cp.  1.  44. 

between  this  parable  and  that  of  the  15.     mortis    libera]    'free    from 

Labourers  in  the  Vineyard.  death';    cp.    Verg.    Aen.    x.    154 


250 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


iussit  refuso  spiritu. 

redit  fauilla  in  sanguinem 
cinisque  carnem  reddidit, 
mixtique  uiuis  mortui 
uidere  Christi  gloriam. 

nouata  saecla  crederes, 
mortis  solutis  legibus, 
uitae  beatae  munere 
cursum  perennem  currere. 

dicamus  ergo,  proximi, 
laudes  Deo  cum  cantico  ; 
confessus  est  latro  fidem 
in  quo  est  redemptus  tempore. 


20 


25 


16  refulso  Vpi.         17  reddil  Vp^. 
Vp.         28  om.  in  Vap. 

libera  fati;  Hor.  Ars  Poet.  112 
liber  laborum.  Usually  liber  takes 
an  abl.,  as  at  12.  26,  31.  63. 

16.  spiritu]  '  the  breath  of  life.' 

1 7.  '  The  ashes  turned  to  blood 
again.'  faiiilla  is  'the  ashes'  of  a 
cremated  body,  as  at  Hor.  Od.  11. 
vi.  23,  hence  the  remains  of  a  body 
that  has  been  buried  ;  cp.  Fort.  ix. 
ii.  67  coeperit  ut  tegere  arentes  cutis 
uda  fauillas  \  et  uiui  cineres  de 
tumulis  salient. 

redIt  is  perfect.  Like  contracted 
forms  are  found  :  /V(Ter.  Verg.  Ov.), 
abit  (Plant.  Ter.  Sen.).  Cp.  37.  14, 
20. 

20.  uidere]  perfect.  Blunie,  who 
thought  that  in  21  all  the  MSS  read 
credere,  takes  uidere,  credere  and 
currere  in  24  as  historic  inf.  But 
uidere  as  inf.  after  the  indicative 
perfects  redit  and  reddidit  would  be 
too  abrupt.  Possibly  there  is  a  re- 
ference to  Joh.  xi.  40. 

2 1 .  crederes]  '  you  would  think,' 
were  you  there  to  see,  like  Ambr.'s 
quis  putet  %.  13.  For  the  tense  cp. 
Prud.  Cath.  ix.  cerneres  coire  mem- 
bra  de  fauillis  aridis  and  several 


2 1  credere  Vap.        24  perhenne 


examples  quoted  by  Drager  Hist. 
Synt.  I.  282  f. 

nouata  saecla]  perhaps  an  echo 
of  12.  29. 

22.  Cp.  49.  4. 

23.  uitae  beatae]  Cp.  10.  16  and 
42.  44. 

24.  currere  has  saecla  for  subject, 
cursum  for  object. 

25.  proximi]  'neighbours,'  as  at 
16.  8.  For  the  vocative  thus  used 
cp.  66.  j,  82.  r8. 

26.  Cp.  66.  8. 

27.  Cp.  10.  7.  It  is  implied  that 
we  too  are  redeemed  at  this  hour, 
and  therefore  ought  to  glorify  God 
as  the  penitent  robber  did. 

28.  in  quo  est,  though  not  given 
in  any  MS,  is  better  than  quo  est, 
for  while  elision  occurs  at  lines  8 
and  17,  no  instance  of  hiatus  comes 
in  the  hymn,  in  is  thus  used  of 
time  at  37.  13,  63.  5,  84.  23,  91.  3, 
101.  2. 

29  f.  '  By  this  grace  (the  redemp- 
tion granted  to  the  repentant  robber, 
10.  22,  and  to  us)  we  joyfully  bring 
our  fast  to  an  end,  a  type  of  our 
future  reward  ;  may  those  who  are 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LVII      251 

qua  gratia  ieiuniutn 

laeti  solemus  soluere  30 

instar  futuri  muneris : 

fatnem  probati  nesciant. 

approved    not    know    (experience)  nondum  nana  diem  resignat  hora' ; 

hunger.'    Daniel  (i.  4)  notes:  ueteres  Epiphan.  Expos.  Fid.  22  Tfrpddi  Si 

Christiani  diebus  stationuin  ieimtare  Kai   ev  Tr^ewa/SjSdTy  iv  vTiartlq.  ?ws 

solebanl  usque  ad Nonam.   See  Prud.  wpas  iuvdrr/s.    Cp.  the  introduction 

Ca(/i.  vwi.  ^L  nona  submissum  rotat  to  this  hymn.    ««j/rtr is  in  apposition 

hora  solem  ;  \  ...nos  brents  uoti  dape  with  ieiutiium  soluere. 
uindicata   \   soluimus  festum  frtii-  32.     probati]   'the  elect,'  cp.  1. 

murque  mensis ;     Perist.   VI.    54  f.  30,  57.    See  Rev.  vii.  16. 
'  ieiunamus,^  ail,    '  recuso  potutn.   \ 

Hymn  57 

Caesarius  and  Aurelian  appoint  this  hymn  for  use  at 
Vespers  in  alternation  with  5  Deus  creator  omnium^ 
Aurelian's  actual  expression  being  ad  lucernarium 
(Blume  Cursus  pp.  38,  43).  And  in  Vat.  reg.  1 1  hymn  5 
immediately  follows  our  hymn  with  the  rubric  item 
hymnus  uespertinus.  57  and  58  are  so  much  alike  that  it 
is  most  likely  that  one  poet  wrote  both.  Neither  of  them 
passed  into  the  later  hymnal. 

Eo  Fabi//  Mx  Vr 
Deus,  qui  certis  legibus 
noctem  discernis  ac  diem, 
ut  fessa  curis  corpora 
somnus  relaxet  otic, 

te  noctis  inter  horridae  5 

tempus  precamur,  ut,  sopor 
mentem  dum  fessam  detinet, 
fidei  lux  inluminet. 
2  a  die  F^.        3  cures  Mx.        4  somno  Vr,  somnum  Eo  Fa^.     relaxat 
Fab^.     otium  Mx.         7  retinet  Fa. 

I  f.   The  thought   of  this  stan/a  dwelt  upon ;  cp.  27.  3. 
often  recurs ;    see  the  introduction  8.    For  the  combination  of  faith 

to  2.  an^  light  see  5.  20,  6.  32. 

5.     The  dread  of  night  is  often 


252 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


hostis  ne  fallax  incitet 
lasciuis  corda  gaudiis, 
secreta  noctis  aduocans, 
blandos  in  aestus  corporis. 

subrepat  nuUus  sensui 
horror  timoris  anxii ; 
inludat  mentem  ne  uagam 
fallax  imago  uisuum. 

sed  cum  profundus  uinxerit 
somnus  curarum  nescius, 
fides  nequaquam  dormiat, 
uigil  te  sensus  somniet. 


lO 


IS 


20 


9  hoste  Fa.  10  lasciuas  F^.     cura  {^pro  corda)  Vr,  curis  Eo  Fa^, 

curam  Mx.  ri  secretam  Mx.  12  blandus  Eo  Fa^  Mx  Vr. 

aestu  Fa.     isto  corpore  Eo.  15  mente  Fa.     nee  Vr.  16  uisui 

Eo  Fa.  17  secundum  profundum  Fa.  18  nesciens  Fa. 

19  fidem  Fa.     dormiet  Fa^.  20  uigilue  Eo,  uigilque  Mx. 


9  f.  '  Let  not  our  deceitful  enemy, 
calling  to  his  aid  the  privacy  of 
night,  stimulate  our  hearts  with 
licentious  pleasures  to  alluring  pas- 
sions of  the  body.'  The  reading 
cura,  which  in  some  codices  was 
changed  into  curis  in  consequence 
of  the  words  on  either  side  of  it, 
bears  no  satisfactory  sense.  Blume 
reads  crura,  but  gives  no  authority. 
I  read  corda,  which  would  in  one 
MS  or  another  be  written  curda  (as 
Vat.  reg.  1 1  at  line  6  of  this  hymn 
writes  supor)  and  this  would  be 
corrupted  into  cura,  a  word  occur- 
ring in  one  or  other  of  its  cases  at 
lines  3  and  18.  With  incitel  corda 
cp.  26.  20  agitas  quieta  corda. 

11.  secreta  noctis]  Cp.  6.  26 
cordis  alta.  For  the  implied  mean- 
ing cp.  Eph.  V.  12. 

aduocans]  Cp.  Sil.  Punic,  ix. 
81  ad  conamina  noctem  \  aduocat  ac 
furtim  castris  euadit  inquis. 

12.  As  hostis  already  has  its  epi- 
thet   (fallax),   for   blandus   I   read 


blandos;  cp.  46.    14  blandis...aesti- 
bus. 

aestus  corporis]  '  bodily  heats ' 
or  '  passions ' ;  cp.  5.  24,  and  for 
the  gen.  10.  i\poenam  corporis. 

13.  subrepat]  as  at  46.  11. 

14.  '  dread  torturing  fear.' 
anxii]   Cp.  6.  8  note.   The  allu- 
sion is  to  "evil  dreams  or  nightmares 
sent  by  the  devil,  who  was  thought 
to  have  special  sway  by  night. 

15.  inludat]  103.  20.  It  seems 
here  to  refer  to  apparitions  or 
'ghosts.'   Cp.  83.  5,  6. 

mentem  uagam]  61.  11. 

16.  fallax]  of  that  which  speaks 
or  looks  real  but  is  not :  '  a  decep- 
tive semblance  of  things  seen.' 

X  7  f.  an  echo  of  5.  17  f 

18.  curartun]  the  cares  of  the 
past  day,  as  in  3. 

19.  Cp.  6.  21. 

20.  Cp.  6.  26,  60.  5.  sensus 
(like  sensui  above)  means  the  spirit 
or  inner  consciousness. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LVHl     253 

Hymn  58 
The  rubric  in  Vat.  reg.  1 1,  the  one  authority  for  58,  is 
item  hymmis  uespertinus :  so  it  was  in  alternate  use  with 
57  and  5,  which  it  immediately  follows  in  this  MS.    It  is 
not  mentioned  by  Caesarius  or  Aurelian. 

Vr 

Sator  princepsque  temporum, 
clarum  diem  laboribus 
noctemque  qui  soporibus 
fixe  distinguis  ordine, 

mentem  tu  castam  dirige,  5 

obscura  ne  silentia 
ad  dira  cordis  uulnera 
talis  patescant  inuidi. 

somno  non  cedat  spiritus, 

uigilque  custos  corporis  10 

metus  inanes  arceat, 

fallax  depellat  gaudium. 

uacent  ardore  pectora, 
faces  nee  uUas  sentiant, 

3  laboribus  Vr. 

I .   sator]  44.  I .  cedai :    '  may   it    refuse   to   yield ' ; 

5.   mentem... castam]  3.  17.  hence  -^uenot  sed  in  the  next  line. 

6  f.     '  lest   the  dark  silence  (i.e.  Yet  -que  can  have  an   adversative 

lest  we  in  the  dark  and  silent  night)  force,  even  in  Cic.  de  Off.  i.  22  non 

be   exposed   to    the    darts    of    the  nobis   solum    tiati   sunius  ortusque 

enemy,  causing  dread  wounds  of  the  uostri  partem  patria  uind'uat.    The 

heart.'     Somewhat   similar  to   this  '  spirit '  watches  over  the  body, 

use  of  the  abstract  silentia  is  Pro-  l^.   fallaz]  as  in  67.  9. 

pert.  n.   XX.    31    tunc   inter    Tityi  13.    Cp.  17.  6,  67.  12. 

uolncres  mea  poena  (i.e.    I  in  my  i4f.     'and    may    they    feel    no 

punishment)  uagetnr.  flames  (of  lust),  lest  these  fastening 

7.  uulnera]  19.  16.  on  the  heart  destroy  the  vigour  of 

8.  telis  patescant]   Eph.  vi.  16,  the  soul.' 

45.  16  f.,  84.  24.  faces]   Cp.  Cic.  Tusc.  I.  44  cum 

inuidi]  3.  14,  6.  27  etc.  corporis fcuibus inHammari soleamus 

9.  non  is  to  be  taken  closely  with       ad  omnes  fere  cupiditates. 


254  EA RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

adfixae  ne  praecordiis  15 

mentis  uigorem  saucient. 
sed  cum  defessa  corpora 
somni  tenebunt  gratiam, 
caro  quietis  sit  memor, 

fides  soporem  nesciat.  20 

15  adfixa  Vr.  19  solo  {pro  caro)  Vr.  20  nesciant  Vr. 

15.  adfixae  refers  toya^^j.cp.  56. 8.  which  is  meaningless.  Blume  cor- 
The  MS  reading  adfixa  can  but  agree  rects  to  caro,  comparing  the  com- 
with  pectora,  which  gives  no  good  pline  hymn  lesu  redemptor  saeculi 
sense.  {Analecta  LI.  p.  43)    15  f.  sic  caro 

praecordiis]    Cp.  45.  12  note.  nostra  dormiat,  \  ut  mens   soporem 

16.  saucient  may  be  compared  nesciat.  [But  if  this  conjecture  be 
with  uulnera  in  7.  The  verb  is  used  right,  caro  must  be  taken  in  a  strictly 
again  at  106.  11,  saucius  at  80.  6,  ethical  sense.  Something  is  wanted 
86.  6.  that  would  correspond  to  culpa  in 

18.  somnl... gratiam]  Cp.  5.  4  5.22.  Z>^/«j- would  be  a  little  nearer 
soporis  gratia.  the  MS  reading,  or  scelus.^ 

19.  caro]    Our  one  ms  has  solo, 

Hymn  59 
In  Eo  and  Fa  the  rubric  is  ad  uesperas  dominicis  and 
this  was  the  use  of  the  hymn. 

Eo  Fasi/'  Gb  Vs 

Deus,  qui  claro  lumine 

diem  fecisti,  Domine, 

tuam  rogamus  gloriam 

dum  pronus  uoluitur  dies. 

iam  sol  urgente  uespero  5 

occasum  suum  graditur, 

3  tua... gloria  F^.  4  tu  pronos  soluitur  Vs.  5  arguentes  Vs. 

uespere  Fa,  uesperum  Fi/'. 

3.  *  We  pray  to  Thy  glory,'  i.e.  pressing  on,  goes  down  his  western 
we  pray  to  Thee,  O  glorious  one;  slope.' Vesperus,moreusually known 
cp.  the  similar  phrase  52.  2  f.  pos-  in  the  Greek  form  Hesperus,  was 
camus...trinae  uirttitis gloriam.  the  evening  star.    Rising  after  and 

4.  pronus]  '  on  its  downward  following  the  sun,  he  '  presses  him 
course,'  being  past  the  zenith.  So  on.'  It  may,  however,  simply  mean 
Stat.  Theb.  11.  41  prona  dies,  Hor.  '  the  evening.'  For  the  rhythm  cp. 
Od.  III.  xxviii.  5  inclinare  meridiem  84.  9. 

sentis.  6.  occasum  is  a  kind  of  contained 

5.  '  Now  the  sun,  with  Vesperus       ace.  after  graditur;  unless  we  take 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LIX       255 


7  tenebras  Fa. 
1 5  tecta  Gb. 


mundum  concludens  tenebris, 
suum  obseruans  ordinem. 

sed  tu,  excelse  Domine, 
precantes  tuos  famulos 
labore  fessos  diei 
quietos  nox  suscipiat ; 

,  ut  non  fuscatis  mentibus 
dies  abscedat  saeculi, 
sed  tua  tecti  gratia 
cernamus  lucem  prosperam. 

1 1  laliores  Eo  Fa.    Yessus  Fa  Vs. 
16  luce  prospera  Fa^  Gb. 


15 

1 2  quieta  Vs. 


it  as  the  ace.  of  the  place  to  which, 
as  Verg.  Aen.  vi.  696  haec  limina 
/endere\  Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  111.  22.^ 
ire  palatia,  '  to  go  to  the  palace.' 
It  might  perhaps  even  be  treated  as 
the  supine,  in  spite  of  the  attached 
suum. 

7.  The  sun  is  said  to  shut  the 
world  in  darkness  by  ceasing  to 
shine,  much  as  the  wind  is  said  to 
calm  the  waves  by  ceasing  to  blow 
(Soph.  Aj.  674,  Verg.  Ed.  Ii.  26 
etc.)  or  as  a  husband  is  said  to 
make  his  wife  a  widow  by  ceasing 
to  live,  as  in  a  Mozarabic  hymn, 
Atial.  XXVII.  p.  67  quam  in  Jlore 
iuuentutis  coniunx  uiduauerat. 

8.  Cp.  84.  17  f.,  Ps.  ciii.  (civ.)  19. 
9  f.     '  And   Thou,    O   most  high 

Lord,  may  the  night  welcome  into 
its  quiet  Thy  servants  who  wearied 
with  the  day's  toil  now  pray.'  The 
emphatic  tu  is  like  the  use  of  the 
word  in  several  hymns,  see  the  note 
on  1.  3.  It  is  not  necessary  to  make 
any  change  in  the  text.  Grimm  for 
tu  suggests  fac,  but  this  is  in  any 
case  not  close  enough  to  the  Ms 
tradition  ;  Daniel  reads  tuju,  which 
does  not  fit  in  here.  Blume  would 
supply  suscipias  from  suscipiat  in 
12,  but  grammar  forbids  this.  If  a 
change  were  needed,  the  simplest 
would   be  to  read  te  governed   by 


precantes,  from  which  it  is  separated 
by  two  words,  as  at  57.  5  te  is  sepa- 
rated by  four  words  from  precamur. 

sed  has  little  or  no  adversative 
force,  as  often  in  prayers,  cp.  36.  37 
note,  quietos  is  used  proleptically 
=  ut  quieti  sint. 

1 3  f.  '  That  this  day  (the  natural 
day  now  almost  gone)  may  not  de- 
part leaving  our  souls  darkened,  but 
that  we  shielded  by  Thy  grace  may 
see  a  happy  morrow.'  Or,  after 
the  manner  of  these  hymns,  the  lux 
pr.  may  mean  the  inward  light 
which  makes  safe  our  passage 
through  the  night. 

fUscatis]  '  darkened '  by  sin,  as 
our  bodies  are  by  the  night.  Cp. 
Symmachus  Epist.  I.  40  qtutn  ad 
hoc  aeui  nulla  actuum  culpa  /us- 
cauit;  Sidonius  VII.  505  quern 
fuscat  id  unum  \  quod  te  Roma 
capit;  Sedul.  Op.  V.  28  syfiagoga 
propria  iam  colore  fuscata;  Fort. 
VIII.  iii.  109  fiaec  sua  membra  pu- 
tans  quae  nulla  iniuria  fuscat. 

14.  dies... saeculi]  13.  2. 

15.  tecti]  'covered'  as  with  a 
shield. 

16.  prosperam]  of  temporal  hap- 
piness, as  nearly  always ;  cp.  80. 
12,  126.  7.  So  also  our  words 
'  prosper,'  '  prosperous.' 


2  56  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

Hymn  6o 

Caesarius  of  Aries  writing  in  A.D.  534  says  :  ad  duo- 
decimam  [i.e.  at  Compline]  hymniis  Christe  precamur 
adnue;  die  altera  Christe  qui  hix  es  et  dies  dicatur.  et  sic 
omni  tempore  isti  duo  hymjti  dicantur  (Blume  Cursus 
p.  36).  The  hymn  is  contained  only  in  one  MS  Toled. 
Cod.  35-2  and  in  the  printed  Mozarabic  breviary  of 
1502,  where  it  is  appointed  ad  uesperas  feria  sexta  infra 
hebdomadajn primam  quadragesimae\  cp.  Analecta  xxvil. 
78.  We  have  to  bear  in  mind  the  possibility  that  the 
two  hymns  may  not  be  the  same ;  for  the  Mozarabic 
church  in  at  least  one  case  took  the  first  line  of  a  hymn 
by  Ambrose  Deus  creator  omnium  and  made  a  hymn 
which  had  nothing  of  the  original  except  this  line, — see 
the  introduction  to  2.  Or  it  may  be  that,  just  as  the 
Ambrosian  use  took  a  stanza  or  two  of  the  midnight 
hymn  mediae  noctis  tempus  est  with  the  change  of  a  word 
tibi  matutino  tempore  etc.  =  42.  45  f.,  so  Caesarius  took  a 
stanza  or  two  of  50,  beginning  at  line  13.  The  stanzas 
of  that  hymn  however  are  more  suitable  for  the  morning 
than  for  Compline.  One  would  have  expected  him  to 
make  some  mention  of  50,  which  was  one  of  the  old 
series.  But  hymn  60  is  certainly  suited  to  Compline  and 
is  probably  the  one  prescribed  for  such  use  by  Caesarius, 

Mdx 

^        Christe,  precamur  adnue, 

mixtasque  uoces  fletibus 

semper  benignus  et  pius 

uenturam  noctem  suscipe. 

4  in  noct.  Mx. 

I .    adnue]  lit.  'nod  assent, '  hence  id entical  with  50.  13;  cp.  also  123. 1 3 . 

'regard  with  favour.'    Verg.  often  2.    Cp.  20.  10  note. 

uses  it  of  gods  shewing  favour,  as  at  3.    Cp.  29.  39. 

/len.   I.  250,  IV.  128.    The  line  is  4.    uenturajn    noctem]    for    the 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LX 

te  corda  nostra  somnient, 
te  per  soporem  sentiant, 
tuamque  semper  gloriam 
uicina  luce  concinant. 

uitam  salubrem  tribue, 
nostrum  calorem  refice, 
taetram  noctis  caliginem 
claritas  tua  inluminet. 

hymnis  uota  persoluimus, 
uesperque  sacrum  poscimus 
nostrum  delens  chirographum 
tuumque  praestans  editum. 


257 
5 


15 


ace,  'during  the  night,'  cp.  43.  i, 
85.  10,  82.  9  septies  diem.  The 
printed  Mozarabic  breviary  reads 
uenluram  in  noctem,  which  seems 
to  be  a  correction. 

5.  Cp.  5.  26. 

6.  te. .  .sentiaiit]  '  be  conscious  of 
Thy  presence.' 

7  f.  '  and  may  they  sing  Thy 
eternal  glory  as  day  draws  near.' 
For  this  adjectival  use  of  the  adverb 
semper  cp.  Plaut.  Pers.  385  fion  tu 
nuTK  hominum  mores  uides ;  Ter. 
Andr.  175  eri  semper  lenitas,  wliich 
Wagner  illustrates  by  the  Greek  t) 
ad  eu/x^veia.  The  construction  is 
here  demanded  by  the  order  of  the 
words  and  because  semper  taken  as 
an  adv.  with  concinant  will  clash 
with  uicina  luce. 

10.  '  Renew  the  warmth  of  our 
faith ' ;  the  prayer  corresponds  to 
3.  \()  fides  calore  feruecU. 

12.  claritas  tua]  62b.  1,120.41. 

13  is  an  evening  echo  of  a  thought 
from  Ambr.'s  morning  hymn,  2.  32. 
Cp.  also  6.  1 1  f . 

14 f.  'and  we  pray  for  a  holy 
evening  that  cancels  .our  bond  etc' 
uesper  is  here  neuter,  like  uespere  at 
18.  5,  and  delens,  praestans  agree 
with  it.  An  objection  to  this  render- 
ing is  that   our   evening,   however 


holy,  cannot  'cancel  the  bond'  in 
view  of  Col.  ii.  14,  of  which  passage 
the  writer  is  thinking.  It  may  be 
that,  in  the  havoc  of  cases  indicated 
in  4,  delens  and  praestans  are  a  kind 
of  vocative,  implied  by  poscimus, — 
as  if,  instead  of  poscimus,  or  in 
addition  to  it,  the  writer  had  said 
da  or  some  such  word,  delens  and 
praestans  would  agree  with  the 
subject  of  such  an  imperative.  The 
thought  is  like  that  of  18.  5  f.  largire 
clarum  uespere  etc. 

ijf.  'Blotting  out  the  hand- 
writing that  was  against  us  (or 
'  our  bond ')  and  giving  us  what 
thou  hast  declared  (or  'published') 
in  the  gospel,' — probably  meaning 
the  donans  omnia  delicta  of  Col.  ii. 
13.  editum  must  be  taken  as  a  sub- 
stantive, and  tuum  editum  is  con- 
trasted with  tiostrum  chirographum. 
We  cannot  give  a  parallel  use  of 
editum,  but  edere  is  a  word  used  in 
legal  and  civil  Latin  for '  publishing,' 
'  announcing,' '  making  known."  We 
find  it  in  Dirksen  used  in  juxta- 
position with  chir.  (s.v.  chirogr.) 
moram  facere  in  chirographo  securi- 
tails  edendo  (apparently  'in declaring 
the  contents  of  the  bond  of  assur- 
ance '). 

cbirograpbum   {\iiph^pa<i>ov)   'a 


258  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

signed  bond,'  cp.  Ambr.  de  Tob.  33  uit,  quod postea  Dominus  suo  cruore 

quis  isle  faeneralor  nisi  diaboliis,  a  deleuit.    Aug.  often  refers  to  Col.  ii. 

quo  Eua  mutuata  peccatum  obtioxiae  14,  cp.  Conf.  V.  17,  VII.  27,  IX.  36. 

successionis  usuris  omne genus  defae-  So  Paulin.  Aquil.  vi.  14  chirogra- 

nerauit  humanum?    denique  quasi  phum  \  mortis  cruore  diiuit  rosifiuo. 
malus  faenerator  chlrographum  ten- 


Hymn  6i 

This  fine  old  hymn  was  originally  set  for  Compline  on 
alternate  days  throughout  the  year,  as  is  shewn  by  the 
united  evidence  of  the  Rule  of  Caesarius,  quoted  in  the 
introduction  to  60,  and  of  all  the  older  MSS.  In  the 
course  of  time  however,  when  a  rival  appeared  in  the  Te 
liicis  ante  terminutn,  hymn  83,  its  use  was  in  one  way  or 
other  restricted.  Thus  in  the  Mozarabic  breviary  it  was 
reserved  for  Compline  on  Sunday  (see  Analecta  XXVII. 
p.  Ill),  in  the  later  Ambrosian  breviary  for  the  same 
office  during  the  first  two  weeks  of  Lent,  while  the  rubric 
of  Paris  lat.  1 1550  runs  ad  completorium  in  hieme.  Its 
later  use  was  very  varied.  Chevalier,  under  No.  2934, 
gives  it  thus  Quadragesima  {fer.,  /est.,  qicot.  ;  Passio ; 
Adiient.  ;  dotnin.  etfest.)  always  of  course  at  Compline. 

The  mention  of  it  by  Caesarius  proves  that  it  was 
already  written  in  the  early  part  of  the  Vlth  century,  so 
that  Mone  (I,  92)  and  Chevalier  (1.  c),  who  say  that  it 
was  not  composed  before  the  Vllth  century,  date  it  at 
least  a  hundred  years  too  late. 

The  text  has,  in  the  various  authorities  which  contain 
it,  suffered  many  changes  ;  some  of  the  stanzas  have 
been  rewritten.  It  is  therefore  not  easy  to  say  in  some 
lines  what  the  original  words  were. 

The  hymn  was  contained  in  the  French  breviaries 
until  the  end  of  the  XVI Ith  century,  but  it  was  not 
adopted  in  the  modern  Roman  use. 


EARLIER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXI        259 

Abcdgh  EacdghjlosvxT?^^  Fbdhiklnprstu^  Gd  Hbcdefh 
Ibcdefghmnopv  Mackmx  Vacps 

Christe,  qui  lux  es  et  dies, 

noctis  tenebras  detegis, 

lucifer  lucem  praeferens, 

lumen  beatum  praedicans, 

precamur,  sancte  Domine,  5 

defende  nos  in  hac  nocte, 

sit  nobis  in  te  requies, 

quietatn  noctem  tribue. 

ne  grauis  somnus  inruat, 

nee  hostis  nos  subripiat ;  10 

ne  caro  illi  consentiens 

nos  tibi  reos  statuat. 

oculi  somnum  capiant, 

cor  ad  te  semper  uigilet, 

2  detegens  Ab  HcM*  Id  Vap,  deteges  F^,  detege  £s  Hh  Mak^x.  3  lux 
ipse  lucem  proferens  Hh  Mk  (lumen  Max),  lux  ipse  lucis  crederis  Es, 
lucisque  lumen  crederis  Eacdglv  Fbdiknrtu^  Hbcdef  Ibc^hmnopv  Mm  Vc. 
4  beatis  Eo,  uitam  beatam  praed.  Max,  uitam  beatam  tribue  Acdgh  Hh 
Vap.  6  nocte  ac  die  Eo  Fb^  (nos  n.  a.  d.  Hh).  7  uite  (  =  uitae)/rfl 
in  te  Ex  lb.  8  retribue  Vc,  tribuas  Fs''.  9  graui  Ab-  Fi  leo  Mm 

Vap.     somnu  (  =  somno)  Ab^.  10  ne  Acdh  Gd  Hbd'h  Ic  Vap.     hostis 

ne  E<^.  1 1  nee  Eacov  Gd  Hcde  Icd'hm  Mamx.     om.  ne  E^  Mk. 

om.  caro  Eo.     consentiat  Ad  FbV  lo  Vap.  n  et  ne  nos  reos  Acdh, 

et  nos  reos  Vap.  14  semper  ad  te  Eco  Gd.     uigilat  E^  Gd. 

1.  Cp.  3.  2  f.,  48.  10,  46.  2.  4.     'proclaiming    the     light     of 

2.  detegis] '  removest '  the  pall  of  bliss,'  cp.  16.  12  lucem  beatam. 
darkness.  As  a  rule  rf'^/^'.f^r^  has  the  Praed.  seems  to  mean  that  Christ 
further  sense  of  *  revealing '  that  in  His  gospel  tells  us  that  this  light 
which  is  hidden  beneath.  awaits  us  hereafter. 

3.  lucifer]  Cp.  44.  15,  46.  5.  9.  grauis  is  emphatic,  to  be 
Mone  I.  92  seeing  a  reference  to  taken  with  inruat  as  part  of  the 
Ps.    cix.     (ex.)    3    ante    Ituiferum       predicate. 

genui  te,  conjectures  luciferum  lux  10.    subripiat]    Cp.  Joh.  x.  10, 

praeiens.     He    objects    that    liuem  i  Pet.  v.  8.  _  _ 

/ra^>mw  is  tautological  after /««■-  11.   illi  consentiens] 'conspiring 

fer ;  but  the  hymn  writer  is  thinking  with  him.'  consentio  is  a  Bible  word, 

of  the  personified  Morning  Star,  not  cp.  2  Thess.  ii.  12  comenserunt  in- 

of  the  etymological  meaning  of  the  iquitati.   illi  is  contrasted  with  ttbi 

word.  in  12. 

praeferens]  lit. 'holding  in  front,'  14-   See  Cant.  v.  2.    Cp.  36.  27 

i.e.  displaying,  cp.  13.  4,  94.  6.  and  often. 

17—3 


26o  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

dextera  tua  protegat  1 5 

famulos  qui  te  diligunt. 

defensor  noster  adspice, 

insidiantes  reprime, 

guberna  tuos  famulos, 

quos  sanguine  mercatus  es.  20 

memento  nostri,  Domine, 
in  isto  graui  corpore, 
qui  es  defensor  animae, 
adesto  nobis,  Domine. 

18  insidiantem  Ac  Es/*0  Im'n'o'v  Makx  Vap.  20  quo  Vp. 

22  graui  isto  Ev  (gr.  isti  Fs).  23  tu  {j>ro  qui)  E^.  24  sancte 

spiritus  (pro  nobis  d.)  Hh  Vap. 

15.    The    right    hand    (i.e.    the  may  be  the  original.     We  may  be 

power)  of  Christ  is  referred  to  at  called  '  the  sons  of  Christ '  (unusual 

71.  5.   The  expression  is  of  course  as  the  thought  is)  in  somewhat  the 

frequent  in  the  Psalms.  same  sense  as  St  Paul  calls  his  con- 

17.  From  Ps.  Ixxxiii.  10 protector  verts  at  Ephesus  etc.    'the  sons  of 
noster  aspice  Deus.  light.'    So  Sedul.  Carm.  iv.  181  (of 

18.  insidiantes]     '  treacherous       Christ)  non  tulit  hattc  speciem  mundi 
foes.'      The     variant     insidiantem      pater. 

would    refer    to    Satan  ;     but    the  20.    Acts  xx.  28,  Ps.  Ixxiii.  2. 

special  prayer  for  deliverance  from  22.    'under   the   burden   of    this 

him    has    already    been    made    in  body.'  The  reference  is  to  Wisd.  ix. 

line  10.  15,  cp.  2  Cor.  v.  4.   Mone  compares 

19.  famulos  may  have  come  in  Greg.  Mor.  xii.  17  grauis  est  sar- 
from  line  16,  and  the  variant  y?/«V7j  cina  corruptionis. 


THE  LATER  HYMNAL 

NocTURN  Hymns  62-69 

We  now  come  to  the  later  series  of  hymns  ;  see  the 
Introduction  at  the  beginning  of  the  book.  The  Nocturn 
hymns  62  fif.  were  probably  at  first  all  iambic  dimeters 
of  the  Ambrosian  type,  until  the  Sapphic  hymn  63  was 
introduced  :  see  the  Introduction  to  that  hymn. 

Hitherto  62a  and  62b  have  been  regarded  as  making 
but  one  hymn,  consisting  of  eight  stanzas.    The  argu- 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXII        261 

ments  in   favour   of  dividing  them    into   two   separate 
hymns  by  different  writers  are  manifold  and  weighty. 

In  subject-matter  they  are  quite  unhke.  As  Blume 
Analecta  LI.  p.  26  notes,  62a  addresses  the  singers,  62b 
addresses  Christ.  In  metre  they  are  also  quite  unlike. 
62  a  is  metrical  and  correct  with  one  exception — the 
hiatus  in  line  i  ;  but  this  fault  coming  in  the  third  foot 
is  less  serious  than  elsew^here.  62b  is  rhythmical  and, 
besides  the  spondaic  second  foot  in  16,  has  no  less  than 
six  instances  of  hiatus,  three  of  them  in  the  second  foot 
of  the  verse.  Not  one  of  the  other  hymns  of  this  later 
nocturn  series  contains  eight  stanzas,  each  having  but 
four  ;  except  63,  the  unlikeness  of  which  to  the  rest  pro- 
claims it  as  a  later  intruder,  and  68,  which  now  consists 
of  five  stanzas. 

It  seems  likely  that  62  b  was  ousted  from  its  indepen- 
dent standing  by  the  new-comer  63,  and  yet  kept  its 
place  in  the  series  by  being  tacked  on  to  62a.  Iain  nunc 
is  a  favourite  phrase  with  which  to  begin  a  hymn. 
Chevalier  Repertorium  6326-6343,  28431-28435  refers 
to  more  than  twenty  first  lines  with  this  commencement. 
The  Parisian  breviary  of  1680  contained  only  62  a,  and 
Archbishop  Harlay  was  at  the  time  and  afterwards 
severely  criticized  for  the  omission  of  62  b.  Evidently  he 
thought  that  the  two  hymns  were  independent  and  dis- 
tinct. The  blending  of  them  into  one  whole  took  place, 
however,  before  the  writing  of  any  of  our  MSS  of  the  later 
hymnal :  the  earliest  of  these  was  not  made  before  the 
IXth  century,  whereas  the  hymns  are  more  ancient, 
whoever  may  have  been  the  authors. 

The  original  use  of  62  (a  and  b)  as  given  in  the  MSS 
was  at  nocturns  on  Sundays  during  the  winter.  The 
modern  Roman  breviary  has  retained  the  hymn  with 
comparatively  few  corrections,  see  Daniel  I.  p.  175  f. 


262 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


Hymn  62  a 

Eacdhjlsvxij/i^  Fdhijls  Gam  Habcdefghi  Ibefhmnop  Mafkm  Vbcs 

Primo  dierum  omnium, 
quo  mundus  exstat  conditus, 
.  uel  quo  resurgens  conditor 
nos  morte  uicta  liberal : 

pulsis  procul  torporibus 
surgamus  omnes  ocius 
et  nocte  quaeramus  pium, — 
sicut  prophetam  nouimus, — 

nostras  preces  ut  audiat, 
suamque  dextram  porrigat, 

4  libera  Ip,  liberans  Es  Mk,  liberet  Ecdhlm/i(/)  Fins  Hbce  Mm  In. 


I  f.  The  writer  may  well  be 
thinking  of  Sedul.  Carm.  V.  315  f. 
coeperat  interea  post  tristia  sabbata 
felix  I  inradiare  dies,  culnien  qui 
nominis  alti  \  a  Domino  dominante 
trahit  primusque  uidere  \  promeruit 
nasci  tmtmium  atque  resurgere 
Christum.  \  septima  nam  Genesis 
cum  dicit  sabbata,  claret  \  hiinc  orbis 
caput  esse  diem,  quern  gloria  regis 
nutic  etiam  proprii  donans  fulgore 
tropaei  \  primattiin  retinere  dedit. 
Mone  I.  371  quotes  Greg.  Magn. 
Horn,  in  Ezech.  II.  iv.  1  dies  domi- 
nicus,  qui  tertius  est  a  morte  domi- 
nica,  a  conditione  dierum  nunieratus 
octatius,  quia  septimum  sequitur; 
ib.  II.  viii.  1  in  nouo  testamento 
oclauus  dies  in  sacramento  est,  is 
uidelicet  qui  dominicus  appellatur 
qui . .  .octauus  a  conditione  est.  The 
meaning  of  the  stanza  is  that  Sunday 
was  the  first  day  on  which  '  the 
world  stood  forth  created '  (exstat 
conditus).  The  modern  Roman 
breviary  reads  primo  die  quo  Trini- 
tas  I  beata  mundum  condidit,  which 


must  mean  that  God  created  the 
world  on  the  first  day,  which  is  a 
different  thing,  and  quite  in  accord- 
ance with  Genesis.  See  also  110.  9 
octaua  prima  redditur ;  Blume 
Analecta  li.  p.  26. 

3.  uel]  'and,'  37.  6  note.  This 
use  is  very  frequent  in  the  Regula 
S.  Betiedicti;  see  the  Index  to 
Butler's  edition. 

4.  I  Cor.  XV.  54  f. 

5.  torporibus]  'sloth,'  the  plural 
perhaps  indicating  its  repeated  at- 
tacks. 

6.  Cp.  2.  17. 

7.  plum]  '  our  gracious  God ' ; 
cp.  9.  4  note. 

8.  '  as  we  know  the  prophet '  to 
have  sought  God  by  night.  The 
prophet  is  the  psalmist,  as  at  41.  2 
note.  See  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.)  55,  62, 
cxxxiii.  (cxxxiv.)  2.  Or  possibly  the 
reference  may  be  to  Is.  xxvi.  9. 

10.  Cp.  Job  xiv.  15  (Vulg.)  ; 
Aug.  Solil.  VI  exaudi  vie  palpitan- 
tem  in  his  tenebris  et  viihi  dexteram 
porrige. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXUb       263 

et  hie  piatos  sordibus 
reddat  polorum  sedibus, 

ut  quique  sacratissimo 

huius  diei  tempore 

horis  quietis  psallimus,  15 

donis  beatis  muneret. 

ri  ut  Ecl/x  Mk.    expiatos  [^pro  hie  p.)  omnes  preuter  Es  Fdn  Mk  Vb. 
13  quicquid  He. 

11.  'purified here' (i.e.  on  earth); 
op.  26.  7  expiatur  (note). 

12.  polorum]  'of  heaven,'  cp. 
6.  1. 

1 3  f.  '  that  all  we,  who  in  this 
day's  most  sacred  season  sing  in  the 
hours  of  quiet,  may  be  rewarded 
with  blessed  gifts.'  quiqne  =  qiiicunt- 
que,  a  common  usage  in  late  Latin, 
but  found  also  in  Plaut.  Miles  i6o 
quemque  in  tegulis  \  uiderilis  alie- 
num ;    cp.  69.    13,   Draeger   II.   p. 


loi,  Ronsch  p.  336.  huius  diei 
tempore  is  used  as  one  compound 
word  and  therefore  sacratissimo  is 
in  the  abl.  So  46.  5  proximo  diet 
adttentui,  50.  1 1  noctis  ortus  suc- 
ccdens,  ii).  1 5  iniquitas  haec  saeculi, 
71.  15  omnique  fine  diei.  This  last 
stanza  of  the  hymn  is  similar  to  the 
last  stanza  of  69. 

16.  donis  beatis]  Cp.  42.  40 
uitae  munera. 

muneret]  Cp.  42.  60. 


Hymn  62 b 

Eacdhjlsvx7j/A0  Fdhijls  Gam  Habcdefghi  Ibefhmnop  Mafkm  Vbcs 

lam  nunc,  paterna  claritas, 
te  postulamus  affatim, 
absit  libido  sordidans 
omnisque  actus  noxius. 

ne  foeda  sit  uel  lubrica 
conpago  huius  corporis, 

5  nee  Ecd.     ut  ^pro  uel)  Es  Mm. 


1.  paterna  claritas]  Claritas  is 
a  synonym  of  gloria  especially  in 
African  Latin  :  pat.  cl.  therefore 
means  'glory  of  the  Father '  =  glori- 
ous Father ;  or  perhaps  Christ,  as 
being  '  the  glory  of  the  Father.' 

2.  affatim]  i.e.  ad  fatim,  'to 
satiety,'  and  hence  'incessantly,' 
'urgently,' as  at  69.  16, 92.  22.  falim 
is  the  ace.  of  a  disused  substantive 


fatis,  with  which  Q.^.fati-sco,faii-go. 

3.  sordidans]  Cp.  Lactam,  de 
Ira  Dei  {ad  fin.)  templum  cordis 
non  fiimo,  non  pului-re,  sed  malts 
cogitation ilnis  sordidatur. 

4.  noxius]  'guilty,'  as  at  1.  39; 
cp.  the  note  on  22.  12  noxa. 

5.  lubrica]  3.  12  note. 

6.  conpago]  lit.  'the  fastening 
together ' ;    i.e.   our   body  so  mar- 


264  EARLY  LA  TIN  H YMNS 

per  quam  auerni  ignibus 

ipsi  crememur  acrius. 

ob  hoc,  redemptor,  quaesumus 

ut  probra  nostra  diluas,  10 

uitae  perennis  commoda 

nobis  benignus  conferas. 

quo  carnis  actu  exsules, 

effecti  ipsi  caelibes, 

ut  praestolamur  cernui,  15 

melos  canamus  gloriae. 

7  quod  Ex^  Fs  Ih,  quem  Ehs  Ip  Mk  Vc,  que  (=quae)  Eav/t  Fhin  Mm. 
10  deluas  Ecdhl/i  Fh  In  Vc.  12  benigne  Ea/t  Fh  Vc.  15  praesto- 

lantes  Es  Mk  (ras.). 

vellously  knit  together.    Cp.  Souter  both   our   souls    and    bodies,   con- 

Study  of  Ambrosiaster  p.  105  A  cor-  trasted  with  conpago,  of  our  bodies 

poris  vianetite  compagine.  alone. 

7.  ■per  q\iaiai\\.G.  foedam  et  lubri-  9.   Cp.  68.  17. 

cam  conpaginem.  ob  hoc]  i.e.  because  we  shall  so 

Avemus  was  a  lake  near  Cumae  suffer,  if  we  allow  ourselves  to  be 

in  south  Italy,  the  deadly  exhala-  foedi  itel  Itibrici. 

tions  from  which  were  said  to  kill  10.    probra]   'shameful  sins,'  es- 

birds  that  flew  over  it,  cp.  Lucr.  vi.  pecially  those  of  an  unclean  life;  cp. 

740 f.,   Verg.    Aen.   vi.   137  f.,    Sil.  the  adj./r<>3wj-?/j  at  10.  4,  46.  25. 

Ital.   XII.    120  f.  ilk,  olivi  populis  11.   uitae  perennis]  16.  20. 

dictum  Styga,  nomine  uerso  \  stagna  13.    'in  order  that  being  absent 

inter  celebrem  nunc  mitia  monstrat  from  the  activity  of  the  flesh.'    This 

Auemum  ;  \  turn  tristi  nemore  atqtic  freeing  is  contemporaneous  with  the 

umbris  nigrantibus  horrens  \  etfor-  becoming  '  as  the  angels  of  God  in 

midatus  uolticri  letale  uomebal  \  suf-  heaven  '  (effecti  ccuL).   Not  unlike  is 

fuso  uitus  caelo.    From  it  there  was  the  use  of  exsul  at  73.  10.    Pimont 

thought  to  be  a  descent  into  hell,  j)refers   to   translate  :    '  that    being 

and    hence  it  became  a  name   for  now   exiles   by   the   action    of   the 

hell,     adopted    also    by    Christian  flesh,  (but  hereafter)  made....'  This 

writers.      Eustace    Classical     Tour  does  not  seem  so  simple. 

Mr<?M^/4 //a/j/ I.  p.  534  says  of  Aver-  14.     caelibes]    lit.    'unwedded,' 

nus  that  it  is  now  'a  scene  on  the  comes  from  Mt.  xxii.  30,  cp.  86.  16. 

whole  light,  airy  and  exhilarating.'  ipsi  as  in  8,  distinguished  from  our 

8.  ipsi]  '  we  ourselves,'  including  caro. 

Hymn  63 

63  is  so  unlike  the  hymns  on  either  side  of  it,  especially 

in  its  metre  and  in  the  number  of  its  stanzas,  that  we 

cannot  but  look  upontit  as  a  late-comer  into  the  series. 

And,  when  we  consider  the  determination  and  zeal  with 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LX I II        265 

which  Charlemagne  forced  these  Roman  hymns  upon 
the  churches  throughout  his  empire,  we  are  tempted  to 
conjecture  that  the  poet  of  63  and  of  70  may  have  been 
one  of  those  scholars  who  gathered  round  him.  After 
the  Caroline  reformation  of  letters  a  hymn  like  62b  with 
its  many  metrical  faults  would  not  be  looked  upon  with 
a  favourable  eye,  and  hymn  63  was  apparently  written 
to  take  its  place, — with  but  partial  success,  for  62  b  sur- 
vived as  a  part  of  62  a.  However  63  won  and  kept  its  place 
as  the  nocturn  hymn  on  Sundays  during  the  summer. 
Was  Alcuin  himself  the  writer  of  63  and  70?  He  wrote 
a  few  Sapphics, — these  not  unlike  our  hymn.  Cp.  the  first 
stanza  of  63  with  the  tenth  of  Ale.  CXXI  which  runs: 
te  Deum  semper  uigilans  requirat,  cogitet  cunctis  resoluta 
curis,  actibus  cunctis  queat  ut  placere  rex  tibi  summe. 
With  the  use  of  pio  in  5  cp.  Ale.  I.e.  2  tu  pius  nostris 
precibus  faiceto,  49  quod  pius  totuin  habitet  per  aeuutn ; 
with  aula  in  6  cp.  Ale.  LV.  v.  3  hac  in  aula,  LXXXIX.  35 
praemia  digna  retinet  honore  regis  in  aula  ;  with  pariter 
in  5  and  10  Ale.  p.  313  (ed.  Diimmler)  39  Spiritus  sancti 
pariter ;  with  rutilans  in  70.  2  cp.  lumen  rutilumy  rutilo 
...colore  Ale.  CXI  v.  vi.  3,  rutilet  nitore  CXXI.  31. 

Eacdghjlsvxi7M(^  Fdehijlpqs  Habcdef^^  Ibefghimno  Mm  Vbcs 

Nocte  surgentes  uigilemus  omnes, 
semper  in  psalmis  meditemur,  atque 
uiribus  totis  Domino  canamus 

dulciter  hymnos, 
ut  pio  regi  pariter  canentes  S 

I  f.   This  stanza  is  imitated  in  a  tabar  in  tnandati's  tuts. 

Mozarabic  hymn,  Analecta  xxvii.  3.   uiribus  totls]  from  Lk.  x.  27. 

xviii.  33  f.  cor  enim  nostrum  uigilet  totis  stands  for  omnibus  as  at  12.  27. 

sopore,  I  somniet    Christum    Domi-  5.    pariter  qualifies  both  canentes 

numque  nostrum,]  insonet  psalmis,  and     mereamur.      It    means    '  to- 

7neditetur  hymnis  \  nocte  dieque.  gether. ' 

2.    Cp.  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.)  47  medi- 


266  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

cum  suis  Sanctis  mereamur  aulam 
ingredi  caeli,  simul  et  beatam 
ducere  uitam. 

praestet  hoc  nobis  Deltas  beata 
Patris  ac  Nati  pariterque  sancti  lo 

Spiritus,  cuius  reboatur  omni 
gloria  mundo. 

7  ac  Ej,  ad  Eh.  lo  et  Eacdhjsv  HabdjS.  ii  cui  H^.     reboat  in 

Eacdglv  le  Vc,  reboat  per  -era  -um  Fe,  reboamus  H/3,  renouatur  Hb. 

6.    cum  suis  Sanctis]    Cp.    Te  9.   Deitas]   Cp.  36.  28,  98.  18. 

Deutmx.   j«w  may  perhaps  be  used  10.     pariter]    'no   less,'  for  the 

because  '  our  gracious  king '  is  vir-  holy  Spirit  also  is  God. 

tually  the  subject  of  the  stanza.   But  11.    cuius  refers  back  to  Deitas. 

in  late  Latin  suus  was  indiscrimi-  reboatur]  '  resounds.'    reboare,  a 

nately  written  for  'his,'  'her,'  etc.,  rare  and  poetical  word,  is  transitive 

becoming   at  last  the  French  son,  as  at  70.   11,  92.    17.    The  variant 

the  Italian  suo.  reboat  could  also  stand,  being  used 

mereamur]    Cp.  4.  8  note.  intransitively,    as   at    Lucr.   II.   28, 

aulam]   Cp.  15.  7.  Verg.  Georg.  in.  223. 


Hymn  64 

The  universal  use  of  this  hymn  has  been  ad  nocturnas 
feria  II,  i.e.  on  Mondays.  It  has  been  ascribed  to 
St  Ambrose,  chiefly  on  the  authority  of  Hincmar  de 
non  Trina  D'eitate  p.  548.  Hincmar's  date  prevents  him 
from  being  a  trustworthy  witness  on  such  a  point.  It  will 
be  noticed  that  rhyme  is  carried  almost  throughout, 
whereas  Ambrose  neither  chooses  nor  avoids  rhyme. 
Pimont  I.  p.  132  f.  argues  strongly  for  Ambrose's  author- 
ship, alleging  that  its  characteristics  prove  it :  'pens^es 
graves  et  nobles  sous  un  tour  bref  et  nettement  tranche ; 
diction  pure  et  ferme  dans  un  vers  toujours  correct '  etc. 
He  adds  that  the  resemblance  to  parts  of  5  is  so  striking 
that  both  hymns  must  be  written  by  the  same  writer. 
But  the  fact  that  the  hymn  is  not  in  the  Ambrosian 
tradition  means  that  it  was  not  Ambrose's. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXIV        267 

Eacdghjlsvxi;M0  Fbdghiklnpsy  Ga  Habcdefgi  Ibcefghmnopv  Mafkmx  Vbc 

Spmno  refectis  artubus 
spreto  cubili  surgimus : 
nobis,  Pater,  canentibus 
adesse  te  deposcimus. 

te  lingua  primum  concinat,  5 

te  mentis  ardor  ambiat, 
ut  actuum  sequentium 
tu,  sancte,  sis  exordium. 

cedant  tenebrae  lumini 

et  nox  diurno  sideri,  10 

ut  culpa,  quam  nox  intulit, 

lucis  labascat  munere. 

precamur  idem  supplices 
noxas  ut  omnes  amputes, 

5  concinant  Ej  Ic  Mk,  concinnat  Impi.  6  ambigat  Haf  Ih. 

7  artuum  Ih,  ad  tuura  Ev.        8  te  Fh.        9  cedent  Ic.       1 1  culpam  Fb. 
12  lahescat  Ecglsv  Fbhinpsy  Ilabd-e  Ibgimpv  Mkm  Vb. 

2.  Cp.  Prud.  Cath.  I.  g  post  solis  mira  libertas  uiri  \  ambire  Christum 
ortum  fulgidi  \  serum  est  cubile  sper-       suaserat. 

nere.  7.   sequentium]   i.e.   during  the 

3.  Hincmar  of  Reims  (see  Daniel       day  about  to  begin. 

IV.  p.  37)  gives  the  line  thus :  «^j/rw  8.     exordium]   'starting    point.' 

Pater  coniuntibus.    But  this  is  found  Cp.  the  well-known  collect  ut  cuncta 

in  no  MS  of  the  hymn  and  is  an  in-  nostra  operatic... a  te...incipiat. 

exact  quotation.  9.    cedant]  optative  :    the  dark- 

4.  deposcimus]  '  pray  earnestly.'  ness  and  light  are  spiritual.  For  the 
Verbs  of  entreating  are  usually  fol-  contrast  cp.  Eph.  v.  8  eratis  ali- 
lowed  by  ut  with  the  subj.,  but  cp.  quando  tenebrae,  nunc  autem  lux  in 
Fort.  VI.  V.  33  retineri filia poscens.  Doniitio. 

5.  primum]  '  first  on  waking,'  10.  diurno  sideri]  the  sun,  here 
cp.  2.  31.  the  sun  of  righteousne.ss,  cp.  21.  8 

6.  mentis  ardor]   i.e.    the   soul  note. 

warmed   with   fire    from    on  high.  12.   munere] 'office,' '  working.' 

ardor  is  used  in  a  good  sense,  as  at  13.   idem]  nom.  plu.,  so  spelt  in 

16.  8.  all  the  older  mss  ;  it   is  a  way  of 

ambiat]  'solicit.'   ambire  usually  expressing  'also.' 
meant  '  to  go  round '  canvassing  for  14.   nozaa]  'sins,'  cp.  22.  n  note. 

votes  (hence  '  amljition  '),  but  also  amputes]  strictly  '  prune  away,' 

'to  solicit'  or  'pray  to'  a  higher  cp.  Cic.  de  Sen.  52  uitis...quam... 

power.    Cp.  Hor.  Od.  I.  xxxv.  5  te  ferro  amputans  cnercet   ars  agrico- 

pauper  ambit  sollicita  prece  \  ruris  larum ;  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.)  39  amputa 

colonus ;  Prud.  Perist.  II.  491  quos  opprobrium  meum  ;  Ambr.  in  Luc. 


268  EARLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

et  ore  te  canentium  i$ 

lauderis  in  perpetuum. 

15  ut  Ej  Mm.     ora  Ip  Mk  {ras.).  16  imperp.  Hcdf. 

V.  18  medicamento  quod . .  xausam  amputatione.  The  line  is  based  on 
diri  uulneris  ampuiatiit;  Arnob.  VwxA.  Perist.x.  •^donoxas  nee  onrnes 
adu.  Nat.  I.  27  delictorum  omnium       imputet. 

Hymn  65 
The  use  of  this  hymn  was  ad  nocturnas  feria  tertia  i.e. 
on  Tuesdays.  It  has  often  been  assigned  to  St  Ambrose, 
and  is  in  many  ways  worthy  of  him,  but  its  absence  from 
the  Ambrosian  MSS  is  fatal  to  this  claim.  In  the  Roman 
Breviary  it  is  adopted  without  any  change.  The  doxology 
is  so  insistently  contained  in  all  MSS,  that  I  have  printed 
it  as  an  integral  part  of  the  hymn. 

Eacdhjsvxij/u^  Ehklpqs  Gam  Hacdefgh  Ibcdefghmnopv  Mafkx  Vbc 

Censors  paterni  luminis, 
lux  ipse  lucis  et  dies, 
noctem  canendo  rumpimus ; 
adsiste  postulantibus. 

aufer  tenebras  mentium,  5 

fuga  cateruas  daemonum, 
expelle  somnolentiam, 
ne  pigritantes  obruat. 

2  lucis  ipse  Ec.  3  rupimus  Es  Mk. 

I.  consors]  Cp.  Dracont.  de  Deo  Varro  de  Re  Rust.  I.  ii.  5  diffindere 

II.  68  et  consors  cum  Patre  manens ;  insiticio  somno  aestiuom  diem. 

ib.  547  dexter  in  arce  sedens  consors  4.    adsiste]  lit.  '  stand  by,'  i.e.  to 

Genitoris  amcUus.    For  the  sense  of  hear  with  favour,  like  adesse,  cp.  42. 

the  line  cp.  3.  i.  56,  and  the  prayer  in  our  communion 

1  is  almost  identical  with  45.  10,  office:  'assist  us  mercifully,  O  Lord, 

46.  2  ;  cp.  3.  3  f.  in     these     our    supplications    and 

3.    nunpimus]  '  internipt,  break  prayers.' 

in  upon  ' ;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  vii.  458  6.    cateruas]  as  at  26.  24. 

somnumingensnimpitpauor \Yt\xA.  8.    pignritantes]  'lingering';  cp. 

CcUh.    I.   98    (  =  20.     1 4)    tu   rumpe  Acisix.  2^  ne pigriteris  uenire  usque 

noctis  uincula;    66.  8,  69.    14.    So  ad nos. 
Hor.  Od.  II.  vii.  7  diem  mero/regi'. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXVI        269 

sic,  Christe,  nobis  omnibus 

indulgeas  credentibus,  to 

ut  prosit  exorantibus 

quod  praecinentes  psallimus. 

praesta,  Pater  piissime, 

Patrique  compar  unice, 

cum  Spiritu  Paraclito  15 

regnans  per  omne  saeculum. 

9  hie  E/i. 

9.    sic  is  answered  by  ut  in  ii.  added, — it  is  impossible  for  us  now 

11.  ezorantibus]  'praying  ear-  to  say  when,  but  it  was  before  any 
nestly,'  not,  as  it  usually  means,  of  our  MSS  were  written,  for  it  is 
'gaining  our  requests.'  contained  in  all, — in  order  to  bring 

12.  praecinentes]  'singing  be-  up  the  number  of  stanzas  to  the 
fore  Thee,'  prae-  here  having  a  usual  four.  One  is  tempted  to  ask 
local  force ;  contrast  the  temporal  whether  the  fifth  stanza  of  68, 
use  in  20.  2,  38.  5.  quod  psallimus  which  breaks  the  symmetry  of  the 
is  the  subject  of  prosit  '  that  our  many  four-stanza  hymns,  originally 
singing  may  avail  for  our  good.'  belonged   here.     But  the  materials 

i3f.  This  formal  doxology,  the  for  giving  a  definite  answer  are 
only  one  in  the  series,  was  probably      lacking. 

Hymn  66 

The  use  of  this  hymn  was  ad  noctumas  feria  quarta 
i.e.  on  Wednesdays.  This  hymn  also  has  often  been 
ascribed  to  St  Ambrose,  often  to  St  Gregory:  in  each 
case  by  guesswork.  Mone  rightly  I.  p.  377  disallows  the 
Ambrosian  authorship  on  account  of  the  rhyme  running 
throughout. 

Eacdhjlsvxi/u^  Fhlpqsy^  Gam  Hacde%hi  Ibcdefghimnopv  Mafk  Vbc 

Rerum  creator  optima 
rectorque  noster,  respice, 
nos  a  quiete  noxia 
mersos  sopore  libera. 
-J  aspice  (adsp.)  Esx  Fp-y^  Hgh  leiv'.  4  merso  Gm  Id'hv  Mk. 

I.    Cp.  6.  I,  48.  I,  73.  1.  as  at  2.  25  etc. 

1.  respice]  '  regard  with  favour,'  3.    noxia]  '  smful,   cp.  62  b.  4.    . 


270  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS    . 

te,  sancte  Christe,  poscimus,  '  5 

:  ignosce  tu  criminibus  ; 

ad  confitendum  surgimus 

morasque  nostras  rumpimus. 

mentes  manusque  tollimus, 

propheta  sicut  noctibus  10 

nobis  gerendum  praecipit, 

Paulusque  gestis  censuit. 

uides  malum  quod  gessimus, 

occulta  nostra  pandimus, 

preces  gementes  fundimus,  15 

dimitte  quod  peccauimus. 
8  rupimus  Mk.        10  sic  in  Mk.        11  praecepit  Ha.        16  deliquimus  Vb. 

7.  It  is  not  easy  to  say,  here  and  omne  supplicium  ipse  habitus  orantis 
at  67.  3,  82.  15,  whether  conjiteor  Christiani,  quasi  diceret  orans : 
denotes  declaring  God's  praise  (cp.  praesto  sum,  necte  e(  plecte  si  uis 
16.  6,  56.  27)  or  confessing  our  sins.  aut  eerie  miserere  ;  Prud.  Cath.  IV. 
The  two  examples  given  in  the  next  52  cum  tenderet  ad  superna  palmas. 
stanza  seem  to  point  to  the  former.  The  hands  so  raised  would  make 

8.  '  and  we  bring  our  delay  to  an  the  form  of  the  Cross,  Prud.  Perist. 
end.'  Cp.  Verg.  Georg.  ill.  43  and  vi.  106  non  ausa  est  cohibere  poena 
often;  Paul.  Nol.  Carm.  xiv.  51  palmas  \  in  morem  crucis  ad  Patrem 
uotis  auidis  mora  noctis  ruHipitur;  leuandas. 

Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  i.  314;  20.  14,  65.  10.  propheta]  the  psalmist,  as  at 

3,  69.  13  f.  41.  2. 

9.  Ps.  cxxxiii.  (cxxxiv.)  2 /« /w<:-  12.  censuit]  '■  shoived  his  ap- 
tibus  extollite  manus  uestras  in  proval ' ;  cp.  Acts  xvi.  25. 
sancta.  Cp.  Lam.  iii.  41.  The  an-  13.  quod  gessimus]  For  this  use 
cients  prayed  with  hands  uplifted  of  gerere  cp.  Deut.  ix.  18  peccata 
and  upturned  (cp.  Verg.  Aen.  i.  93  uestra  quae  gessistis.  For  the  sense 
duplices  temiens  ad  sidera  palmas  ;  of  the  line  cp.  94.  29. 

III.    176  tendoque  supinas  \  ad  cae-  14.  occulta  nostra  hie  dicuntur  pec- 

lum  cum  uoce  manus") ;  including  the  cata,  quae  clam  hominibus  aut  cogi- 

early    Christians,    cp.     i    Tim.    ii.  tando  aut  semotis  arbitris  mali  quip- 

8  wpoffevxeadai ...  ijraipovTai   oalovs  piam  agendo  committimus  (Clicht.) ; 

Xeipas ;  Tertull.  Apol.   XXX  (where  cp.  48.  4. 
see   Mayor's  note)  paratus  est  ad  15.   gementes]  20.  10  note. 

Hymn  67 

This  hymn  was  appointed  for  nocturns  on  Thursdays. 
Like  the  preceding  hymns  this  is  ascribed  to  Ambrose 
or  Gregory  by  guesswork.  It  is  retained  unchanged  in 
the  modern  Roman  breviary. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXVII       271 

Eacdhjsvxij/*^  Fhlqs  Gam  Hacdefghi  Ibcdefghmnopv  Mm  Vbc 

Nox  atra  rerum  contegit 
terrae  colores  omnium ; 
nos  confitentes  poscimus 
te,  iuste  iudex  cordium, 

ut  auferas  piacula,  5 

sordesque  mentis  abluas, 
donesque,  Christe,  gratiam, 
ut  arceantur  crimina. 

mens  ecce  torpet  impia, 

quam  culpa  mordet  noxia ;  10 

obscura  gestit  tollere 

et  te,  redemptor,  quaerere. 

repelle  tu  caliginem 

intrinsecus  quam  maxime, 

ut  in  beato  gaudeat  15 

se  coUocari  lumine. 

I  content  Ec.  2  calores  Ech  Ip.  15,  16  praemtttit  Gm  uersilnts 

13,  14.  14  que  {pro  quam)  He  15  gaudeant  Es.  i6  collo- 

care  He. 

if.]   Cp.  21.  7  note.  58.  11. 

contegit]  '  covers '  with  the  sub-  9,  10  refer  to  the  present  state  of 

stantial  pall  of  darkness.  the  soul,    11,   12  to  its  state  after 

2.   terrae  is  gen.  rather  than  dat.,  Christ  has  given  His  grace, 

which  it   would   probably  be  in  a  11.    obscura]  22.   8 ;  opera  tette- 

classical  poet, — '  of  all  ihe  things  of  braricm,  sine  peccata,  says  Clicht. 

earth.'  gestit]  '  is  eager,'  31.  19  note. 

4.  iustus  iudex  comes  at  Ps.  vii.  14.  intrinsecus  taken  in  conjunc- 
12,  2  Mac.  xii.  5  (cp.  Ps.  vii.  10).  tion  with  caliginem  gets  the  force 
For  the  general  sense  of  the  line  of  an  adj.,  'inner';  cp.  60.  7  note, 
cp.  22.  13  f.  The  line  ends  with  a  literary  bathos. 

5.  piacula]  usually   'sin   offer-  r?.  beato... lumine]  61.  4. 
ings,' cp.  25.  7  note;  but  here  the          gaudeat]  sc.  »»^«j^,  to  be  supplied 
'  sins '  themselves  ;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.       from  line  9. 

VI.  569  commissa  piacula,  Jud.  xx.  16.  The  subject  of  the  dependent 

6  mimquam..  Jam  grande  piaculuin  infinitive,  when  it  is  the  same  as  that 

factum  est  in  Israel,  98.  8.  of  gaudeo,  is  usually  omitted,  as  at 

8.    arceantur] '  warded  off,' as  at  75.  15. 


272  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

Hymn  68 

This  hymn  was  appointed  for  nocturns  on  Fridays. 
Hincmar  of  Reims  assigns  the  hymn  to  Ambrose,  but  it 
is  not  his.  Several  writers  (Mone,  Pimont  and  others) 
have  of  late  given  it  to  Gregory,  but  on  purely  subjective 
grounds. 

The  Roman  breviary  has  made  few  changes  in  it. 
And  (since  the  revision  of  1 568)  it  has  borrowed  the  first 
stanza  of  this  hymn  and  the  third  of  71,  to  form  a  new 
hymn  for  Lauds  on  Trinity  Sunday;  see  Atialecta  LI. 
p.  30,  Lippp.  112. 

Eacdhjlsvxi/At^  Fhilnopqsx  Gabm  Hacdefghi  Ibcdefghimnopv  Mafkm  Vbcs 
Tu  Trinitatis  unitas, 
orbem  potenter  qui  regis, 
adtende  laudum  cantica, 
quae  excubantes  psallimus. 
nam  lectulo  consurgimus  5 

noctis  quieto  tempore, 
ut  flagitemus  uulnerum 
a  te  medellam  omnium. 
quo  fraude  quidquid  daemonum 
in  noctibus  deliquimus,  10 

abstergat  illud  caelitus 
tuae  potestas  gloriae. 

4  qui  Ec  Fs,  qua  Es  Mk  {ras.).     excusantes  Ec.  5  iam  Ig'o^. 

8  ad  Echv  Fn  Gb  Mk  (manu  rec.)  m.     medela  Ha.  9  quod  Ga  Ic^ 

10  delinquimus  Gb  Hceg. 

1.  Cp.  79.  if.  spiritus,  \  qiiodcuvique    restat    tern- 

2.  potenter]  90.  28,  117.  6,  an-  ports,  j  dum  tneta  noctis  clauditur,  | 
swers  to  \S\t.  fortiter  in  Wisd.  viii.  i.  stans  ac  laborans  excubet. 

3.  adtendo  is  usually  followed  by  7.   uulnertuu]  19.  16. 

a  dat.  or  a  prep.,  here  by  an  ace.  as  9  f •    '  in  order  that,  whatever  sin 

at  Job  xxi.  5  attendite  me,  and  nine  we   have    committed    at   night    by 

other  places  in  the  Vulg.  reason  of  the  craft  of  evil  spirits, 

4.  Those  who  watch  in  order  to  this  the  might  of  Thy  heavenly 
pray  are  compared  to  sentinels ;  cp.  glory  may  wash  away.'  Thus  taken 
Prud.   Cath.   I.   77  f.  uigil  uicissim  caelitus  is  virtually  an  adj.,  cp.  60, 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXVIII      273 


ne  corpus  adsit  sordidum, 

nee  torpor  instet  cordium 

et  criminis  contagio  1 5 

tepescat  ardor  spiritus. 

ob  hoc,  redemptor,  quaesumus, 

reple  tuo  nos  lumine, 

per  quod  dierum  circulis 

nuUis  ruamus  actibus.  20 

13  nee  Eadlv  Fn  Gm  Mm.     absit  Fnp  Ic.  14  ne  Ej  Gb  He  Ig. 

15  nee  Eyn  Fs  Gm  Hd  Idiv  Mm  Ve.  18  nos  tuo  Fo  Hac  lo  Vb. 

19  quos  Hd.         20  ruamur  Elsv^tt  Fiknos  Gb  Hcdeg'hi  Idghimo*  Mkm  Vb. 


7  note.  For  daemomitn  cp.  2.  11, 
66.  6;  for  the  plu.  form  noctibus, 
47.  3  note ;  for  deliquimus,  7.  26 
note;  iox  abstergat,  7.  31  note. 

13.  adsit  almost  =j'?/,  a  common 
use  of  the  word  in  late  Latin ;  ep. 
Commodian  Instr.  I.  xxix.  12  disce 
Deum,  stulte,  qui  nult  te  immor- 
talem  adesse;  Paul.  Nol.  Epist.  xxv. 
2  si  cerlus  esses  tantum  te  adhuc 
adesse  uicturum,  quantum  uixisti ; 
Sedul.  Carm.  Ii.  100  Deus... semper 
adest  semperquefuit  semperque  mane- 
bit  ;  Fort.  IX.  ii.  22  cu7n  de  lege  necis 
nemo  solutus  adest.  However,  the 
comparison  with  instet  seems  to 
suggest  the  force  of  '  to  be  there  to 
witness  against  us  at  our  prayers.' 

15.  'and  so  the  warmth  of  the 
spirit  grow  cool  by  the  pollution  of 
guilt.'  The  negative  of  14  is  carried 
on.    For  contagio  cp.  90.  16. 

16.  tepescat]  For  the  bad  mean- 
ing cp.  Rev.  iii.  16  quia  tepidus  es. 

17  is  identical  with  62b.  9.  The 
fact  that  this  one  hymn  in  the  noc- 
turn  series  has  more  than  four 
stanzas   makes   us   wonder   if    this 


concluding  stanza,  which  does  not 
follow  the  preceding  one  as  closely 
as  its  first  words  ob  hoc  would  seem 
to  indicate,  at  first  belonged  to  an- 
other hymn,  perhaps  to  65  ;  see  the 
note  there.  This  conjecture  is  to  a 
certain  extent  confirmed  by  the  ex- 
istence of  this  stanza  in  a  slightly 
different  form.  Blume  Attalecla  Li. 
p.  30  quotes  from  a  Prague  MS  a 
short  hymn  of  two  stanzas,  the 
former  of  which  runs  Te  puro  corde 
quaesumus,  \  tuo  nos  reple  lumine,  \ 
per  quod  dierum  circulis  \  nullis 
ruamur  actibus. 

19  f.  'By  means  of  which  (i.e.  if 
we  are  illuminated  by  this  light)  in 
the  course  of  the  days  no  actions  of 
ours  may  cause  us  to  fall.' 

circulis]  87.  14,  94.  3.  Dierum, 
like  in  noctibus,  gives  a  more 
general  sense  than  the  singular. 

20.  ruamus]  intransitive  followed 
by  the  abl.,  a  classical  usage,  as  Cic. 
pro  Milone  1 8  iacent  tesiibus ;  cp. 
32.  4  inpulsu  ruit,  80.  8  curis 
ruant.  For  the  general  sense  cp. 
Joh.  xi.  10. 


18 


274 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


Hymn  69 
Appointed  for  nocturns  on  Saturday. 

EacdhjsvxijM^  Fhiklnpsx  Gabm  Habcdefghi  Ibcdefghmnop  Mafk  Vbcs 
Summae  Deus  clementiae 
mundique  factor  machinae, 
unus  potentialiter 
trinusque  personaliter, 
nostros  pius  cum  canticis  5 

fletus,  benigne,  suscipe, 
quo  corda  pura  sordibus 
te  perfruamur  largius. 
lumbos  iecurque  morbidum 
adure  igni  congruo,  10 

5  piis  Ech  Im  Vb,  pios  Gm.     nostras  preces  Ic.         6  benignus  Gm  Hh. 
7  corde  puro  Eadv/x  Fhknps  Idghm  Vs.  8  actibus  (pro  larg.)  Ic. 


1 .  '  O  God  of  utmost  mercy.' 
Here  summae  balances  the  line 
better  than  suvime.  To  say  Deus 
clementiae  would  be  well  enough  = 
Deus  Clemens,  and  Deus  summae 
clem.  =  Deus  cle7nentissime;  but  the 
ttvo  epithets,  sutnme  and  clementiae, 
do  not  go  well  together.  The  read- 
ing of  most  of  the  MSS  is  summe, 
but  in  e  and  ae  the  MSS  are  no 
guide. 

2.  machinae]  23.  6  note. 

3.  potentialiter]  'in  power,'  like 
6.  3 1  unu»i  potens. 

5.  pius]  Cp.  29.  39  note,  '  hear 
graciously.' 

6.  fletus]  20.  10  note. 

7.  Mt.  V.  8.  The  5^M<?  is  used  as  in 
68.  9.  corda  pura  is  nom.  or  ace. 
aLs.  These  nominatives  abs.  are 
very  common  in  the  Rule  of  St 
Benedict  :  e.g.  cap.  \\  iussio  eius... 
in  discipulorum  mentibus  conspar- 
gattir,  memor  semper  abbas  quia 
etc. ;  cap.  VU  abbalem  non  celauerit 
suum,  hortans  nos  de  hac  re  scrip- 
tura,  dicens  etc. 

9.    iecur]    The  ancients  regarded 


the  liver  as  the  main  spring  of  life 
and  as  the  seat  of  the  passions  and 
affections,  cp.  Soph.  Aj.  937,  Tim- 
aeus  Locr.  100  A  t6  p^hv  dvfxofidis 
irtpl  rav  KapSlav,  t6  8'  iindvix.aTi,Kbv 
irepl  TO  Tjirap  :  Hor.  Od.  I.  xiii.  4, 
Sat.  I.  ix.  66,  Prud.  Psych.  238  anne 
pudicitiae  gelidum  iecur  utile  bello 
est? 

morbidum]  '  diseased '  in  the 
moral  sense,  cp.  80.  8. 

10.  adure]  'bum  away'  with 
cautery.  So  Celsus  often  uses  the 
term  as  v.  xxvi.  21  medicamentis... 
adurentibus,  ib.  33  aduri  locus  debet, 
VIII.  2  ferraviento  adurere.  Cp. 
the  Sarum  prayer  Ure  igne  sancti 
Spiritus  rates  nostros  et  cor  nostrum, 
Domine  (Maskell  Ancient  Litera- 
ture of  the  Church  of  England  p. 
204,  ed.  3 ;  Procter  and  Words- 
worth Brev.  Sar.  fasc.  11.  col.  500) ; 
Anal.  XLVi.  17  ure  per  ignem 
geminum  \  nostrarum  sordes  men- 
tium. 

cong^ruo  almost  comes  to  mean 
'healing':  it  'meets  the  occasion' 
by  curing  the   diseased   part ;    cp. 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LXX         275 

accincti  ut  sint  perpetim 
luxu  remote  pessimo, 

ut,  quique  horas  noctium 

nunc  concinendo  rumpimus, 

donis  beatae  patriae  15 

ditemur  omnes  afifatim. 

II  perpeti  Gm.  13  quicquid  Im.  14  concidendo  lid. 

16  ditemus  Ig'mv. 

the  use  of  the  word  at  66.  21,  and  tiitm  praeceptorum. 
Ambrosiaster's    use    of   the   word,  12.  pessimo]  note  the  superlative, 

Quaestiones  102  si  congriiam  paeni-  as  at  73.  16. 

tentiam     agant,    ib.    44     congrnas  13.    qnique]   'all  we  who,'  cp. 

poenas.  62.  13  note. 

II.   accincti]  'girt  up,'  referring  14.     rumpimus]     See    note    on 

to  lumhos  in  9,  cp.  Lk.  xii.  35,  Eph.  66.  3. 

vi.    14,   I    Pet.  i.    13,   13.   17  note,  15.    patriae]    Cp.  Heb.  xi.   14, 

120.  45;  Ambr.   in  Luc.  II.    70  ad  29.  55,  92.  13,  106.  8,  120.  37. 
omne  accingaviur  obsequiuni  caeles-  16.   affatim]  62.  18  note. 


Mattins  Series.   Hymns  70-72 

The  Mattin.s  series  is  thus  arranged :  on  Sundays, 
hymn  2  Aeterne  reruni  conditor  for  winter  use,  and  70 
Ecce  iam  noctis  to  be  sung  during  the  summer;  on 
Mondays,  3  Splendor  paternae  gloriae ;  on  Tuesdays,  20 
Ales  diet  7iunthis ;  on  Wednesdays,  21  Nox  et  tenebrae  et 
niibila ;  on  Thursdays,  22  Lux  ecce  siirgit  anrea ;  on 
Fridays,  71  Aeterfia  caeli gloria  ;  on  Saturdays,  72  Aurora 
iam  spargit  poluni. 

In  metre  the  two  following  hymns  are  in  a  transition 
state.  The  laws  of  prosody  are  as  a  rule  ob.served,  but 
see  70.  2  aurora,  6  pellat  I.  (in  ist  foot  of  sapphic) ;  71.  3 
celsitonantis,  7  -qui'  in,  1 1  cciligo,  1 5  dii'i ;  72.  9  man^ 
illud. 

Hymn  70 

70  was  evidently  written  by  the  author  of  63.  See  the 
introduction  to  that  hymn. 


276  EA RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

EacdhjlvxTj/ii^  Fdfhijkops  Habcdef/3  Ibefhmno  Vbcs 
Ecce  iam  noctis  tenuatur  umbra, 
lucis  aurora  rutilans  coruscat, 
nisibus  totis  rogitemus  omnes 

cunctipotentem, 
ut  Deus  nostri  miseratus  omnem  5 

pellat  languorem,  tribuat  salutem, 
donet  et  Patris  pietate  nobis 

regna  polorum. 
praestet  hoc  nobis  Deitas  beata 
Patris  ac  Nati  pariterque  sancti  10 

Spiritus,  cuius  reboatur  omni 
gloria  mundo. 
2  rutilat  coruscans  Hd^.  3  rogitamus  Ha,  recogitemus  Vb. 

5  noster  Es/t  Fiop^  Hd^,  nosmet  Hj8.     misereatur  Fs.  7  nobis  p. 

Patris  Evx  Fio  Ibh.     sola  {pro  Patris)  Eacdhj. 

2.  lucis,  as  at  111.  i,  may  be  a  in  classical  writers  takes  an  ace,  in 
kind  of  adjectival  gen.,  cp.  10.  14  early  and  later  writers  a  gen.  as 
poenam  corporis,  13.  2  diem  saeculi,  here,  cp.  Accius  apud  Non.  445.  12 
here  meaning  'bright';  but  it  is  miserabar  mei;  Prud.  Psych.  580 
more  probably  a  possessive  gen.,  miserando  inopntm.  Festus  p.  123 
lucis  =diei,  'the  dawn  of  day';  says  miserattir  is,  qui  conqueritur 
rutilans  coruscat  sufficiently  supplies  aliena  iftcomtnoda  :  miseretur  is,  qui 
the  idea  of  brightness.  iniserum  subleuat.    The  distinction 

rutilans,   '  blushing,'  is  used   of  does  not  hold  here, 

dawn  by  Accius  apudY&xro  L.  L.  6.    languorem]  'sickness,'  much 

VII.  V.  96,  cp.  36.  I,  111.  I  ;  of  the  stronger  than  our  word  '  languor' ; 

flash  of  arms,  Verg.  Aen.  VIII.  529;  cp.  Is.  liii.  4  uere  languores  tiostros 

of  the  glitter  of  gold.  Fort.  Vlil.  vii.  ipse  tulit,  Mt.  iv.  23,  viii.  17,  121. 

351  rutilantior  auro.  14;  a.nd  larig^tidum  M.  7. 

3.  totis]  =  omnibus  as  at  12.  27  As  in  the  first  stanza  nox  is  con- 
note, 63.  3.  trasted  with  lucis  aurora,  so  here 

4.  cunctipotentem]  a  late  com-  languor  with  salutem. 

pound,  first   as   it   seems   used   by  9  f.   This  doxology  is  the  same  as 

Prud.  Perist.  vii.   56  lesu   cuncti-  that  of  63  and  is  an  integral  part  of 

potens.  the  hymn,   being  contained  in   all 

5.  Ps.  Ixvi.  (Ixvii.)    I.    miserari  MSS  (except  perhaps  one). 

Hymn  71 

[This  is  the  hymn  for  Lauds  on  Fridays  at  ferial 
seasons  ;  see  Juhan  p.  25.] 

Like  31,  this  hymn  is  alphabetic.  Notice  that  the 
C-stanza  is  duplicated  and  that  the  alphabetic  sequence 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXI       277 

does  not  go  beyond  T  ;  cp.  the  note  on  31.  85.  The 
Latin  alphabet  contained  2^  letters  and  the  redoubling 
of  particular  lines  is  common  in  these  acrostic  hymns. 
Thus  e.g.  at  Anal.  XXVII.  xvi.  we  find  the  A-stanza 
repeated  :  Altissimi  uerbum  Patris  \  Almaeqtie  lesu  iiir- 
ginis.  In  another  hymn  (ib.  ix)  a  last  line  is  added  to 
make  the  odds  even :  ne  ualeat  subripere.  See  also  the 
introduction  to  31. 

Eacdghjlsvx7;/i0  Fdhijknopqrsy/3tf^  Gabm  Habcdefghi 
Ibcdefghmnopv  Mm  Vbcs 

Aeterna  caeli  gloria, 
Beata  spes  mortalium, 
Celsitonantis  unice, 
Castaeque  proles  uirginis : 

Da  dexteram  surgentibus,  5 

Exsurgat  at  mens  sobria 
Flagransque  in  laudem  Dei 
Grates  rependat  debitas. 

(H)ortus  refulget  lucifer 

I  aeterne  Ec.        4  casti  Ec.         7  laude  Ecdjlv  Haef  Iv.        8  perenni 
{pro  rep.)  Ec.         9  ortu  Gab. 

I.    The    hymn    is    addressed    to  I.    ii.    17    Martini,  qui  texit  luste 

Christ ;   gloria  and  spes   are   voca-  tonantetn  etc. 
tives.     The   thought    in    this    line  6.   mens  sobria]  6.  16. 

seems  to  be  that  of  Christ  as  the  7.    flagrrans]  126.  15. 

subject  of  the  praises  sung  by  the  8.    An  echo  of  6.  9  f. ;  cp.  1.  2 

heavenly  choirs,  cp.  49.  1%  caeUstem  latides... debitas.    re/erre  is  a  much 

praestant  gloriam.  commoner  verb  than  repetidere,  for 

■2.   spes]   Col.  i.  27,  I  Tim.  i.  i,  returning  thanks,  but  Ovid  Alet.  11. 

87.  6,  88.  10,  99.  2,  cp.  27.  9,  Sedul.  693  has   neu   gratia  facto  \  nulla 

Hymn.  I.  96  spes  iti  fine  bonis  hie  rependatur,    nitidam   cape  praemia 

homo,  qui  Deus  est.  vcucam. 

3.    celsitonantis]   'of  Him  who  9.    Hortns  is   written   for  ortus 

thunders  on  high,'  one  of  the  com-  according  to  the  vulgar  pronuncia- 

pound  words  mentioned  on  27.   8,  tion   of  the   time.     Even   Nigidius 

36.  I.    This  word  is  used  as  a  syno-  Figulus,  the  contemporary  of  Cic, 

nym    for   Deus    by    Raban.  Maur.  gives  the  warning  rusticusfit  sermo, 

IV.  33,  Theodulf  LXV.  I,  andothers.  si  adspires  perperatn.     Cp.   Catull. 

But   commoner  still   is  the  simple  LXXXiv.    But  the  tendency  to  put 

/^«<wu,  used  by  Prud.,  Sedul.,  Fort.  in    h    grew.     In   the    Peregrinatio 


278 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


Ipsamque  lucem  nuntiat,  lo 

Kadit  caligo  noctium, 
Lux  sancta  nos  inluminet : 

Manensque  nostris  sensibus 

Noctem  repellat  saeculi, 

Omnique  fine  diei  15 

Purgata  seruet  pectora. 

Quaesita  iam  primum  fides 

Radicet  altis  sensibus, 

Secunda  spes  congaudeat, 

Tunc  maior  exstet  caritas.  20 

10  sparsamque  Ih.     nutriat  Gb.  1 1  kadat  Ej.     caligo  cadit  Vc. 

noxium  Fy.  12  illuminat  Ic.  13  manes  Ig.  18  radies  Ic. 

19  fecunda  Mm.  20  et  (pro  tunc)  Eag  Hac  lop,  ut  Ec,  qua  Edh^  Yd 

Hfgh,  quo  Ex/x  Fhknops^  Gb  Hbdei  Ibeghimv  Vc,  quod  EvFylnVs, 
cum  F/3  Vb.     extat  Ih  Vc. 


Aetheriae  we  find  twice  hac  si=ac 
si,  repeatedly  Aosf turn  =  osttufn.  An 
inscription  of  about  IVth  cent., 
Damasus  Lxxxil.  7,  has  hornat= 
ornat.  On  the  other  hand  in  31.  85 
ymnis,  120.  43  ydri  the  initial  h  is 
omitted  for  special  reasons. 

ludfer  here  seems  to  be  the 
Morning  Star,  as  at  46.  5  ;  not  the 
sun,  as  usually  in  these  hymns,  cp. 
2.  9. 

10.  sparsamque,  the  reading  of 
the  Mss,  must  be  wrong,  as  the  first 
word  of  the  line  must  begin  with  t. 
Mone''s  correction  Ipsamque  seems 
probably  right  :  '  and  heralds  the 
light  itself.'  Cp.  46.  jf.,  Fort.  vii. 
vi.  I  f.  Lucifer...lado  nuntiat  ore 
diem.  If  the  rubricator  of  the  arche- 
type omitted  the  /  and  the  next 
copyist  found  only  psam,  he  might 
look  upon  it  as  an  abbreviation  of 
sparsam.  In  all  extant  hymnals  the 
stanza  is  written  consecutively  and 
not  in  lines:  thus,  Hortus  refulget 
lucifer  sparsamque  lucem  etc. 

Vet,  as  Verg.,  whose  influence  on 
the  hymn  writers  was  so  great, 
always  uses  nuntia,  nuntiare,  nun- 


tius  of  '  announcing '  what  has 
already  taken  place  (cp.  1.  16,  56, 
116.  12),  and  as  Lucifer  in  these 
hymns  usually  means  'the  sun,' 
perhaps  we  might  read  lactamque ; 
cp.  Lucr.  V.  576  luna...icutat  de 
cor  pore  lucem. 

1 1 .  Kadit  (so  spelled  to  suit  the 
alphabetic  sequence),  cp.  2.  37 
lapsus  cadunt,  72.  5  decidat. 

noctium]  '  of  night,'  not  '  of  the 
night  just  past,'  which  would  require 
noctis,  47.  3  note. 

12.  Here  begins  the  spiritual  ap- 
plication of  the  hymn. 

13.  The  subject  is  lux  sancta. 

14.  'The  night  of  the  world'  is 
the  darkness  of  sin ;  cp.  Ambr.  de 
Tob.  75  hoc  pignus  in  hac  saeculi 
node  reddatur,  hoc  uestimento  in 
his  ntundi  tenebris  inducUur.  The 
phrase  therefore  is  not  like  diem 
saeculi  of  13.  2  etc. 

15.  '  preserve... from  any  close  of 
day,'  cp.  3.  28,  18.  6. 

1 7  f.  For  the  three  '  theological 
virtues '  cp.  15.  21  f.  quaesita '  won,' 
as  at  10.  22.  primum  answers  to 
secunda  in  19  and  to  tunc  in  20. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXH 


279 


18.  radicet]  'take  root,'  a  late 
verb  and  usually  dei  onent ;  but  cp. 
Ambr.  in  Ps.  XXXV.  4  ut  regiiuni 
Dei  in  hominnm  mentibtis  radi- 
caret.  Mone,  thinking  that  sensibus 
has  come  in  from  line  13,  would 
read    altis    mentibtis,    which    two 


words,  as  he  notes,  are  often  com- 
bined. 

19.  congaudeat  seems  to  refer  to 
I  Cor.  xiii.  6. 

20.  I  Cor.  xiii.   13  maior  autem 
horum  est  caritas. 

exstet]  Cp.  38.  18  note. 


Hymn  72 
Appointed  for  Mattins  on  Saturdays. 

EacdhjsvijM^  Fhlqs  Gabm  Habcdefghi^  Ibcdefghmnopv  Mak  Vbcs 

Aurora  iam  spargit  polum, 
terris  dies  inlabitur, 
lucis  resultat  spiculutn; 
discedat  omne  lubricum. 

phantasma  noctis  decidat,  1; 

mentis  reatus  subruat, 
quidquid  tenebris  horridum 
nox  adtulit  culpae  cadat, 

ut  mane  illud  ultimum, 

quod  praestolamur  cernui,  10 

in  lucem  nobis  effluat, 

3  resultet  Fx,  refulget  Ec.   speculum  Ecsv-  Gb  W6  Ibmpv.         4  recedat 
He  Vcs"^.  7  qui  quid  Ex.  9  manet  Im.  10  postulamus  Ec. 

cernuo  Im.  1 1  luce  Es. .  affluat  Ich. 


1.  Cp.  Lucr.  II.  144  primtim 
Aurora  twuo  cum  spargit  Itimine 
terras,  Verg.  Aen.  I  v.  584,  Dra- 
contius  de  Deo  I.  671  roscida  puni- 
ceuin  spargens  aurora  ruborem. 

2.  inlabitur]  'steals  over,'  as  at 
73.  7  ;  cp.  3.  5,  89.  10,  116.  19. 

3.  '  the  dart  of  the  light  (cp.  21. 
8  note)  rebounds,'  as  a  missile  vio- 
lently flung  would  do  after  hitting 
its  mark  ;  cp.  Verg.  Aen.  X.  329  te/a 
. .  .galea  clipeoque  resultant. 

4.  discedat]  '  avaunt ! '  as  at  21. 
4,  26.  21. 

5.  '  May  the  apparitions  of  the 
night  die  away.'    phantasma,  sing. 


for   the    plu.,    which    we    have    at 
83.  6. 
decidat]  18.  6. 

6.  reatus]  'guilt,'  as  at  86.  15: 
the  condition  of  the  reus  6.  11, 10. 
15  etc.  subruat,  lit.  *  be  under- 
mined.' 

7.  '  May  whatever  dark  and 
horrible  sin  night  has  brought  come 
to  an  end.'  culpae  goes  with  quid- 
quid.  Cp.  27.  3  chaos... horridum, 
87.  5  noctis... horridae.  For  cadcU 
cp.  2.  27. 

9  f.  '  that  the  last  great  morning, 
which  we  in  awe  expect,  may  burst 
for  us  into  a  flood  of  light.'    niane  is 


280 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


dum  hoc  tenore  concrepat. 
12  uox  canora  Ih.     concrepet  E^  Habcef  Vs^. 


a  subst.,  as  at  17.  3.  With  illud  c^. 
19.  2  note. 

12.  The  line  is  difficult  to  under- 
stand. We  might  take  concrepare 
(the  con-  being  emphatic)  as  equiva- 
lent to  conuenire,  consendre,  con- 
griiere.  That  meaning  is  given  in 
Goetz's  Glossary,  and  the  Thesaurus 
quotes  it  from  Claudius  Mamertus  : 
orbis  uniitersi  de  animae  statu  nobis 
concrepare  indicium.  Its  opposite  is 
discrepare. 

If  then  we  take  ^^r  =  'this 
morning,'  the  general  sense  would 
be  '  while  (since,  on  the  under- 
standing that)  this  morning  is  in 
keeping '  {tenore  concrepat)  with  it, 
i.e.  with  the  day  of  judgment.   If  we 


behave  to-day  as  we  should  wish  to 
behave  then ,  we  may  hope  that  that 
day  will  be  to  us  a  day  of  light. 

It  is  however  perhaps  easier  to 
take  hoc  with  ttnore.  The  subject 
would  then  be  mane  illud, — '  that 
that  last  morning  may  break  into  a 
flood  of  light  for  us,  seeing  that  it 
is  in  keeping  with  this  sense  (in- 
tention),' with  the  mind  that  we 
are  in. 

If  the  doxology  Deo  Patri  sit 
gloria  had  been  a  part  of  the  hymn 
from  the  beginning,  the  hoc  tenore 
might  be  intended  to  point  on  to  it. 
But  it  is  contained  in  some  Mss  only. 

dum]  Cp.  Draeger  Sytitax  u. 
Stil  des  Tac.  §  168. 


Vesper  Series.   Hymns  73  foil. 
Hymn  yi 
This  hymn  was  appointed   for  Vespers   on    Sunday, 
being  based  on  Gen.  i.  1-5. 

Eacdhjsv77/x0  Fdhlnpqs  Gabd  Habcdefgi^  Ibcdefghnopv  Mamx  Vbc 

Lucis  creator  optima, 

lucem  dierum  proferens, 

primordiis  lucis  nouae 

mundi  parans  originem  : 

qui  mane  iunctum  uesperi  5 

diem  uocari  praecipis, 

taetrum  chaos  inlabitur; 

audi  preces  cum  fletibus. 

3  primordia  Gb.  4  paras  Hd^.  5  nam  (pro  qui)  Gd. 

est  solis. 

5.   'Who  biddest  morning,  joined 


1.  Cp.  46.  I,  66.  1. 

2.  Cp.  3.  2  and  4. 

3.  '  furnishing  with  the  first  be- 
ginnings of  newly  created  light,' 
the  light  of  Gen.  i.  3 :  the  sun, 
moon  and  stars  were  not  created 
until  the  fourth  day,  ib.  14  f. ;  Ambr. 
Hex.   IV.    I   lucem,  quae  praecessor 


to  evening,  to  be  called  day,'  Gen. 
i.  5.  mane  is  a  subst.,  cp.  17.  3 
note,  uesperi  dat.  of  uespere,  which 
nominative  is  found  at  18.  5,  Gen.  i. 
5,  8,  13  etc. 
7.  taetrum]  as  at  60.  11. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXIV      281 

ne  mens  grauata  crimine 
uitae  sit  exsul  munere,  i  o 

dum  nil  perenne  cogitat 
seseque  culpis  inligat. 
caelorum  pulset  intimum, 
uitale  toUat  praemium; 
uitemus  omne  noxium,  15 

purgemus  omne  pessimum. 
II  cogitans  Ih  Mm.         14  toilet  Gd.         16  purgemur  Gd  Ih'. 

chaos]    Cp.  27.  3  note.  The  Latin  idiom  freely  uses  adj.'s 

inlabitur]  as  at  72.  2.  in  this  way;  cp.  e.g.  Sedul.  Carm. 

8.    Cp.  20.  10  note.  il.   121  puerilia  milia,   'thousands 

ID.  exsul]  'deprived  of,'  cp.  note  of  boys.' 
on  62.  29.   mens  =  '^so^^\.'  tollat]   'may  it  receive,'  cp.  for 

II  is  an  echo  of  4.  3, — 'has  no  this  use  of  tollere,  which  is  common 

thought  of  eternity.'  in  late  Latin,  Mt.  xx.  14  tolle  quod 

1  a.     inligat]    '  entangles ' ;     cp.  tuum  est. 

Prov.    V.    22    fimibus  peccatorum  16.    pessimum] 'evil,' the  superL 

suorum  constringitur.  being  used  as  at  69.  13. 

14.    uitale  answers  to  uitae  in  10. 

Hymn  74 

Appointed  for  Vespers  on  Monday  :  it  describes  the 
creation  work  of  the  second  day,  as  in  Gen,  i.  6-10. 

EacdghjsvxT/M^  Fdhiknps  Gabm  Hacdefgitf  Ibcdefghimnopv  Vbcs 
Inmense  caeli  conditor, 
qui,  mixta  ne  confunderent, 
aquae  fluenta  diuidens 
caelum  dedisti  limitem; 

firmans  locum  caelestibus  5 

simulque  terrae  riuulis, 

2  confunderet  Hd*,  confundere  Ec. 

I.    inmense]  1.  69  note.    So  far  water-floods  are   those   above  and 

as  I  know,  not  a  MS  earlier  than  the  those  below  the  vault  of  heaven, 

middle    of    the   Xlth   cent,    writes  which  is  thought  of  as  solid,  cp.  44. 

immense.  3  note,   mixta  is  nom.  agreeing  with 

2  f.     '  Who   dividing  the  water-  fluenta  to  be  supplied. 

floods,  lest,  if  mingled,  they  should  5  f.    'establishing  a  place  for  the 

make  confusion,  hast  set  the  heaven       streams   of  heaven    (i.e.    for   those 
as  their  boundary.'    Gen.  i.  7.   The       above  the  finnament)  and  also  for 


282 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


ut  unda  flammas  temperet, 
terrae  solum  ne  dissipet; 

infunde  nunc,  piissime, 
donum  perennis  gratiae, 
fraudis  nouae  ne  casibus 
nos  error  atterat  uetus. 

lucera  fides  inueniat, 
sic  luminis  iubar  ferat, 
haec  uana  cuncta  terreat, 
banc  falsa  nulla  conprimant. 


15 


7  undae  Eh.  8  solo  Hd^     dissipent  Ea  Fhr  Hd^g  Ic.  15  con- 

terat  Ha.         16  comprimat  Es0  Fs  Gb  Hd'. 


those  of  earth.'  firmans  is  chosen 
with  reference  to  the  firmament, 
cp.  Ps.  xxxii.  (xxxiii.)  6  uerbo 
Domini  caelijirmati  sunt. 

7  f.  '  that  the  water  may  allay 
the  burning  heat  and  not  destroy 
the  face  of  the  earth  ' ;  the  Jlammae 
are  those  of  the  sun,  which  without 
the  moisture  would  scorch  the  earth, 
cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  Ii.  12  sicut  neces- 
saria  ignis  creatura,  ut  ordinata  et 
disposita  permaneant  caelique  de- 
mentia temperet  aqiiarum  redundan- 
tia  non  superjlua,  ne  alteruin  altera 
consumeretur  ...ita  utriusijue  tem- 
perauit  dispendia,  ut  neqtie  plus 
ignis  excoqueret  neque  exuberaret 
aqua  quam  inminutio  Jieret  utrius- 
que  moderata. 

8.  Gen.  ix.  11  neque  erit  del nceps 
diluuium  dissipans  terram. 

terrae  solum]   Cp.  Lucr.  v.  1294. 

9.  infunde]  3.  8.  Perhaps  in 
reference  to  the  waters  just  men- 
tioned ;  but  the  comparison  is  not 
carried  on. 


10.  perennis  gratiae]  3.  lof. 

11.  fraudis]  3.  20. 
casibus]  82.  28. 

12.  atterat]  75.  12.  The  uetus 
error  appears  to  mean  the  fall  of 
Adam,  which  is  repeated  in  subse- 
quent falls. 

13.  lucem  fides]  The  combina- 
tion is  found  at  3.  27  and  often. 

14.  '  O  that  it  may  bring  a  beam 
of  brightness.'  sic  is  used  in  a  peti- 
tion as  at  22.  9,  where  see  the  note. 

iubar]  3.  7. 

15.  baec]  lux^  and  in  16  kanc\ 
Jidem. 

uana]  In  the  O.T.  whoever  is 
without  the  knowledge  of  God  is 
'  vain  '  or  '  empty,'  and  especially  is 
this  word  applied  to  false  gods  who 
are  powerless  to  help ;  cp.  i  Kings 
xii.  21  nolite  declinare  post  uana, 
quae  non  proderunt  uobis  neque 
eruent  uos,  quia  uana  sunt.  In  the 
hymn  emissaries  of  the  devil  are 
meant,  and  the  neuter  is  partly 
contemptuous. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LX XV       283 

Hymn  75 
Appointed  for  Vespers  on  Tuesday,  based  on  Gen.  1*. 
1 1 -1 3,  the  third  day  of  the  creation. 

EacdghjlsvxT/M^  FdhijklnprsuyjSytf  Gabm  Hacdefghitf  Ibcdefghimnopv 
Ma  Vbc 

Telluris  ingens  conditor, 

mundi  solum  qui  eruens, 

pulsis  aquae  molestiis, 

terram  dedisti  inmobilem, 

ut  germen  aptum  proferens,  5 

fuluis  decora  floribus, 

fecunda  fructu  sisteret 

pastumque  gratum  redderet, 

mentis  perustae  uulnera 

munda  uiroris  gratia,  10 

2  mundum  H^.  5  actum  Ev  He.  7  fructum  Ec  Hd  Id'v. 

10  mundi  Ex  Iv.  uirore  gratiae  Ecdhjl/u  Fdhjprsy/37^  Ig^m  Vb  (uirorem 
g.  Hd),  uigore  gratiae  Esv  lb,  mundauit  roris  gratia  Fi  Hcetf,  mundabit 
rore  gratiae  Gb. 

I.   ingena]    An  unpleasing  word  5;    Sedul.    Carm.    iv.    113    litore 

in   this  connexion  ;    but  see   Prud.  sistentem  firmabat  ab  aequore  \  pie- 

A  path.    809    Deus    ingens    \   atqtu  beni. 
superfusus  trans  omnia.  8.    pastom]    '  food,'   usually  for 

1.    \ix2iCO\\\..  de  Deo  \.  151  eruitur  cattle,  but  cp.    Lucr.  vi.   11 27  OMt 

tellus  uaslo  demcrsa  profunda.  alios  hominum  pastus  \  Prud.  Cath. 

4.    'didst  banish  the  troublesome  iv.  56  qui pastuiii  fatnitlo  daret pro- 

waters   and   set    the   earth    that   it  bato;    Levit.    iii.    14  pasium   ignis 

should  not  be  moved  ' ;   inmobilem  dominici.   So  also  at  times  xo/w^fw, 

is  emphatically  put  at  the  end  of  x^/"'*<''M««  x^P'''"^- 
the  stanza.    Ps.  xcii.  (xciii.)  i,  ciii.  10.    uiroris   gratia]  like   soporis 

(civ.)  5  ;  Ambr.  Hex.  l.  22  terram  _^r.  in  6.  4.  CI ichtov.,  reading  «»><wr 

...mole  sua  inmobilem  manere.  gratiae,  makes  the  comment,  uiror 

5  f.    Note  the  climax  germen,  Jlos,  gratiae   ad  kerbam   uirentem  tertio 

fructus,  pastus,  and  the  alliteration  die  productam  congruum  habet  re- 

in  6,  7.  sponsum,  el  ex  exposito  ad  mentem 

6.  folois]  '  bright,'  with  no  uitiorum  aestu  perustam,  quae  tali 
special  reference  to  its  usual  meaning  uirore  ttegetetur,  reuirescai  et  inno- 
•golden  red,'  so  Prud.  Cath.  ix.  76  ttetur.  [Walpole  records  that  two 
sed  Deus  dum  luce  fulua  mortis  other  MSS  not  mentioned  elsewhere, 
antra  inlumiiuit.  which  he  calls   'Mainz   xil,    Koln 

7.  sisteret]  'present  itself,'  xiv,'  agree  with  the  reading  of 
scarcely  more  than  esset.     Cp.  66.       Ex  Iv.]   The  many  variants  may  be 


284  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

ut  facta  fletu  diluat 

motusque  prauos  adterat. 

iussis  tuis  obtemperet, 

nullis  malis  adproximet, 

bonis  repleri  gaudeat  15 

et  mortis  actum  nesciat. 

11  deluat  EcMhya^  Fin  legn  Vc,  deleat  Gm  Hce,  13  ut  temp.  Ej. 
15  boni  E/u.         16  actus  E^  Fs  Hcd'e%i0  Ibeg-n,  actuum  lo. 

due  to  the  rarity  of  the  word  uiror.  verb  twice  used  in  the  Vulgate,  at 

perustae  seems  to  refer  to  arida  in  Ps.  xxxii.  6,  9,  for  the  usual  adpro- 

Gen.  i.  9,  10,  but  with  exaggerated  pinquare.  For  the  sense  cp.  Prov.  v. 

emphasis.  8    ne   adpropinques  foribus    domus 

II.    Cp.  2.  16.  mens,  hova  ??ientis  eius. 

in  9,  is  the  subject  of  diluat,  ad-  16.    mortis  actum] '  the  action  of 

terat,  and  of  the  verbs  in  13  f.  eternal  death.'   Cp.  62  b.  13  carnis 

1 2  gives  the  converse  of  74.  1 2.  actu. 
1 4.   adproximet  is  a  late  and  rare 

Hymn  y^ 
Appointed  for  Vespers  on  Wednesday,  based  on 
Gen.  i.  14-19,  the  fourth  day  of  the  creation.  Note  the 
structure  of  the  hymn.  The  first  two  stanzas  contain 
relative  clauses  concerning  God  and  the  creation  of  the 
sun,  moon  and  stars.  The  third  stanza  contains  a  final 
clause,  and  not  until  tlie  last  stanza  is  the  prayer  uttered 
to  which  all  the  first  part  of  the  hymn  has  been  leading 
up. 

EacdhjlsvxijM^  Fhijklnpsy  Gabm  Habcdefghitf  Ibcdefghmnopv  Ma  Vbc 
Caeli  Deus  sanctissime, 
qui  lucidum  centrum  poli 

2.     lucidum    centrum    p.]   'the  there  is  no  finite  verb,  t/ar^j  in  12 

shining  centre   of  the  sky '  is   the  implies  a  past  tense  for  stanza  II. 

sun,  or  to  be  exact  the  spot  where  It  was  the  more  easy  for  the  writer 

the  sun  is  fixed.   It  may  be  objected  to  proceed  in  this  order  because  at  the 

that  in  this  way  stanza  i  anticipates  outset  he  had  in  view  his  application 

stanza  il.    Perhaps  the  objection  is  of  the  facts,  inlumina  cor  hominum. 
not  very  serious.    The  writer  des-  The  Thesaurus  as  the  meaning  of 

cribes  in  stanza  I  what  now  happens  centrum  gives  medium  camerae,  i.e. 

(pingis),  and  in  stanza  11  how  this  the  centre  of  a  vaulted  ceiling,  of 

state  of  things  came  about : — though  course  dealing  with  the  word  as  a 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LX XVI      285 

candore  pingis  igneo, 

augens  decoro  lumine, 

quarto  die  qui  flammeam  5 

soils  rotam  constituens, 

lunae  ministrans  ordini 

uagos  recursus  siderum, 

ut  noctibus  uel  lumini 

diremptionis  terminum,  10 

primordiis  et  mensiutn 

signum  dares  notissimum : 

inlumina  cor  hominum, 
absterge  sordes  mentium, 

3  pinguis  I^.  4  decora  Ecdhl,  decore  Ev  lb',  decori  Es  Gb  Hhi 

lopv  Vb,  decoretn  Fs  Hd  Ic  V'c.    lumina  Ecdhls  Hgi  Ip  Vb  (luminam  Iv), 
luminis  Ic,  lumini  Fs  Hd  In  Vc.  5  quarta  Ev.  7  lunam  Hce*. 

ministras  Eadj  Hg  Idv  Vb.   ordinem  Elv'  Fs  Had  IbhMno  Vc.         9  et  Ec, 
luminis  Esv^  Fhis  Gab  Hdef  len,  luminum  Id  Vc.  10  direptionis  Ejs 

Fhiknps  Gbm  Hacefg  Id'egv,  directionis  Hd  Id*h.  12  daret  Edjv  Fhi 

Gb  Ib'g'v  Vb,  darent  Eacl,  dare  Es  lehp^.  13  hominis  Ic. 

Latin  word,  not  a  Greek  one.     It  sun,'  as  at  Lucr.  v.  433,  565,  Prud. 

refers  to  a  passage  of  Cassian  Coll.  Catli.  xii.   5  etc.    Cp.  salts. ..globo 

XXIV.  vi.    I,  which   is  well   worth  23.  7.   44.  10  is  not  quite  parallel, 
reading  :  Quaiu  ob  rem  ita  monachi  7  f.     '  supplying   to    the    moon's 

oinnis  intentio  in  union  semper  est  path   the   speeding   courses  of  the 

defigenda,    cunctarumque    cogitatio-  stars,' cp.  Judg.  v.  20  slellae  manen- 

num  eius  orttis  ac  circumittis  in  id  tes  in  ordine  sua;  Job  xxxviii.  33, 

tpsum,\.e.  ad memoriain  Dei,stremie  69.  8.    Observe  that  there  is  no  verb 

reuocandi,  uelut  si  quis  teretis  apsidis  in  the  relative  clause. 
cameram  nolens  in  sublime  conclu-  8.  uagos]  36.  4  note.  The  'fixed' 

dere,  sublimissimiillius  ceniri lineam  stars  are  included,  returning  to  their 

iugiter    circumducat,   ac    secundum  stations  at  the  appointed  time.  They 

certissimam  normam  omnem  rotun-  are  regarded   as  waiting  upon  the 

ditatis parilitatem  structurae  colligat  moon,  their  mistress. 
discipltna.    Cassian  goes  on  to  say  9  f.    '  that  Thou  mightest  give  to 

how  impossible  it  would  be  to  con-  night  and  day  a  limit  of  separation 

struct   a   good   vault   absque    illius  and  a  conspicuous  sign  for  the  be- 

medietate  examine.  ginnings  of  months.'    For  the  plu. 

poli]  2.  ro  note.  noctibus  see  47.  3  note. 

3.  pingis]  27.  6  note.  uel]  'and,'  37.  6  note. 

4.  'enhancing  it  with  beauteous  ro.  diremptionis]  distinctionis, 
light,'  cp.  Lucr.  v.  722  ignibus  discretionisatquediuisionis{(Z\\c\it.). 
aucta.  To  this  unusual  sense  of  The  sign  would  be  in  9,  10  the 
augens  the  many  variants  are  due.  rising  and  setting  of  the  .sun,  in  1 1 

decoro  lumine]  6.  ^,  cp.  116.  14.       the  changes  of  the  moon. 
6.   soUs  rotam]  'the  di.sk  of  the  14.   absterge]  as  at  68.  11. 


286  EA RL V  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

resolue  culpae  uinculum,  15 

euerte  moles  criminum. 

16  auerte  Id. 

16.    Cp.   Tac.   Ann.  xii.  66   in  hymn  (v^wo/^c/rt  xxvii.  p.  112)  des- 

tanta   mole  curarum ;    Juvenc.    Ii.  cribes   us   as  peccati  mole  grauide 

786   spinosus    ager    curartim    mole  pressos. 
grauatis  \  respondel.    A  Mozarabic 

Hymn  77 

Appointed  for  Vespers  on  Thursday,  based  on  Gen.  i. 
20-23,  the  fifth  day  of  creation. 

EacdhjsvxTjju^  Fhijknpqsxyy  Gabm  Hacdefghi  Ibcdefghmnopv  Max  Vbcs 
Magnae  Deus  potentiae, 
qui  ex  aquis  ortum  genus 
partim  remittis  gurgiti, 
parti  tn  leuas  in  aera, 

dimersa  lymphis  inprimens,  5 

subuecta  caelis  inrogans, 

ut  stirpe  una  prodita 

diuersa  rapiant  loca: 

largire  cunctis  seruulis, 

quos  mundat  unda,  sanguinis,  10 

1  magne  Ecd  Fs  Haceghi.  3  partem  Ec.  gurgitis  E/t  Ic. 
4  leuans  Ic.  acre  Gb.  5  imprimis  Eh,  imprimes  In.  6  subiecta 
Esyu  Ig'hv.  caelo  E/it.  inrigans  Es,  irrogas  Fs  Id^v.  8  rapiunt  E/u, 
rapiens  Fi. 

I.    'O    God   of  mighty   power,'  take  up  different  abodes.'   lymphis 

i.e.  'O  great  and  mighty  God.'    I  and  caelis  are  (datives)  governed  by 

have   written   tnagnae  here,    as   in  inprimens a.x\dinrogans,hn\.  (as oiien 

69.  I  sumtnae ;  see  the  note  there.  happens)   connected   at    the    same 

2  f.  '  Who,  of  the  race  sprung  time  (as  dat.  or  abl.)  with  i/imersa 
from  the  waters,  sendest  some  back  and  subuecta.  irrogare  is  generally 
to  the  deep,  raisest  others  into  the  used  of  inflicting  something  disad- 
air.'  vantageous,  as  at  Levit.  xxiv.  19. 

paxtim...paxtini]  adverbs  mean-  7.     stirpe  una   is   explained  by 

ing  '  partly,'  originally  the  ace.  of  line  2. 

pars.  9  f.     largire... nescire]     Perhaps 

5  f.    '  Setting  down  those  plunged  an  echo  of  18.  5,  19.  13  f. 

in  the  waters,  assigning  those  that  seruulis]  15.  3J  note, 

are   raised    to    the    heavens;    that  10.     'Who  are  cleansed   by  the 

sprung   from   cfne   stock   they  may  water  and  the  blood.'   sanguinis  is 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LXXVIU     287 

nescire  lapsus  criminum 

nee  ferre  mortis  taedium ; 

ut  culpa  nullum  deprimat, 

nullum  leuet  iactantia, 

elisa  mens  ne  concidat,  15 

elata  mens  ne  corruat. 

1 1  lapsum  Ectlh  Fpsx  Gb  Hacd'g  Icd'g^mop  Vbc,  lapsis  Ej.     criminis 
He.  13  deprimet  Eh.  14  leuat  Es  Gb.     iactantiae  Fx.  15  nee 

Eae  He  Icm.  16  nee  Eac. 

probably  to  be  taken  as  nom.,  the  templationum  saeculi  ad  imhuendas 

form    (cp.    Ronsch    p.    264)    being  gentes  nomine  tuo  in  baplismo  ttio. 

adopted  to  suit  the  metre,  like  nee-  11.   lapsus]  2.  27. 

tare  at  34.   id.    The  sense  of  the  criminum  may  be  'into  sins'  or 

passage  is  to  be  compared  with  that  '  eaused  by  sins.' 

of  33.  20  sanguis,  tinda proflnit,  34.  12.    'the  loathsomeness  of  ever- 

12,    Sedul.    Carm.    V.    290  corpus,  lasting  death,'  cp.  76.  16.    Perhaps 

sanguis,    aqua    tria    uitae   munera  taedium  is  to  be  taken  in  the  special 

noslrae,  i  Joh.  v.  6.    Of  course  the  sense   of  'malice,'   as   at  Vincent. 

juxtaposition  with    tituia   makes   it  Ler.     Comm.    xxx    absque    taedio, 

natural  to  consider  s.  as  genitive  ;  praesumptione,    et    gratia  ;     where 

but  in  a  hymn  concerning  the  otf-  Moxon  refers  to  Ronsch  Semasilog. 

spring  of  the  water  the  special  men-  Beitrdge  i.  p.  69. 

tion  of  the  water  of  Joh.   xix.   34  13.  nullum]  =  «^w/«^w,  ep.  30.  3 

and  of  baptism  is  more  than  likely.  note  ;    or  rather,  the  clause  being 

So  Aug.  Conf.  XIII.  26  concipiat  et  final,  ut  nullum  stands  for  ne  quetn- 

niare  et  pariat  opera  tiestra,  et  prO'  quam. 

ducant    aquae    reptilia    animarum  15.    elisa]   'broken,'  'crushed'; 

uiuarnm . .  .repserunt     enim     sacra-  cp.  Ps.  cxliv.  (cxlv.)  14  Dominus... 

menta  tua,  Deus,  per  opera  sancto-  erigit  omnes  elisos. 

rum   tuorum   inter   medios    fluctus  17.   elata]  i  Tim.  iii.  6. 

Hymn  78 
Appointed  for  Vespers  on   Friday,  based  on  Gen.  i. 
24-31,  the  sixth  day  of  creation. 

Ecdhjsvx97^0  Fhnpqs7  Gabm  Habedefghi  Ibedefhmnopv  Mamx  Vbcs 
Plasmator  hominis  Deus, 
qui  cuncta  solus  ordinans 
humum  iubes  producere 
reptantis  et  ferae  genus, 
3  iubens  Fs'  Ig.         4  et  ferre  Fs  Gb  Vs,  efferre  Ic. 

I .  plasmator]  '  creator,'  '  maker,'  4.   'the  race  of  the  creeping  thing 

cp.  23.  10  note.  and  of  the  beast.'    The  gen.'s  are 


288  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

qui  magna  rerum  corpora  5 

dictu  iubentis  uiuida, 

ut  seruiant  per  ordinem, 

subdens  dedisti  homini : 

repelle  a  seruis  tuis, 

quidquid  per  inmunditiam  lo 

aut  moribus  se  suggerit 

aut  actibus  se  interserit. 

da  gaudionim  praemia, 

da  gratiarum  munera, 

dissolue  litis  uincula,  15 

adstringe  pacis  foedera. 

6  dicto  Hei  In^,  dictum  Gb'  Hd.  8  hominem  Es  Hbi  Mm'  Ihv. 

16  abstringe  Ev  Fn  Hbde  Ihv  Mm. 

sing,  for  plu.     The  word  used  for  7  f .    Cp.   Gen.  i.  28,   Ps.  viii.  8, 

fera  at  Gen.  i.  24 f.  is  bestia,  and  Eccli.  xvii.  4. 

for  reptans,  reptile.  10.    The  hymn  rather  unkindly 

5  f.    '  Who  hast  put  into  subjec-  views   these   creatures   as   unclean, 

tion  to  man,  that  they  may  serve  In  per  inmunditiam  the  per  is  used 

him  each  in  its  place,  the  mighty  as  in  per  ludum,  per  iram  facere. 

forms   of  things   called  into  life  at  12.    For   interserit   Mone  would 

the  bidding  of  Thy  command.'  read   inserit,    probably   because   of 

magna  rerum  corpora]  a  poetical  the  hiatus  in  9.    But  a  hymn  may 

phrase  used  to   contrast   the  great  have  both  hiatus  and   elision,  cp. 

bulk   of  beasts   with   their   subser-  Fort,  vi  11.  viii.  i  o  regina  potens  ciii 

vience  to  men.    Cp.   Lucr.   I.  680  aurum  et  purpura  uile  est.    If  any 

corpora  rerum;  Juvenc.  I.  157  cor-  change  were   needed   it   would   be 

pora  magna  iiutencum.    So  Ambr.  better  to  omit  se  to  be  supplied  in 

Hex.  VI.  35  (of  the  elephant)  haec  thought  from  se  in  11. 

tantae  molis  bestia subiecta  nobis  im-  14.       gratiarum]      'of     grace,' 

periis  seruit  humanis.  brought  into  the  plu.  by  the  other 

6.   dictu]   'at  the   bidding,'   the  plu. 's  around, 

abl.    of  a   verbal  subst.    very   rare  15.   i.e.  free  us  from  the  power  of 

except  as  an   abl.    of  respect    (so-  strife. 

called     supine) :      viirabile     dictu,  16.   pacis  foedera]  50.  29.  foedus 

tie/as  dictu  etc.    Mone  would  read  pacis  occurs  at   Is.   liv.    10,    Ezek. 

dicto,  '  at  the  word.'  xxxvii.  26. 

Hymn  79 

79  is   generally,    but   not    universally,   appointed   for 

Vespers  on  Saturday  during  the  summer,  and  we   are 

hereby  brought  face  to  face  with    a  difficult  question. 

The  first  six  of  the  Vesper  hymns,  73-78,  are  alike  in 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LXXIX      289 

every  respect  and  are  no  doubt  the  work  of  one  writer. 
They  appear  with  unfaih'ng  regularity  in  all  the  MSS  of 
the  later  hymnal.  But  O  lux  beata  Trinitas  is  a  hymn 
of  quite  another  type,  with  only  two  instead  of  the  usual 
four  stanzas.  Did  the  Roman  use  ever  have  a  seventh 
hymn  concerning  the  seventh  day  of  the  creation,  the 
sabbath  rest,  answering  more  or  less  to  80?  Probably 
not.  If  it  did  the  hymn  has  disappeared  ;  see  the  intro- 
duction to  80.  Trier  1245  omits  hymn  79,  though  it 
contains  5  Dens  creator  omnium^  which  was  normally  the 
winter  hymn  for  Saturday  Vespers.  In  the  Mozar.  MS 
Madrid  1005  (Hh  60)  the  rubric  of  79  is  cottidianns 
dominicalis,  and  in  St  Gall.  387  the  hymn  is  appointed 
dominica  de  sancta  Trtnitate,  in  Vesp.  D.  XII,  Durham 
III.  32,  Harl.  2961  it  is  described  as  inuocatio  ad  sanctarn 
Trinitatem,  in  the  Moz.  brev.  of  Ortiz  (1502)  it  is  ap- 
pointed in  dom.  H post  oct.  epiphan. 

As  to  the  contents  of  the  hymn.  Probably  on  account 
of  its  shortness,  it  has  been  much  interpolated.  A  good 
many  MSS  add  between  stanzas  I  and  II:  iam  tetnpus 
noctis  aduenit  noctem  quietam  tribuens,  diluailo  nos  respice, 
saluator  unigettite.  The  Mozarabic  authorities  add  two 
more  stanzas  after  this  :  tu  Christe  solue  uincida,  absterge 
nostra  uitia,  relaxa  pius  crimina  et  indulge  facinora. 
Oranius  ut  exaudias,  precamur  tit  subuenias,  Christe  lesu 
omnipotens,  tu  nos  a  malo  libera.  A  Rheinau  MS  (Cod. 
LXXXIII,  see  Werner  die  dltesten  Hymnensammlungen 
von  Rheinau  p.  52)  adds :  Nos  angelorum  gloriam,  apos- 
tolorum  gratiam  et  martyrum  certamina  ac  confitentuin 
praemia,  laudemus  almas  uirgines  in  niente  sacratissimas, 
quod  uirgo  Christum  gigneret  mundoque  uitani  redderet. 

[This   is   one   of  the   hymns  which  the  Benedictine 
editors  of  St  Ambrose  ascribe  without  hesitation  to  that 
saint.    It  is  indeed  worthy  of  him,  though  the  constant 
w.  19 


290  EA RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

rhyme  is  unlike  his  workmanship.  In  three  different 
passages  of  de  una  Deitate  Hincmar  speaks  of  it  un- 
questionably as  his.  Daniel  IV.  p.  48  argues  for  the 
authorship  of  Ambrose  from  the  well-known  passage  in 
Epist.  21  where  he  speaks  of  the  zeal  with  which  the 
people  of  Milan  daily  proclaimed  their  faith  in  the 
Trinity  by  singing  his  verses.  But  the  fact  that  this 
beautiful  hymn  did  not  find  its  way  into  the  Ambrosian 
use  is  sufficient  to  disprove  the  contention.  The  eighteen 
hymns  of  St  Ambrose  given  above  contain  the  doctrine 
of  the  Trinity  clearly  enough  to  meet  the  requirements 
of  the  Epistle  referred  to.] 

Eacdhlsvx$i7/i^  Fabhlpqs  Gdm  Habcdefi  Ibcdefghmnopv  Max  Vbcs 
O  lux  beata  Trinitas 
et  principalis  unitas, 
iam  sol  recedit  igneus, 
infunde  lumen  cordibus. 
te  mane  laudum  carmine,  5 

te  deprecamur  uespere, 

3  recedat  Ic,  recedunt  Gd^     ignibus  E5.  4  sensibus  He.  5  lau- 

dant  Hei  Ig  Vb,  laudent  E5  Fb  He",  ladunt  Ec,  laude  Gd.  carmina  Ehv5 
Fb  Ha^bcdef  Igmo  Vb.  6  deprecemur  Eacdhvx50  Fabnps  Hi 

Ibdeghmnv  Vs,  praedicamus  Es  Max.     uesperi  Eahvx  Hbe^  Ib^cdegnv. 

1.  l>eata    seems    to    belong    to  3.    sol  igneus]  Verg.  Georg.  iv. 
Trinitas  rather  than  to  lux.                     426,  Prud.  Cath.  Ii.  25. 

2.  principalis] 'princely,' 'royal,'  4.    Cp.  3.  7  f. 

is  the  adj.  oi  princeps  so  often  used  5.  From  deprecamur  in  6  a  suit- 
in  these  hymns,  as  at  24.  ro,  30.  32,  able  word  is  to  be  supplied,  '  we 
31.  3  etc.  Cp.  Ps.  1.  14  spiritu  worship'  or  the  like,  deprecamur 
principali  (irvtifiaTi.  rjye/xoviKif)  con-  often  means  simply  '  we  pray '  not 
firtna  me,  and  68.  \l.  o  Trinitatis  deprecate  (19.  13  note),  and  may 
unitas  \  orbem  patenter  qui  regis.  It  itself  be  supplied,  laudum  is  at 
is,  however,  possible  that  the  word  least  on  its  way  to  becoming 
is  here  used  in  the  sense  of  '  primal, '  '  Lauds.' 

*  fundamental.'  Much  controversy  For  the  repetition  of  te  at  the 
has,  of  course,  gathered  about  the  commencement  of  these  three  con- 
use  of  the  word  in  patristic  Latin,  secutive  Hnes  see  1.  3  f. 
especially  in  certain  connexions  :  7.  '  May  our  humble  praise ' — or 
see  Puller  Primitive  Saints  and  See  '  may  our  glorj'  prostrate  before 
of  Rome  pp.  29 — 32,  441—442  Thee' — 'laud  Thee  through  all 
(ed.  3).  ages,'  i.e.  may  we  be  permitted  to 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN.LXXX       291 

te  nostra  supplex  gloria 
per  cuncta  laudet  saecula. 

8  laudat  E«  He»,  laudes  Hd. 

take  a  humble  part  in  the  triumph  mean  the  soul :  see  Kirkpatrick  on 

song  of  heaven,  supplex  belongs  to  Ps.  vii.   5.     As,  however,  gloria  is 

the  predicate  rather  than  the  sub-  sometimes  used  in  these  hymns  (as 

ject.    Cp.  Ps.  Ivii.  9  exsurge,  gloria  at  40.  34)  in  the  sense  of  an  '  as- 

mea  (in  Ps.  xv.  (xvi.)  g  the  Vulg.  cription  of  glory,' it  may  perhaps  be 

has  lingua  tnea).     The   '  glory '  of  so  intended  here, 
man  in  the  Psalms  is  interpreted  to 


Hymn  8o 

A  most  interesting,  though  difficult,  hymn.  It  has 
been  pointed  out  in  the  introduction  to  79  that,  whereas 
the  ferial  Vesper  hymns  73-78  are  based  on  the  several 
days  of  the  creation,  the  series  then  breaks  off  and  79 
O  lux  beata  Trinitas  is  interpolated  instead.  Did  the 
Roman  breviary  ever  have  a  special  Vesper  hymn  on 
the  seventh  day,  similar  to  the  first  six  ?  If  so,  why  has 
it  disappeared  ? 

Rerum  Deus  fons  omnium  is  not  likely  to  be  the  hymn 
sought  for.  For  one  of  the  two  MSS  which  contain  it  is 
of  the  Mozarabic  use.  And  the  scanning  of  ?gris  (for 
aegris)  in  7  points  to  Spain  as  its  birthplace.  Thus 
Prudentius  scans  Enigma,  h^resis.  Meander,  spk^ra  etc.  ; 
and  Traube  {Poetae  Latini  aeui  car.  p.  791)  quotes  from 
Spanish  poets  cordulU,  dicat?,  plum?,  pr(!potens,  prhiia, 
unit?.  Probably  therefore  a  Spanish  poet  saw  his  oppor- 
tunity and  wrote  hymn  80.  But  if  it  be  of  Spanish 
origin  and,  at  one  time  at  least,  part  of  the  Mozarabic 
use,  how  comes  it  to  be  in  a  Bobbio  MS  (Turin  G.  V.  38)? 
And  why  is  it  not  in  the  printed  breviary  of  Ortiz  of 
1502.? 


19 — 1 


292  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


lo  Ma 
Rerum  Deus  fons  omnium, 
qui  rebus  actis  omnibus 
totius  orbis  ambitum 
censu  replesti  munerum, 

non  actibus  fessus  manens,  5 

laboribus  non  saucius, 
cunctis  quietem  das,  aegris 
curis  ruant  ne  morbidi : 

concede  nunc  temporibus 

uti  malorum  consciis,  10 

instare  iam  uirtutibus 

at  munerari  prosperis; 

terroris  ut  cum  iudicis 
horror  supremus  ceperit. 


3  ambitu  lo  Ma.             4  numerum  lo. 

7  cuncta  Ma. 

quietis  lo. 

8  morbidis  lo  Ma.           9  mortalibus  Ma. 

10  hostiis  Ma. 

II  in- 

stitue  lo.         12  munerare  Ma,  munere  lo. 

14  caeperit  lo. 

2.  The  time  of  actis  is  contem-  come  from  the  surrounding  words 
porary  with  that  of  replesti  in  4.  ending  in  -is.  Blume  punctuates 
From  the  choice  of  this  word  rather  cunctis  quietem  das  aegris,  which 
\hsLnf actis,  rebus  seems  not  to  be  a  can  but  mean  that  God  gives  the 
synonym  oi  rerum  in  line  i.  sabbath  rest  only  to  the  sick,    mor' 

3.  orbis  ambittun]  120.  10,  cp.  bidi  is  my  conjecture. 

13.  25.  9  f.    '  Grant  us  now  to  know  our 

4.  censu]  9.  16,  14.  18.  wrong-doings  and  make  use  of  fixed 
5  f.    The  thought  of  the  stanza  is  seasons,  and  even  now  to  strive  after 

that  God,  Himself  not  needing  rest,  virtues  and  to  be  rewarded  with  suc- 

made  the  sabbath  for  man.  cess.'    nufu  is  contrasted  with  the 

manens]    'being';   cp.    44b.   8  time  of  13 f. 
note.  temporibus]  such  seasons  as  the 

6.    saucius  is  frequently  used  in  end    of   a    week,   when    we    may 

poetry   in    the    sense    of    '  ailing,'  specially  review  our  past  conduct, 
'disabled.'  12.   prosperis]  '  temporal  happi- 

7f.    'Thou  givest  rest  to  all,  that  ness,'  cp.  69.  16. 
they  may  not  perish  stricken  with  i3f.   'That  when  the  last  fear  of 

sickly  cares.'  the  terror  of  the  Judge  shall  seize 

aegris  curis]   Cp.  Lucr.  in.  905  the  world.'   For  this  use  of  horror 

doloribus    aegris,    ib.     933     aegris  with  a  gen.  cp.  57.  14,102.  11,  and 

luctibus',    Juvenc.    I.   631    aegra...  for  the  sense  of  the  passage  86.  14. 

cura.  Join  curis  ruant  68.  20  note.  [Perhaps  it  would  be  better  to  re- 

morbidi]  'diseased,'  as  at  69.  9.  tain  the  MS  reading  coeperit  (caep.) 

The   MS    reading    morbidis   would  '  shall  begin.'  There  would  then  be 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXXI      293 

laetemur  omnes  in  uicem  15 

pacis  repleti  munere. 

15  laetemus  Ma.  i6  replesti  munerum  lo. 

a  contrast  between  those  who  have      compense. 

prepared  betimes  and  others.]  i6.     repleti  munere  looks  back 

15.   ia  uicem]  i.e.  by  way  of  re-       to  lines  4  and  7. 


Hymns  for  the  Day  Hours.  Hymns  8i  fif. 

Hymn  8i 

This  has  always  been  the  hymn  for  Prime  in  the  later 
series,  taking  the  place  of  51  Post  matutinis  laudibus,  the 
hymn  for  the  same  office  in  the  old  hymnal.  But  Vat. 
82  f.  219V  has  another  short  hymn  for  Prime:  Christe 
caelorum  conditor,  \  Dens  dominator  omnium^  \  placabilis 
nos  aspice  \  precantes  tuos  famulos.  \  hora  prima  psalli- 
mus,  I  landes  Deo  referimus,  \  qui  caecam  noctem  uicimus,  \ 
Christum,  regent  requirimus.  \  Deo  patri  sit  gloria  \eiusque 
soli  filio  I  cum  spiritu  paraclito  \  et  nunc  et  per perpetuum. 
Blume  suggests  that  this  hymn,  being  the  shorter  one, 
was  intended  for  the  summer. 

Abdghk  Eacdhjv5)it  Fbhlqs  Gabd  Habcdefgh/t  Ibho  Mx  Vabcps 
lam  lucis  orto  sidere 
Deum  precemur  supplices, 
ut  in  diurnis  actibus 
nos  seruet  a  nocentibus ; 

linguam  refrenans  temperet,  5 

ne  litis  horror  insonet, 
1  precamur  Eh5  Fb.  5  temperat  E5. 

I.   lucis  ..sidere]  i.e.  the  sun.  5.  Cp.  Ps.xxxiii.  (xxxiv.)  13;  Ja. 

3.  diumis  actibus]   the  actions  i.  26  non  refrenans  linguam  suam. 
of    the   coming   day,    like   actuum  6.    'that  grating  stiife   may  not 
sequentium  of  64.  7.  resound  on  it,'  the  tongue  bemg  the 

4.  nocentibus]  like  'all  things  instrument,  like  i-a/a/«« /w<?«ar^  in 
that  may  hurt  us'  {noxia  cuncta)  Ovid.  Cp.  J  a.  iv.  i  tinde  bella  et 
of  our  Collect.  li(f^  '«  nobis?  Lucr.   il.  410  serrae 


294 


EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


uisum  fouendo  contegat 
ne  uanitates  hauriat. 
sint  pura  cordis  intima, 
absistat  et  uecordia, 
carnis  terat  superbiam 
potus  cibique  parcitas ; 
ut  cum  dies  abscesserit 
noctemque  sors  reduxerit, 
mundi  per  abstinentiam 
ipsi  canamus  gloriam. 


lO 


15 


7  concitat  E5,  8  uanitatis  Ab  Ech  Gb  lb,  uanitatem   Hd. 

Ti  superbia  Edh.  14  sol  ES  lo  Va^. 


stridentis  acerbum  hotTorem,  Or 
litis  horror  may  mean  'dread  strife,' 
cp.  57.  14  horror  timoris;  80.  13. 

7  f.  '  that  His  protection  may 
screen  our  eyes,  lest  they  drink  in 
vanities.'  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.)  37  auerte 
oculos  nieos  ne  uideant  uanitatem. 
Probably  the  hymn  writer  is  also 
thinking  of  Aug.  Conf.  vii.  20 
posteaquam  fouisli  caput  nescientis 
et  clausisti  oculos  meos,  ne  uiderent 
uanitatetn,  cessaui  de  me  paululiun 
et  consopita  est  insania  mea. 

fouendo]  Cp.  6.  32  note  and  for 
the  use  of  the  gerund  see  Index. 

uanitates]  74.  15  note. 

hauriat]  Cp.  Verg.  Aen.  iv.  661 
hauriat  hunc  oculis  ignem  ;  Ambr. 
in  Luc.  VI.  44  ne  confusionem... 
hauriret ;  Fort.  v.  ii.  4  hauriret 
mens  oculata  fidem  ;  Eccl.  i.  18  non 
saturabitur  oculus  uisu. 

9.  Cp.  Ambr.  Hex.  iv.  i  sol  in- 
cipit.  etnunda  oculos  mentis,  0  homo, 
animaeque  interiores  optiitus,  ne  qua 
festuca  peccati  aciem  tui  praestringat 
ingenii  et  puri  cordis  turbet  aspec- 


tuvi.   Cp.  also  5.  13,  26. 

10.  absistat]  —absit,  as  at  50.  23. 
uecordia]   'folly,'  'madness,'  as 

often  in  Latin  translation  of  O.T. 
The  heart  is  regarded  as  the  centre 
of  thought,  and  the  folly  is  that  of 
leading  an  impure  life ;  cp.  Prov. 
vii.  7  uecordem  iuuenem,  qui...prope 
uiar>i  illius  graditur  in  obscuro. 

11.  terat  superbiam]  32.  15. 

14.  sors  pro  successione  tticissi- 
tudineque  temporis,  cuius  certa  serie 
ac  alternatione  diei  succedit  hora 
nocturna  (Clicht.). 

15  f.  mundi  is  probably  an  adj. 
as  at  20.  12,  98.  11:  'that  kept 
clean  by  our  abstinence  we  may 
sing  praise  to  Him.'  But  the  mean- 
ing may  possibly  be  '  that  by  reason 
of  our  abstaining  from  the  world  we 
may....'  Cp.  the  Oxyrhynchus  Lo- 
gion  2  ia.v  /li]  v7i(TTev<n)T€  rbv  KbcTfx.ov. 
For  a  gen.  with  abstinentia  cp. 
Num.  XXX.  14  ceterariim  rerum  ab- 
stinentiam. For  the  general  sense 
cp.  I  Thess.  iv.  3,  v.  22. 

16.    ipsi]  as  in  62  b.  8,  14. 


Hymn  82 

Here  according  to  their  use  should  come  the  three 
hymns  ad  pariias  horas  which  are  printed  among  the 
hymns  of  Ambrose  :    for  Terce  16  Nunc  sancte  nobis 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXXII     295 

Spiritus,  for  Sext  17  Rector  potens,  uerax  Deus;  for 
None  18  Rerum  Deus  tenax  uigor.  82  is  found  only  in 
Vat.  82.  In  many  ways  it  resembles  51,  upon  which  it 
seems  to  be  based. 

There  are,  it  seems  to  me,  good  reasons  for  thinking 
that  Niceta  of  Remesiana  may  have  written  this  hymn. 
As  was  pointed  out  in  the  introduction  to  41,  Niceta 
certainly  wrote  some  hymns,  and  this,  as  well  as  41,  may 
be  of  their  number.  Several  words,  phrases  and  thoughts 
in  it  remind  us  more  or  less  strongly  of  passages  in  his 
prose  writings,  especially  of  the  de  Psalmodiae  Bono. 

Perhaps  the  most  striking  of  these  resemblances  is 
that  between  the  last  four  lines  of  the  hymn  and  de 
Psalm.  Bono  i,  9  (p.  67,  line  4  of  Burn's  edition).  The 
prose  passage  runs  :  tunc  acceptabiles  nostrae  uigiliae,  tunc 
pernoctatio  salutaris  erit,  si. .  .deuotione  sincera  ministerium 
nostrum  diuinis  obtutibus  offeruntur.  Here  notice  the 
similarity  of  thought  and  wording,  and  above  all  the 
unusual  tunc  {=^ on  that  condition ')...«'. 

But  hardly  less  noteworthy  is  the  likeness  of  lines  23, 
24  to  several  passages  of  Niceta,  who  repeatedly  either 
quotes  or  refers  to  St  Paul's  admonition  as  to  the  neces- 
sity of  attending  to  what  is  being  sung,  i  Cor.  xiv.  26. 
Thus  we  read  p.  66.  4  qui  orat  spiritu,  oret  et  mente, 
p.  69.  1 5  sicut  alio  loco  ait :  psallam  spiritu  psallam  et 
mente.  Again  p.  T] .  23  et  iterum  alibi:  psallam  inquit 
spiritu,  psalmum  dicam  et  tnente.  Once  more  p.  79.  1 5 
non  solum  spiritu,  hoc  est  sono  uocis,  sed  et  mente  psallamus 
et  ipsum  quod  psallimus  cogitemus,  ne  captiuata  mens 
fabidis  et  extraneis  cogitationibus  laborem  habeat  infructuo- 
sum.  Here  we  have  what  might  very  well  serve  as  a 
paraphrase  of  this  part  of  the  hymn. 

Then  memento,  used  as  in  line  17,  is  one  of  Niceta's 
ways  of  drawing  attention  to  a  special  point ;  see  Niceta 


296  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

P-  5'  3>  43'  IS-  I"  21  promeruit  is  used  much  as  Niceta 
uses  it  at  p.  71,  1 6  Dauid. .  .carmtnum  thesaurus  esse  pro- 
meruit. And  although  Niceta  does  not  actually  employ 
the  vQvh  praeuenire  (as  in  line  28),  he  definitely  expresses 
the  thought  of  the  passage  at  p.  18.  14  certus  aute^n  sum 
praeoccupatas  aures  et  sensus  alia  opinione  grauatos  difficile 
posse  placari :  perniciosa  est  enim  praeuentio.  Also  at 
p.  79.  17  captiuata  mens  fabulis  et  extraneis  cogitatiouibus 
pretty  closely  reproduces  the  meaning  of  uanis praeuentus 
casibus. 

Compare  too  line  6  prophetae  (=David)  with  p.  26.  2 
Dauid. .  .prophetantem ;  line  7  soluamus  era  with  p.  69.  6 
ora  nostra  laxauit  et  linguas  soluit;  line  9  with  p.  75.  16 
where  Niceta  quotes  the  same  verse,  Ps.  cxviii.  (cxix.) 
164;  line  12  soluamus  debitum  with  p.  67.  11  debitum 
soluit.  In  line  31  gerat  is  used  in  a  rather  similar  sense 
to  that  in  p.  75.  15  hanc  scientiam  gerens. 

The  writings  of  Niceta  were  of  course  copied  and 
studied,  and  it  is  always  possible  that  some  student  of 
the  de  Psalmodiae  Bono  may  have  written  the  hymn. 
But  this  is  much  less  likely. 

Vp 

Bis  ternas  horas  explicans 
diei  sol  ingreditur 
ut  sex  idemque  transigat, 
in  noctis  claudat  aditum. 

4  auditum  Vp. 

I .    '  The  sun  having  brought  to  transigens.     The    asyndeton    feels 

an  end  six  hours  of  the  day  pro-  very  harsh  with  the  MS  reading, 

ceeds  in  like  manner  to  complete  4.    In  a  classical  writer  in  aditum 

other  six  and  close  it  at  the  approach  «.  would  mean  '  towards  night  fall '; 

of  night.'  but  late  writers  use  ift  with  the  ace. 

3.    idemque]  =z/^w,  as  sometimes  very  loosely  ;  cp.  Fort.  il.  xvi.  142 

in  late  Latin;    see  Lofstedt  Aeth.  in  lucent  obscurus;  Rdnsch  410. 

pp.    87,    295  ;    Stud.    74  ;    Bonnet  claudat]   Ambr.  Hex.  i.  35  prin- 

p.  3851    We  should  have  expected  cipia...diei  noctis  exitum  claudunt. 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LXXXII     297 


nos  ergo  nunc,  confamuli, 
prophetae  dicti  memores 
soluamus  ora  in  canticis 
prece  mixta  Dauiticis, 
ut  septies  diem  uere 
orantes  cum  psalterio 
laudesque  cantantes  Deo 
laeti  soluamus  debitum. 
sic  enim  Christi  gratia 
peccantibus  dat  ueniam, 
saepeque  confitentibus 
non  aderit  mors  impia. 
memento  non  desit  tamen 
orantibus,  serui  Dei, 
quod  Pauli  uox  apostoli 
seruandum  praedixit  nobis. 


10 


IS 


30 


14  pecantibus  Vp. 

5.  confamuli]  vocative.  Like  61 
the  hymn  was  originally  written  for 
monastic  use  ;  see  line  9. 

6.  prophetae]  the  psalmist,  cp. 
line  8  and  41.  2  note.  The  reference 
is  to  Ps.  cxix.  164,  mentioned  in  the 
following  stanza. 

7.  BOluamus  ora  in  c]  We  may 
compare  Matt.  xiii.  35  aperiam  in 
parabolis  os  meum.  But  it  is  possible 
that  the  construction  is  intended  to 
be  sol.  ora  prece  mixta  in  canticis  : 
cp.  Rev.  viii.  7  grando  et  ignis  mixta 
in  sanguine;  Hil.  Hymn.  i.  54 
alter  qui  cum  sit  mixtus  in  altero. 

9.  septies]  61.  13  note. 

diem]  the  ace.  of  time  within 
which  ;  cp.  60.  4  note. 

10.  cum  psalterio]  Ps.  xxxii.  2, 
xlviii.  5  etc.  Does  this  imply  an  in- 
strumental accompaniment  to  the 
hjrmn? 

n.  debitum]  'our  debt.'  Cp. 
1.  2  laudes  demus  debitas;  61.  16 
etc. 

13.    sic] '  on  this  condition.' 

Cbristi  gratia]  60.  4. 


1 7  momente  Vp. 

15.  confitentibus  combines  the 
idea  of  confessing  our  sins  (with 
reference  to  orantes  in  10,  peccan- 
tibus in  14)  and  of  praising  God 
(with  reference  to  11),  cp.  66.  7 
note. 

x6.    aderit]  =erit,  68.  13  note. 

mors  impia]  the  opposite  of 
mortis  sacrae,  18.  7. 

17.  memento]  26.  i.  Here,  as  it 
refers  to  the  plu.  serui,  we  should 
have  expected  numentote ;  but  the 
word  has  virtually  become  an  inter- 
jection. Not  unlike  are  Plaut.  Po<n. 
117  caue  dirumpcUis,  Mil.  78  age 
eamus.  For  non  thus  used  see 
47.  15. 

18.  serui,  the  ms  readmg,  is  a 
vocative,  like  confamuli  in  5,  serui 
66.  5  (note),  proximi  66.  15.  Cp. 
Ps.  cxxxiv.  I  etc.  The  reading  of 
Daniel  etc.  orantibus  seruis  Dei  is 
taken  from  60.  14. 

20.  praedixit]  '  declared '  =/r<»- 
dicauit.  (^p.  Damas.  II.  16  (of 
Paul)  gentibus  ac  populis  iussus 
prcudicere  uera. 


298  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

cuius  uox  hoc  promeruit 
ut  diceret  idem  Deo  : 
orabo  mente  Dominum, 
orabo  simul  spiritu. 

ne  uox  sola  Deo  canat  25 

sensusque  noster  alibi 
ductus  aberret  fluctuans 
uanis  praeuentus  casibus. 

tunc  enim  Deo  accepta  est 

oratio  canentium,  30 

si  pura  mens  idem  gerat 

quod  explicat  uox  cantici. 

29  hunc  Vp. 

21.  promeruit] 'was  permitted';  alibi]  loosely  used  for  alio,  as 
cp.  Damas.  II.  12  Paulus . . .noscere  Fort.  III.  x  (title)  cum  Jluuium 
promeruit    possent     quod    praemia       alibi  detorqueret. 

uitae't  Nicet.  de  Psalmodiae  Bono  4  27.    fluctuans]  26.  12. 

Dauid...carminum    thesaurus    esse  28.    uanis   has  a  positively  bad 

promeruit.  Ronsch  377  gives  several  sense,  corresponding  as  it  does  to 

examples  of  this  use  of  the  word,  to  turpibus  of  51.  11.    See  the  note  on 

which  add  Fort.  ili.  vi.  31,  x.  vii.  74.  15. 

49,  Vit.  Mart.  II.  66.  praeuentus]  'preoccupied.' 

22.  The  text  seems  to  be  corrupt.  casibus]  74.  11;  if  the  meaning 
idem  may  have  come  in  from  3  or  of  casibus  there  is  the  same. 

30,  ZJ^^?  from  II,  18  or  25.    I  would  29.    tunc. .si]    'only   then. ..if; 

read,  for  idem  Deo,  identidem   '  to  Nicet.  de  Psalmodicu  Bono  9  tunc 

the  same  effect,'  'in  like  manner' ;  acceptalnles  nostrae  uigiliae,...sicom- 

see  Ronsch  p.  342,  Lofstedt  Aeth.  petenti  diligentia  et  deuotione  sincera 

p.  295.   [Perhaps  a  simpler  emenda-  ministerium  nostrum  diuinis  obluti- 

tion  would  be  idem  duo,  '  that  the  bus  offeruntur. 

two  things  (voice  and  heart)  must  Deo   accepta]     Acts    x.    35    qui 

be  one.']  timet  eum...acceptus  est  ei. 

23  f.    r  Cor.  xiv.  15,  61.  9  f.  32.    explicat]  as  in  line  i. 

26.   sensus]  '  mind,'  '  thoughts.' 

Hymn  83 

This  beautiful  hymn,  which  asks  God  to  protect  us 
from  the  dangers  of  the  coming  night,  has  always  been 
appointed  for  Compline,  to  which  office  its  contents  make 
it  so  suitable.  In  the  younger  hymnal  it  took  the  place 
of  61   Christe  qui  lux  es  et  dies.    The  use  of  it  almost 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXXIV     299 

unaltered  continues  in  the  modern  Roman  breviary. 
Lovers  of  Dante  will  remember  the  pathetic  reference  to 
it  in  the  eighth  canto  of  the  Purgatorio. 

Abdghk  EacdhjsvxM  Fbdhijlpqs  Gd  Habcdefgi  lb  Macm  Vabp 
Te  lucis  ante  terminum, 
rerum  creator,  poscimus, 
ut  solita  dementia 
sis  praesul  ad  custodiam. 
procul  recedant  somnia  5 

et  noctium  phantasmata, 
hostemque  nostrum  conprime 
ne  poUuantur  corpora, 
praesta,  Pater  omnipotens, 
per  lesum  Christum  Dominum,  10 

qui  tecum  in  perpetuum 
regnat  cum  sancto  Spiritu. 

8  nee  Ab^  Ec.  9  piissime  (jrro  omn.)  Ab  Gd.  11  perpetuo  Gd. 

12  uiuit  Gd. 

3.  The  lengthening  of  the  o  in  last  but  one  of  6  exttta  sensu  lubrico 
solita  is  the  one  metrical  liberty  in  etc.,  and  on  26.  I3f.,  see  also  86.  3. 
the  hymn  itself,  apart  from  the  doxo-  somnia,  as  the  context  shews,  means 
logy,   which  was   no   doubt  added  evil  and  corrupting  dreams. 

later.     Cassander  suggested  ut  pro  6.   noctium]    '  of    night,'    47.    1 

tua  dementia  and  this  is  adopted  in  note. 

the  Roman  breviary.  phantasmata]  72.  5. 

4.  praesul]  13.  7  note.  7.  hostem]  6.  27. 

ad  custodiam]  '  to  guard  us.'    ad  8.   Cp.  the  last  stanza  of  103,  and 

expresses  the  purpose.  67.  9  foil.,  61.  11  foil.,  68.  13. 

5  f.    The  stanza  is  based  on  the 

For  Advent.   Hymns  84-86 

Hymn  84 
Blume  {Aiialecta  LI  p.  47)  says  that  the  contents  of 
this  hymn  apply  less  to  the  Advent  season  than  those 
of  85  and  86,  that  perhaps  84  was  not  originally  meant 
for  Advent,  and  that  the  three  hymns  were  certainly  not 
written  by  the  same  writer,  nor  even  at  the  same  period. 


300  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

Eacdghjlsvx/i^  Fdhikpsx  Gm/t  Habcdefgh/S  Ibcdefhmnov  Vbcs 

Conditor  altne  siderum, 
aeterna  lux  credentium, 
Christe  redemptor  omnium, 
exaudi  preces  supplicum ; 

qui,  condolens  interitu  5 

mortis  perire  saeculum, 
saluasti  mundum  languidum, 
donans  reis  remediura, 

uergente  mundi  uespere, 

uti  sponsus  de  thalamo,  lo 

egressus  honestissima 

uirginis  matris  clausula. 

5  interitnm  Exyu  Ihn.  8  rei  Fs^  Vs,  regis  Ehx*,  eis  Ic,  ei  Idn^. 

9  uesperi  Hd^,  uespera  Egl  Fx  Ha  Vb.  lo  ut  Vb,  sicut  El.     e  {pro 

de)  E0.  1 1  ingressus  Ec  Vb,  ingressu  Ha.     honestissimo  Hagh  Vb, 

-me  Fs  Hbcd'ef  Vs.  1 2  clausulam  Fx  Vb,  clausulo  Hgh. 

1.  sldernm]  the  heavenly  bodies,  104.  4,  120.  28.  This  use  of  the 
including  the  sun  and  moon.  The  word  is  not  found  before  Martial : 
word  strikes  the  keynote  of  the  till  then  it  meant 'languid,' 'weary.' 
hymn,  forecasting  the  light  which  9.  '  When  the  world's  evening 
Christ,  Himself  the  eternal  light,  was  drawing  to  a  close,' Heb.  ix.  20. 
was  to  bring  into  the  world  :  cp.  In  meaning  the  line  may  be  com- 
85.  5  inlumina,  86.  7.  pared  with  33.  10,  85.  4,  114.  4;  in 

2.  aeterna  lax]  Ambr.  in  Luc.  form  with  69.  5.  The  rhyme  is  so 
II.  12  ei  ipse  lux  uera  et  getiitor  consistently  carried  through  the 
lucis  aetemae.  hymn  as  to  make  it  almost  certain 

3.  =87.  I.  that  the  original  reading  in  9  was 
5  f.    Mone    found    in    a    XlVth       uespero,    which    was     changed    to 

cent.  MS  of  Lichtenthal  what  he  uespere  or  uespera,  as  being  a  most 
believed  to  be  the  original  of  this  unusual  form  in  the  sense  of  '  even- 
stanza.  Qui  condolens  hominitus  \  ing.'  But  uesperum  (103.  6,  105.  5) 
mortis  subiectis  legiius  \  fcictus  homo  justifies  an  al)l.  uespero,  though  we 
restituis  \  uitam  in  tuo  sanguine;  need  not  think  of  a  nom.  uespems 
also   [4  f.  omnium  \  cculestium,  ter-  in  this  sense. 

restrium  \  nee  tion  et  infemcUiurn;  10.    From  Ps.  xix.  5;  cp.  6.  17, 

and    24   quamdiu   sumus   aduenae,  88.  7. 

These    readings    are    said    (Julian  12.    clausula]   Cp.  claustrum  6. 

p.  257)  to  be  those  of  the  Cistercian  14,  39.  4.    This  use  of  the  word  ap- 

breviary,  but  Lipp  knows  them  not.  pears  to  be  wholly  without  parallel, 

5.   condolens]  33.  4.  unless  it  be  in  a  passage  of  Gildas, 

interitu  mortis]   Cp.  23.  i  note.  quoted  in  the  Thesaurus,  where  it 

7.   langniidum]  'sick,'  Mt.    xiv.  =cella. 

14  curauit  languidos  eorum,  93.  12, 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LXXXIV.     301 


cuius  forti  potentiae 

genu  curuantur  omnia 

caelestia,  terrestria,  '  15 

nutu  fatentur  subdita, 

occasum  sof  custodiens, 
luna  pallorem  retinens, 
candor  in  astris  relucens 

13  fortis  Ev  lb.  14  curuatur  Eal  Hb  Id,  curuantes  Ej  Ha,  flectuntur 
Es  Fh  He'  Im,  flectentes  E/i  H/3,  flectentur  Fx.  omnium  Ealv  Iv. 
16  fatentur  nutu  Ecdv(^  Fi.  19  elucens  Ha. 


I3f.  'To  whose  mighty  power 
all  things  in  heaven  and  earth  bow 
the  knee  and  confess  that  they  are 
subject  to  Thy  sway.'  The  passage 
is  based  upon  Phil.  ii.  10,  cp.  Rom. 
xiv.  II,  Is.  xlv.  23  mihi  curuabitur 
omne  genu.  The  Mozarabic  Easter 
Illation  has  the  phrase  Tibi  genua 
curuant  caelestia,  terrestria  et  in- 
ferna.  In  our  Lord's  time  standing 
was  the  usual  attitude  of  prayer 
(Mk  xi.  25,  Lk.  xviii.  11,  13) ;  but, 
perhaps  from  His  example  (Lk. 
xxii.  ^i),  kneeling  soon  was  the  pre- 
vailing custom  ;  Acts  vii.  60,  ix.  40, 
XX.  36,  xxi.  5,  Herm.  Pastor  Vis.  I. 
3  TidQs  Toi  •^bvo.To.  KoX  rjp^afiijv  rrpoaev- 
Xecr^ai  r^  Kvplc^ :  cp.  Dressel  on  Prud. 
Cath.  II.  51  rogare  curuato  genu. 

13.  forti]  'mighty,'  cp.  111.  5. 
Lbfstedt  Aeth.  161  f.  gives  several 
examples  of  this  use  of  the  word, 
which  comes  from  conversational 
Latin.    Not  unlike  isy^^/'/V^r  41.  17. 

14.  curuantur  either  governs^^«M 
as  at  34.  5  confixa  is  followed  by 
uiscera,  or  genu  must  be  taken  as 
an  abl.  '  on  bended  knee. ' 

16.  nutu]  dative,  nutus  lit. 
means  '  a  nod,'  hence  '  the  beck  and 
call '  of  a  superior  ;  cp.  Verg.  Aen. 
VII.  592  nutu  lunonis  eunt  res, 

fatentur]  supply  se  esse,  which 
words  can  be  omitted  almost  at 
will  in  late  Latin  poetry.  See 
Lofstedt  Spdtlateinische  Studien  p. 
44.  However,  the  word  may  here 
be  taken  absolutely,  or  with  poten- 


tiae, as  in  the  passage  of  Rom. 

1 7  f.  BOl,  luna,  candor  are  in 
apposition  to  caelestia  in  15. 

The  sun,  moon  and  stars  are 
mentioned  as  obeying  the  divine 
will.  Ps.  ciii.  (civ.)  19,  Ambr.  Hex. 
IV.  7  sol  debitum  sibi  agnouit  occa- 
sum;... luna... quae  temporum  uici- 
bus  oboedire  conpellitur;  in  Ps. 
cxviii.  xii.  9  numquid  ulla  in  ipso 
est  sole  praeuaricatio.  nonne  cotti- 
dianos  curs  us  suos  seruat?  numquid 
continues  nouit  luna  defectus  et  com- 
missi munus  deserit  ministerii?  is- 
dem  nempe  uicibus  annus  redit...sol 
diem  inluminat,  tempera  statuta 
custodiens.  fulget  splendoribus  luna 
tiocturnis...stellarum  nitentium  ru- 
tilat  globus... lex  una  diuersis,  con- 
stitutorum  semel  uices  cursuum  cus- 
todire. . .  titui  omnium  oboedientia.  See 
the  introduction  to  2,  and  the  second 
stanza  of  69.  The  stanza  is  omitted 
in  several  MSB,  perhaps  because  the 
copyists  did  not  see  its  connexion 
with  the  preceding  one. 

pallorem  ret.]  retinere  here 
seems  to  mean  'restraining,'  'with- 
holding her  pale  light,'  i.e.  only 
shewing  it  at  the  appointed  seasons ; 
unless  pallor  is  intended  to  mean, 
as  elsewhere,  the  gloom  and  colour- 
lessness of  night  (see  22.  2),  which 
the  moon  'restrains'  from  becoming 
absolute  darkness. 

19.  'The  brightness  shining  in 
the  stars,'  i.e.  the  brightly  shining 
stars. 


302  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

certos  obseruans  limites.  20 

te  deprecamur,  hagie, 
uenture  iudex  saeculi, 
conserua  nos  in  tempore 
hostis  a  telo  perfidi. 

laus,  honor,  uirtus,  gloria  25 

Deo  Patri  cum  Filio 
sancto  simul  Paraclito 
in  sempiterna  saecula. 

20  obseruant  Fdpx  Hbd  VsS  obseruat  Ed^x/t  Fi  Hf  Ih  Vs^,  obsemet  G/i. 
22  uenturi  Ed.  23  hoc  {pro  in)  Ic.  24  noctis  E/tt  Fi  Hbd'gh/3  Imv 
Vb  (notis  Ha),  perfidis  EI.  26  et  {procwm)  Eahv0  Inv  Vc.  27  una 
cum  sancto  spiritu  Hae^  In  Vc,  simul  cum  s.  s.  Ehlvx^ 

21.  hagle]  41.  49.  read  noctis  for  hostis  in  24,  in  which 

22.  Cp.  48.  3.  case  we  must  join  tempore   noctis, 

23.  in  tempore]  '  at  the  present  with  which  cp.  103.  8. 
time'  =  /«  ipso   tempore  of  55.  39.  24.    a  telo]  45.  i6f.,  58.8. 
But  it  is  just  possible  that  we  should 

Hymn  85 

Mone  I.  p.  49  says  that  this  hymn  was  probably 
written  in  the  second  half  of  the  Vth  century ;  but  this 
is  too  early  a  date.  The  rhyme  carried  throughout 
points  rather  to  Vllth  or  Vlllth  centuries. 

Eacdhjlsvx?;^  Fdhiks  Gabm  Hbcdefgh  Ibcdefhmnopv  Makx  Vcs 

Verbum  supernum  prodiens, 

a  Patre  olim  exiens, 

I  supremum  He. 

I.  'OWord  that  proceedest  forth  writer  of  84.  9 — the  N.T.  view  that 

on  high.'  No  doubt  the  poet  had  in  the  incarnation  came  in  the  end  of 

mind  the  great  anthem  O  sapientia,  the  world's  history  (lines  3,  4).    In 

quae  ex  ore  altissimi prodiistijVdiVen  comparison    with    this    event,    the 

from  Ecclus.  xxiv.  5.     supernum  is  eternal  existence  of  the  Word  with 

part  of  the  predicate,  so  to  speak.  the  Father  (lines  i,  2)  is  denoted  as 

Unless  it  be  taken  closely  along  with  what  was  olim.     Line  2  interprets 

prodiens,  the  exiens  clause  is  mere  line  i,  pointing  out  the  source  from 

tautology,  and/r^d'iVwjitself  is  rather  which  the  Word  proceeds  on  high, 

unmeaning  without  some  qualifica-  For  such  a  pres.  part,  as  prodiens, 

tion.  The  writer  still  takes — like  the  exiens  joined  with  olim,  see  Hebr.  i. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXXV     303 


qui  natus  orbi  subuenis 

cursu  decliui  temporis ; 

inlumina  nunc  pectora  5 

tuoque  amore  concrema, 

audita  ut  praeconia 

sint  pulsa  tandem  lubrica. 

iudexque  cum  post  aderis 

rimari  facta  pectoris,  10 

reddens  uicem  pro  abditis 

iustisque  regnum  pro  bonis  : 

3  orbis  Fi  Gab  Hd  Ino.    subueni  Eh/x  Ic.         5  tunc  lb.         7  audito... 
praeconio  Ecdl  Fks'^  Hd-e^  lb  Vc.  9  qui  (pro  que)  Hgh.     adueneris 

{pro  post  ad.)  Mk.     aderit  Hb.  10  rimare  Gab'  Mk. 


I  olim  Deiis  loquens  patribus.  olim 
is  very  frequently  thus  used  of  a 
remote  past  compared  with  a  sub- 
sequent event  which  has  wrought  a 
change;  cp.  Dirksen  .f-z/. 

It  is  possible  to  make  line  i  refer 
to  the  eternal  generation  and  line  2 
to  the  incarnation, — line  2  thus 
forming  substantially  part  of  the 
relative  cause  qui  natus;  but  the 
difficulty  of  <?//w  as  contemporaneous 
with  cursu  decliui  temp,  would  re- 
main, besides  making  the  stanza 
rather  badly  balanced. 

This  fine  exordium  supplied 
Thomas  Aquinas  with  the  beginning 
of  one  of  his  famous  eucharistic 
hymns.  But  he  probably  mistook 
the  meaning  of  the  line. 

4.  decliui]  lit.  '  sloping '  towards 
evening,  as  if  the  sun  were  past  his 
zenith,  cp.  Jud.  xix.  9  dies  ad  oc- 
casum  decliuior.  The  age  is  com- 
pared to  a  day  as  at  84.  9. 

6  f.  The  sense  may  be  '  and  warm 
them  with  love  of  Thee.'  But  it 
may  be  'and  in  Thy  love  burn  them 
up,'  which  fits  in  better  with  the 
usual  meaning  of  concrema  \  cp.  108. 
19  Deus  concremans,  69.  10  adure ; 
Fort.  IV.  vii.  17  cautere  eloquii 
bene  purgans  uulnera  morbi;  Ambr. 
in  Luc.  V.  27  omne  mandatum  tuum 
si  cut   cauterium    inpressuin    tenebo. 


eisi  urit  cauterium  mandolin  tamen 
putrefcuta  camisexuril,  neaduiuum 
serpat  contagio. 

7.  audita... praeconia]  i.e.  when 
Thy  coming  is  proclaimed  as  it  were 
by  a  herald  {praeco).  The  words  are 
in  the  nom.  or  ace.  abs.  (see  69.  7), 
which  construction  was  not  under- 
stood by  the  later  copyists,  who 
wrote  per  for  ut,  or  audito... prae- 
conio, to  the  wreck  of  the  rhyme. 

8.  tandem  strongly  emphasizes 
pulsa,  being  inserted  instandi  causa, 
as  Quint.  IX.  27  puts  it;  cp.  its  use  94. 
31, 103.  18  and  that  oi  demum  in  13. 

lubrica]  3.  12  note. 

9.  post]  '  hereafter,' as  at  23.  3. 
Notice  the  four  notes  of  time,  olim, 
natus  cursu  decl.  temp.,  nunc,  post. 

10.  rimari]  24.  20.  The  infin. 
stands  instead  of  rimaturus  or  ut 
rimeris. 

1 1 .  reddens  uicem]  60.  1 9  note, 
abditis    may   mean    merely   the 

secret  doings  of  each  one  known 
only  to  God,  but  as  contrasted  with 
bonis  in  1 2  it  seems  to  have  gained 
some  of  the  sinister  %GX\scoiobscurus, 
cp.  22.  8,  67.  II,  86.  2. 

pro]  'according  to,'  'in  propor- 
tion to,'  as  at  Plaut.  Trin.  26  ami- 
cum  meum  \  concastigabo  pro  con- 
merita  noxia. 

12.  Mt.  XXV.  34. 


304  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

non  demum  artemur  malis 

pro  qualitate  criminis, 

sed  cum  beatis  compotes  15 

simus  perennes  caelibes. 

13  demnes  Gab^  Mak,  damnis  E^  Hcd^fgh  lop,  des  ut  Ea.  arcemur 
Ec.  15  compotens  Ic.  16  simul  Eh.     perenne  Fs  Icm  Vcs  (-ni  Ec 

Ga  Ip). 

1 3  f.    '  Oh  let  us  not  be  punished  Capt.    30 1  fortuna   humana  fingit 

according  to  the  heinousness  of  our  artatque    ut    lubet ;    often    in    late 

guilt.'   demum  qualifies  the  prayer,  Latin,  cp.  Ps.  Cypr.  de  Sing.  Cler,  9 

much  like  tandem  in  8.    As  to  the  quts  tarn  stultus  qui  artari  cupit  ad 

variant  demnes  Blume  suggests  that  laborem  ;  Victor  Vitens.  i.  28  dum 

it  may  perhaps  be  the  original,  used  uariis  ab  eis  insidiis  artaretur,  in. 

as  the  positive  from  which  comes  22  artata  poenis.    The  Vulgate   of 

indemnes  (indemnati),   and  that  it  Lk.  xii.  50,  Phil.  i.  23  has  coartare, 

may  mean  '  condemned  '  in  contrast  15.  compotes]  The  word  is  usually 

with  beatis  in  15.   The  more  colour-  followed  by  a  gen.  to  express  that 

less  demum  and  the  damnis  of  the  which  has  been  attained ;   thus  we 

Rheinau  MSS  would  be  the  correc-  have  114.  1 5  uoti  compotes.    Here  it 

tions   of  the   lectio   difficilior ;    see  means    much    the    same,    '  of    the 

Analecta  xxvii.  p.  65.    If  so,  the  numberofthose  who  have  obtained.' 

writer  must  have  coined  the  word,  C^.1A\.\.\.'!  multitudine compotum. 

and  coined  it  incorrectly.    It  occurs  16.   perennes]  an  instance  of  the 

nowhere  else.  adverbial  use  of  an  adj. 

axtare  is    thus    used   by   Plaut.  caelibes]  62.  30  note. 

Hymn  86 

This  hymn  was  generally  appointed  for  Mattins  in 
Advent,  but  according  to  date  and  locality  its  use  varied. 
Thus  in  the  Mozarabic  breviary  it  was  sung  at  Vespers 
on  the  Wednesday  infra  hebdontadam  I  Aduetitus 
{Analecta  XXVII.  p.  65).  It  is  largely  based  on  the 
Advent  Epistle  Rom.  xiii.  1 1  f.  and  Gospel  Lk.  xxi.  25  f. 

Eacdhjlsvx/t^  Fdhikpsx  Gabm  Hbcdefgh  Icdefghmnopv  Makx  Vcs 

Vox  clara  ecce  intonat, 
obscura  quaeque  increpat, 

1 .  The  voice  is  that  of  the  Bap-  quaeque  is  very  common  in  the  later 
tist,  the  forerunner  of  Christ,  Joh.  Latin :  see  e.g.  Vine.  Ler.  Comm. 
i.  23.  I  necessaria  quaeque,  with  Moxon's 

intonat]  'resounds  loudly'  as  at  note;  Niceta  de  Psalm.  Botto  3  as- 
111.  2,  116.  10,  and  perhaps  19.  pera  quaeque. 

2,  Obscura]  22.  8.  This  use  of         increpat]  2.  19. 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  LXXXVI    305 

pellantur  eminus  somnia, 
ab  aethre  Christus  promicat. 

mens  iam  resurgat  torpida,  5 

quae  sorde  exstat  saucia ; 
sidus  refulget  iam  nouum, 
ut  tollat  omne  noxium. 

e  sursum  agnus  mittitur 

laxare  gratis  debitum  ;  10 

omnes  pro  indulgentia 

uocem  demus  cum  lacrimis ; 

secundo  ut  cum  fulserit 

mundumque  horror  cinxerit, 

non  pro  reatu  puniat,  15 

sed  pius  nos  tunc  protegat. 

3  pellat  Ecd^hj  Gm.    omnia  Fx  Hd  Id'm  Mk,  omnium  Es.         4  aethra 
E/t  Hb-,  aethere  Edj0  Fdp  Gab*  He^  Inp  Mk  Vc.  9  et  [pro  e)  Em. 

sursus  Es.  1 1  -tiam  E/*.  16  nos  pius  Fs  Gm  Hbcdgh  Idmopv 

Vs,  nos  sed  p.  Mak,  sed  p.  tunc  nos  Eju. 

3.    eminus  is  to  be  scanned  as  if  here  intended. 

emnus  ;  as  aethere  in  4  is  actually  ag^us]  because  the  title  was  used 

written  aethre,  so  also  at  Hil.  Carm.  by  John  the  Baptist. 

in  Gen.  65.  10.  lazaxe  is  used  instead  of  the 

6.  exstat]  =est,  cp.  38.  18.  usual  soluere,  as  at  94.  29.   The  inf. 
saueia]  80.  6.  is  used  to  express  purpose  as  at  66. 

7.  sidus]  i.e.  Christ.    The  refer-  4  etc. 

ence  may  be  to  Mai.  iv.  2,  or  to  the  debitum]  44b.  11. 

'  Morning  Star' of  Rev.  xxii.  16.  So  i{.  pro  indulgentia] 'for  pardon.' 

Prud.  Cath.  xii.  ijf.  hoc  sidus  aeter-  This  curious  use  of  pro  seems  to  be 

nuin  manet,  \  haec  stella  ntimquam  an  extension  of  its  use  in  phrases 

mergitur\  Ambr.  in  Luc.  11.  ^-^  stella  like  non  pro  illo  dico  ut  roget  quis, 

hcuc  uia  est  et  uia  Christus,  quia  i  Joh.  v.  16. 

secundum   incarnationis  mysterium  u.    Cp.  20.  10  note. 

Christus  est  stella.  1 3  f.     Cp.   the  last  stanza  of  80 

8.  noxium]  'guilt,'  cp.   22.    12  and  of  113. 

note.    The  word  answers  to  lubrica  secundo]   '  for  the  second  time,' 

at  85.  8.    With  tollat  cp.  John  i.  29.  used  with  reference  to  line  7. 

9.  e   sursTun]  'from   on  high.'  15.   pro  reatu] 'according  to  our 
sursum  {from  sub-uorsuni)  strictly  guilt,'  86.  14. 

means    '  upwards,'    as    at    36.    46,  16.    pius]    In  such  contexts  the 

113.  23,  so  that  the  phrase  is  not  word /i«j  (/tV/oj)  has  nearly  reached 

correct;  cp.  Ronsch  p.  233.    It  is  the  sense  of /«V«',  'pity.' 
of  course  the  '  first  advent '  that  is 

w.  JO 


3oO  •  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 


For  Christmas.   Hymn  87 

~  Christmas  has  naturally  been  a  fertile  subject  for 
Christian  poets  to  work  upon  ;  and  yet  but  few  of  our 
anonymous  hymns  were  written  for  the  season  in  these 
early  times.  It  may  well  be  that  the  excellence  and  wide 
use  of  Ambrose's  Intende  qui  regis  Israhel  (No.  6),  as 
also  of  Corde  nattis  ex  parentis  (23),  of  A  solis  ortus  cardine 
(31)  and  of  Agnoscat  omne  saeculum  (38),  daunted 
would-be  writers. 

The  rubric  of  87  in  the  several  MSS  is  de  natale 
{natiuitate)  domini,  and  then  either  ad  nocturnas  or 
ad  mat. 

Daniel  Thes.  I.  p.  79  says  that  hymn  87  is  rarely  found 
in  old  hymnals :  which  is  certainly  not  correct.  Most 
MSS  from  the  Xth  century  on  contain  it,  and  as  it  does 
not  belong  to  the  earlier  series  we  cannot  expect  to  find 
it  in  the  earliest  MSS. 

The  general  doxology  of  the  Christmas  hymns  is 
Gloria  tibi  dornine  qui  natus  es  de  uirgine  cum  patre  et 
sancto  spiritu  in  sempiterna  saecula.  But  in  many  hymnals 
is  given  the  alternative :  Laus  honor  etc.,  as  in  84. 

Eacdhjlsvxjj/i^  Fbdhilmps  Gm  Hbcdfg  Ibcdefghmnopv  Vces 

Christe,  redemptor  omnium, 
ex  Patre,  Patris  unice, 
solus  ante  principium 
natus  ineffabiliter, 

I  gentium  lb. 

1.  =84.3.  The  same  line  is  also  Creed  yevvifdivra  ix  toC  varpoi 
the  first  of  a  rather  later  hymn  for  /xovoyevrj,  Tovriariy  ^k  rrjs  oixrlai 
All  Saints,  Analecta  LI.  p.  150.  rod  iraTp6s. 

2.  ex  Fatre,  joined  with  Patris  .  3.  ante  principimii]  1.  8,  23.  i. 
unice,  seems  intended  to  emphasize  There  is  a  reference  to  Gen.  i.  i  in 
the  doctrine  of  the  (truly)  Nicene  principio  creauit    Deus   caelum   et 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN LXXXVII    307 

tu  lumen,  tu  splendor  Patris,  5 

tu  spas  perennis  omnium, 

intende  quas  fundunt  preces 

tui  per  orbem  famuli. 

memento,  salutis  auctor, 

quod  nostri  quondam  corporis  10 

ex  inlibata  uirgine 

nascendo  formam  sutnpseris. 

hie  praesens  testatur  dies 

currens  per  anni  circulum 

quod  solus  a  sede  Patris  15 

mundi  salus  adueneris. 

hunc  caelum,  terra,  hunc  mare, 
hunc  omne  quod  in  eis  est, 

8  tuis  Hd.     famulis  Ec  Hbd'.  12  suinpserit  Ec  Fs  Vs',  sumpseras 

Ha.  13  sic  Ev  Ih,  hoc  He*.  16  aduenerit  Ec  Fs  Ibd'h,  adueneras 

Hceg  lop.  17  te  Id'*,  hinc  c.  Ex^  Fs'  Hefg  Vs.    terrae  Ec.    hinc  m. 

Ex0  Fi  Heg  Vs.     maria  {pro  hunc  mare)  Gm.  18  hinc  Fs  Vs. 

17,  18  pro  hunc  Es  hiatumhabet. 

ferram;   perhaps  still  more  to  the  praesens... dies]  8.  8. 

isimonsVxow.  y'm.  12  Dominus  pos-  14.    per  appears  to  have  the  kind 

sedii  me  in  initio  uiarum  suarum,  of  distributive  sense  which  it  has  ac- 

antequam  quidqiiatn  faceret  a  prin-  quired  in  our  modern  per  annum . 
cipio.  1 5  f.  '  that  Thou  alone  didst  come 

4.  ineffabiliter]  Cp.  Aug.  En-  to  be  the  salvation  of  the  world....' 
chir.  89  Deus  ineffabiliter  artifex ;  St  Peter's  words  are  almost  repro- 
Fort.  III.  ix.  49  inredtabiliter  ma-  duced,  Acts  iv.  12  et  tion  est  in  alio 
natis  de  corde  parentis.  aliquo  salus.     This  is  simpler  and 

5.  Cp.  3.  I  f.  better  than  Clicht.'s  explanation  of 

9.  memento]  Hil.  Hymn.  11.  42  the  passage  solus  aduenisse  dicitur 
memento  carnis,  in  qua  natus  es,  Christus,  quoniam  solus  ipse  per  in- 
meae.  carnationem  humanam   indtiit  tut- 

salutis  auctor]  Heb.  ii.  10.  turam  ;    neque  enim  Pater  incar- 

10.  quod...8ump8eri8]  —te  sump-  natus  est,  neque  Spiritus  sanctus. 
sisse,   and    15   quod...adueneris  =  te  i7f.    'This   day  heaven,    earth, 
adtunisse;  Ronsch  p.  402,  481.  sea,  and  all  that  is  in  them  praise, 

corporis... formam]  23.  9,  42.  11,  exulting  with  song  at  the  advent  of 

cp.  89.  6.  their  creator.'  The  two  lines  17  and 

13.  '  This  present  day  (Christmas)  18  are  based  upon  Ps.  xcv.  (xcvi.) 
recurring  in  the  year's  cycle.'  Pos-  11.  The  variants  hinc  and  te  for 
sibly  the  writer  thought  of  the  year  hunc  (sc.  diem)  are  due  to  the  copy- 
as  describing  a  circle  as  it  goes  ists  not  seeing  what  hunc  referred 
round,  and  carrying  the  day  along  to. 
with  it. 


3o8  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

auctoris  aduentu  sui 

laudat  exultans  cantico.  20 

nos  quoque,  qui  sancto  tuo 

redempti  sanguine  sumus, 

ob  diem  natalis  tui 

hymnum  nouum  concinimus. 

19  auctorem  EIvm  Fbhps  Hd  Ibdhmpv  Vcs.  aduentum  Ex  Hg  lo, 
aduentus  Eacd^u  Fbhlps  Lbdhmpv  Vcs.  tui  Elv/x  Fh  He  Ibd%mv. 
20  laudans  E^  Hg.  exultat  Ec<^  Hg.  laudas  exultas  lb.  coUaudans 
canit  Fs  Hbcd  Icdn  Vcs.     canticum  Id%  Vc.  22  sumus  sanguine 

Eacdlvx^  Hfe2  Ibho. 

20.  cantico]   Cp.  66.  8.  24.  bynmuin  nouum]  Fs.  xxxii. 

21.  a  quotation  from  the  Te  (xxxiii.)  3,  xxxix.  (xl.)  4,  xcv. 
Deunt.  (xcvi.)  i. 

For  the  B.  V.  Mary.   Hymn  88 

88  is  a  fragment  of  an  alphabetic  hymn,  the"  rest  of 
which  is  lost  to  us.  For  an  attempt  to  supply  some  of 
the  missing  stanzas  see  Daniel  IV.  58  f.  and  Analecta 
XX  VII.  p.  II 8  f.  The  Benedictine  edd.  of  Ambrose 
wrongly  assigned  it  to  him  on  the  insufficient  evidence 
of  Pseudo-Ildephonsus.  Chevalier  Repertorium  62,46  notes 
the  various  uses  of  the  hymn  thus  B"  Maria,  Purificatio 
{Conceptio,  Annuntiatio,  Visitatio,  Compassio,  Assuniptio\ 
Aduentus,  Natiicitas  Dom.  fer.  IV.).  hie^n.  completorium 
{uesperae,  matutinujn,  laudes);  cp.  Werner  p.  61.  In  the 
Mozarabic  use,  to  judge  by  the  rubric  in  Cod.  Matrit. 
1005  Hh  60 :  in  alia  festiuitate  non  dicitur,  this  hymn 
was  sung  only  in  die  sanctae  Mariae. 

Edhvx0  Fbips  Habcdefgh  Icdfho  Mkx  Vcs 

Fit  porta  Christi  peruia 

referta  plena  gratia, 

2  refecta  Mk. 

I.   porta]  Ezek.  xliv.  2  f.  Cp.  39.  2.    referta  plena] '  filled  (so as  to 

89  f.  be)  full ' ;  Cic.  Acad.  I.  iv.  i"]  plena 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  LXXXIX     309 

transitque  rex,  et  permanet 
clausa,  ut  fuit,  per  saecula. 

Genus  superni  numinis  5 

processit  aula  uirginis, 
sponsus,  redemptor,  conditor, 
suae  gigans  ecclesiae. 

Honor  matris  et  gaudium, 

inmensa  spes  credentium,  10 

per  atra  mortis  pocula 

resoluit  nostra  crimina. 

5  supernum  E^.    luminis  Ex  Fi  Ih.         6  praec.  Fb.        9  gaudia  lo  Mk. 

et  referta.    Probably  referla  p.  gr.  is  aiidax  lapeti  gettus. 

the  subject  of/f/ — 'She  (or  a  maiden)  6.    aula]  an  allusion  to  6.  18,  as 

filled... is  made  the  gate.'    Probably  Sire  sponsus  &nA  gigans. 

some  reference  to  her  had  occurred  9.    honor]  'He  who  is  the  glory.' 

in  the  previous  stanza.  10.    spes  cr.]   Cp.  18.  22. 

4.  6.  14  note,  84.  12.  it.    pocula]   Cp.  Matt.  xxvi.  38 

5.  genus] 'the  Son,' as  in  Horace's  {calix). 

For  the  Epiphany.   Hymn  89 

This  is  again  an  alphabetical  hymn;  see  introduction 
to  71.  Chevalier  Repertorium  14  gives  the  Xth  century 
as  the  date  of  its  composition,  which  is  no  doubt  too 
late.  He  says  that  it  was  an  Epiphany  hymn,  but  this 
was  by  no  means  always  the  case.  In  some  uses  it  was 
sung  at  Christmas  (see  Werner  p.  9);  while,  according 
to  Blume  {Analecta  xxvn.  p.  ^\  its  Mozarabic  use  was 
infra  hebdomadam  2  aduentus,  feria  2  ad  uesp.  The 
doxology  varied  according  to  the  season.  When  sung  at 
Christmas  this  was  Gloria  tibi  domine  qui  natus  es  de 
uirgine  etc.  (see  introduction  to  87).  When  sung  in  the 
Epiphany  it  was  generally  Gloria  tibi  domine  qui  lotus 
es  influmine. 


3ip  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

Ecdhjvx  Fdips  Gm  Hbch  Ibh  Mmx  Vs 

A  Patre  unigenitus 

Ad  nos  uenit  per  uirginem, 

Baptisma  cruce  consecrans, 

Cunctos  fideles  generans. 

De  caelo  celsus  prodiit,  5 

Excepit  fortnam  hominis, 

Facturam  morte  redimens, 

Gaudia  uitae  largiens. 

Hoc  te,  redemptor,  quaesumus 

Inlabere  propitius,  lo 

Klarumque  nostris  sensibus 

Lumen  praebe  fidelibus. 

Mane  nobiscum,  Domine, 

Noctem  obscuram  remoue, 

Omne  delictum  ablue,  15 

Piam  medellam  tribue. 

I  unigenite  Mx.  2  uenis  Mx.  3  baptismo  Fs.     crucem  Ec  Gm. 

baptismi  rore  Mx.  4  fide  regen.  Mx.  5  e  caelo- Hb.     prodiens  Gm 

Mx.     .  7  factura  Ec  Gm.     mortis  Ec,  mortem  Mm.     consequens  Hb. 

uictor  a  morte  rediens  Mx.  8  uita  rediens  Gm.  r  i  cordibus 

Ev  Fi  Gm  Hb  Mx.  12  deificum  {pro  fid.)  Mx.  14  remouens  Gm. 

16  pie  Ex  Hb  Ibh. 

I.    Blume    Analecta    xxvil.    66  opus  Dei  et  factura  eius  et  plastica 

follows  the  Mozarabic  printed  bre-  adulterari  nullo   modo  debeat,  and 

viary  in  reading  unigenite... uenis,  in  Iren.  xxiv.  i,  Tert.  de  An.  4. 

which  suits  the  rhyme,  but  not  the  10.    inlabere]  3.  5  note,  and  nos- 

grammar  of  5  f.  iris  s.  3.  8. 

3.   Ambr.  de  Myst.   20  'quid  est  11.   It  may  be  questioned  whether 

enini  aqua  sine  cruce  Christi  ?   33.  fidelibus  is  epithet  to  sensibus  {^  ovlx 

10  note.  faithful  thoughts'),  or  whether  «.  s. 

5.  (i€is\i3i\  =  AltissimuSf — an  un-  is  governed  by  A7arKW,  and yf^.  by 
usual  use  of  the  word.  praebe. 

prodiit]   '  came  forth  '  into    the  1 3.    Lk.  xxiv.  29  mane  nobiscum 

world,  3.  30,  33.  12.  quoniam  aduesperascit. 

6.  formam]  42.   ii»  87.  12:   of  14.   n.  obscuram]  22.  8. 
course  a  reference  to  Phil.  ii.  7.  15.    delictum]  7.  26  note. 

7.  facturam]  'His  creation '=  16.  piam]  'loving,'  'gracious,' 
quod  condidit  of  31.  8.  Cp.  Sedul.  should  strictly  qualify  the  giver 
Carm.  II  stia  ne  factura  periret.  rather  than  the  gift,  as  was  felt  by 
In   this   concrete   sense  factura   is  the  copyists  who  wrote  pie. 

used  by  Cypr.   de  Hab.    Virg.    15 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XC  311 

Quern  iam  uenisse  nouimus, 

Redire  item  credimus, 

Sceptrum  tuum  incHtum 

Tuo  defende  clipeo.  20 

Vita,  salus,  et  ueritas, 
Christe,  rogantes  adiuua ; 
Ymnum  sonantes  iubilo 
Zelum  uincamus  lubricum. 

19  sceptrumque  Ex  Fds  Hb  Ih  Mx,  sc.  tuumque  Gm,  tu  sc.  tuum  Ecdv 
Fp  He  Mm.  ^o  tuutn...clipeum  Gm.  21-34  "*  ^'^  ^"^^ 

reperiuntitr. 

18.  redire... credimus]  42.  19  and       the  Church. 

note.  20.    2  Sam.  xxii.  36,  Ps.  v.   13, 

19.  The  line  as  it  stands  is  pro-       Prov.  xxx.  5. 

bably  the  original,  sceptrum  being  21  f.    These  four  lines  are  found 

pronounced  as  w«/)/fMw,  see  42.  33.  only  in   the  printed  Mozar.  brev. 

But  sceptrum  [tu\  tuum  is  possible,  and  may  have  been  added  by  the 

as  the  tu  would  easily  fall  out  before  editor   Ortiz,    who   seems   to   have 

tuum.  God's  'glorious  sceptre'  had  freely  edited  the  rest  of  the  hymn; 

been  Israel ;  cp.  Jer.  li.    19  Israel  see  Analecta  xxvii.  p.  66  and  cp. 

sceptrum  hereditatis  eius;  Lam.  ii.  i  31.  85  note. 
terram.  inclitam  Israel.    Now  it  is 

Hymn  90 

The  use  of  this  hymn  varies  between  Vespers  and 
Nocturn  in  Epiphany,  it  being  in  itself  suitable  to  either 
office.  Mone  I.  78  thinks  that  the  alliteration  shews  it  to 
have  been  written  by  an  Irish  or  Anglo-Saxon  poet;  but 
is  this  sufficiently  marked  to  demand  such  a  conclusion? 
The  recurrence  of  Greek  words  in  4,  13,  20,  23  f.  etc.  is 
remarkable.  It  is  rhymed  throughout,  being  in  this 
respect  like  84,  85  and  others.  Daniel  owing  to  a  mis- 
reading of  a  note  of  Thomasius  assigns  it  without 
grounds  to  Hilary  of  Poitiers;  cp.  Analecta  XXVII.  49 f. 
Pimont  I.  p.  92  f.  energetically  but  unsuccessfully  main- 
tains the  authorship  of  Hilary,  which  is  stated  as  if  a 
certainty  by  Chevalier. 


312  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

Ecdhjvx^  Fils  Gms  Hbcdf  Icdfhn  Vcs 

lesus  refulsit  omnium 

pius  redemptor  gentium; 

totum  genus  fidelium 

laudes  celebret  dramatum. 

quem  Stella  natum  fulgida  5 

monstrat  micans  in  aethera, 

magosque  duxit  praeuia 

ipsius  ad  cunabula. 

illi  cadentes  paruulum 

pannis  adorant  obsitum,  10 

uerum  fatentur  et  Deum 

munus  ferendo  mysticum. 

denum  ter  annorum  cyclis 

iam  parte  uiuens  corporis 

4  celebrat  Ec  He.  6  monstrans  Gm  Idhn.  micat  Gm  Idh.  aethere 
Vc.  8  illius  Gm.  13  denis  Ecdv.     ciclus  Hd.  14  partem  Ih. 

uigens  Ed. 

I.   omnium... g.]   In  reference  to  clothed    in    rags,'    33.     14    note, 

the  manifestation  to  the  Gentiles  :  Though  panni  need  not  necessarily 

totttm  g.  likewise.  mean   rags,  that   sense   points   the 

4.  dramatum]  '  of  His  deeds.'  contrast  between  the  real  glory  and 
The  Lat.  drama,  as  well  as  its  the  apparent  poverty.  Juvencus, 
Greek  orig.  5/)a/;ia,  usually  meant  an  though  he  does  not  use  the  word 
action  represented  on  the  stage,  '  a  panni,  echoes  the  general  sense 
drama.'  I.  xt^d ptteritm  ueteri cunatula  texiu 

5.  As  to  the  brilliance  of  the  inuoluunt,  duroque  datur  praesepe 
star   seen  by  the  magi  cp.   Ignat.  cubili. 

Eph.  XIX  dffTTjp  iv  ovpay(f  ^\a/i\f/ev  ii  f.    an    echo   of  31.    36   Deum 

XTK^p  Trd^raj  tous  diaT4pa,s,  koI  to  <f>G3s  fatentur  niunere. 

aiiTov  a.veK\6.\7)Tov  riv...Ta  bk  \oiira.  12.  munu8...mysticum]  referring 

■K&vra  AffTpa   afia  •^Xi^  KO-i  ffeXiivg  to  the    frankincense   in   particular ; 

Xopbs  iyivtTo  T(f  dtrripi'    aiirbi  de  see  1.  15  note. 

^v   virep^dWuu  to  <j>Qs  a&rou  vv^p  13.    'having  now  lived  a  bodily 

irdvTa :    Prud.    Catk.    xil.   5    Aaec  life  for  thirty  years.'    denum  is  of 

Stella,  quae  soils  rotam  \  uituit  de-  course  the  short  form  of  denorum. 

core  ac  lumine.  cyclis  is   the  abl.  of  duration  of 

6.  in  aethera]  'in  the  sky.'  So  time,  cp.  Paul.  Nol.  Carm.  xix. 
Fort.  XI.  i.  25,  Vit.  Mart.  I.  290  in  285  paucis  quos  corpore  uiueret 
aera  =  in  acre;  vp.Z'i.  \%x\q\.q.   The  annis  ;  1.  66  note. 

declension  of  this  word  was  a  con-  14.    parte... corporis,  'in  respect 

stant  difficulty  to  Latin  writers.  of  His  body, '  is  like  tempus  corporis, 

7  f.    Cp.  8.  9  f ,  31.  33  f.  33.  16;  cp.  Ambr.  in  Luc,  i.  36  post 

10.    pannis...  obsitum]     'though  triennium  nostri  corporis. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XC  313 

lympham  petit  baptismatis  15 

cunctis  carens  contagiis. 

felix  lohannes  mergere 

ilium  tremescit  flumine, 

potens  suo  qui  sanguine 

peccata  cosmi  tergere.  20 

uox  ergo  prolem  de  polis 

testatur  excelsi  Patris, 

uirtus  adestque  Pneumatis 

sancti  datrix  charismatis. 

nos,  Christe,  supplici  prece  25 

precamur,  omnes  protege, 

qui  praecipis  rubescere 

potenter  hydrias  aquae. 

praesta  benignum  sedulo 

solamen  adiutorio,  30 

raptosque  nos  a  tartaro 

regnare  fac  tecum  polo. 
15  baptismate  Hd.  19  potest  Ex  Fs  In  Vcs.  20  tangere  Ev. 

21  uos  Fs,  nox  Vs.  23  adestoqueGm.  24  secli  Ev.         25  subnixa 

Ex^  Ih.  26  omnes  prec.  Hd.   protege  omnes  Ev.  29  l^enignus  Vs. 

sedulus  Ec.         31  e  Ex  Vc. 

16.  For  the  sense  cp.  91.  21,  ergo  is  used,  rather  like  our  '  so ' 
Sedul.  Carm.  11.  158  f.  in  se  cuncta  or  '  then  '  and  sometimes  the  Greek 
lattat  noslrae  contagia  uiiae  \  ipse  ydp,  without  any  causal  or  inferen- 
ni/ii/  quod  perdat  habens,  sane  toque  tial  force,  cp.  27.  21,  33.  10,  Sedul. 
Uquetites  \  corpore  niundauit  latices.  Op.  II.  13  euangelicae  lectionis  ergo 

17.  mergere... tremescit]  '  trem-       textus  ita prosequitur. 

bles  at  ('shrinks  from')   dipping.'  23.    -que  follows  the  second  word 

For  the  inf.  cp.  Schmalz  p.  423.  of  its  clause,  as  at  34.  24. 

19.  potens]  ^j/,  like  76.  7.  24.    charismatis]  =  xa^f'^Ataroi,  i 

20.  cosmi]     Walahfrid     Strabo  Cor.  xii.  7  f.,  31,  101.  9,  106.  13. 
Lxxxiii.  8  morte  deuicta  superastis  27.    rubescere]  8.  17  note. 
arma  \  hostis   antiqui   trucis   atque  28.    potenter]  68.  2. 

cosmi  I  carnis  agone.    The  word  is  30.    adiutorio]  'aid,'  Ps.  vii.  11 

taken  from  John  i.  29.  and  often  in  Vulgate. 

21.  '  Then  the  voice  of  the  most  31.   tartaro]  23.  1 1  note. 

high  Father  from  heaven  bears  wit-  32.   regnare]  2  Tim.  ii.  12,  Rev. 

ness  to  the  Son,'  i.e.  that  Christ  is  xx.  14. 

His   son.     Cp.    Sedul.    Carm.    III.  The  doxology  found,  I  believe,  in 

291  f.  sidereoque  sono  '^  metis  hie  est  all  the  Mss  isZa»/J  Trinitati  debita\ 

Filius '  aiens  |  ostettdit  uerbo  genitutn  honor  potesias  gloria  \  perenniter  sit 

uox patria  Christum.  omnia  \  per  scuculorum  saecula. 


114  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

V  Hymn  91 

Although  it  is  handed  down  in  but  four  MSS — of 
which  one  is  only  a  copy  of  another — this  hymn  is 
certainly  ancient.  Mone  I.  77  dates  it  in  the  Vth 
century,  which  is  probably  a  little  too  early.  And 
Daniel  IV.  1 1  is  surely  wrong  when  he  says  that  it  and 
not  8  was  written  by  Ambrose,  thus  making  it  earlier 
than  Ambrose's  Epiphany  hymn,  8  Inlnminans  altis- 
simus.  This  he  does  because  91  does  not  mention  the 
visit  of  the  magi  among  the  Epiphany  signs.  This  is 
indeed  somewhat  remarkable ;  but  what  events  should 
be  commemorated  at  the  festival  was  for  a  long  time 
not  definitely  fixed,  nor  in  what  order  they  should  stand. 
With  regard  to  this  see  p.  63.  This  hymn  seems  to  have 
been  written  later  than  the  hymn  of  Sedulius  31,  phrases 
of  which  have  been  caught  up. 

Fs/3  Ga  Vs 
Inluxit  orbi  iam  dies 
corusca  tot  miraculis, 
in  quo  recurso  tempore 
signis  Deus  se  prodidit. 

mitis,  benignus  arbiter  5 

haec  cuncta  fecit  prouide, 
humana  gens  ne  falleret 
sed  se  colendum  crederet. 

2  coruscans  Fs  Vs,  coruscat  Ga.  3  decursu  temporis  Fs  Vs. 

4  se  deus  Fy3.  7  mens  Fs  Vs. 

I.    inluzit  is  a  favourite   word  3.    recurso]  '  in  which  recurring 

with  which  to  begin  a  hymn.    Che-  season,'  cp.  decursa,  106.  5 ;  see  note 

valier  cites  12  hymns  commencing  there. 

with  this  word  ;  cp.  Verg.  Georg.w.  4.    signis]    1.    20  note.     It  is  a 

337  inluxisse  diem,  Fort.  m.  viii.  i  reference  to  John  ii.  11  manifestauit 

inluxit  festiua   dies,    112.    2.     But  gloriam  suani. 

here  it  has  a  special  appropriateness,  5.   arbiter]  32.  31. 

like   Ambrose's    illuminans,    on    a  6.   prouide]  39.  23. 

festival  which  was  sometimes  called  7.    ne   falleret]    '  might   not   go 

the  Feast  of  Lights.  wrong.'   The  yioxdfallo  is  probably 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  X CI         315 


,rogatus  est  ad  nuptias, 
aqua  repleuit  hydrias ; 
sermone  Christi  concite 
mutauit  unda  originem. 

stupent  fluenta  gignere 
natura  quae  non  contulit ; 
pallor  ruborem  parturit 
et  uina  currunt  flumine. 

lohanne  Baptista  sacro 
implente  munus  debitum, 
lordane  mersus  hac  die 
aquas  lauando  diluit, 


10 


«S 


20 


II  sermones  sui  Fs  Vs.  14  contigit  Fs  Vs.  16  uicina  Fs 

(uincina  Vs),  uini  F^.     flumina  Fs'/3  Vs.  17  lohannes  Fs  Vs.   sacrum 

Fs  Vs.  18  impleuit  Fs  Vs. 


connected  with  o-^dXXw,  '  cause  to 
fall,'  '  trip  up.'  Usually  it  means 
'  deceive ' ;  but  Du  Cange  quotes 
Lobinell.  Hist.  Brit.,  tutic. . .fallit 
fossa,  '  the  ditch  comes  to  an  end,' 
in  a  marshy  meadow.  This  use  of 
falleret  comes  nearest  to  the  nse 
classified  in  the  Thesaurus  as  B  i  {res 
fallunt :  absolute),  where  the  mean- 
ing approaches  to  that  of  faillir,  to 
fail.  Thus  Liv.  xxviii.  xxvii.  9 
quantum  opinio  fefellit  ('  was  at 
fault,'  'went  wrong');  Plin.  Hist. 
Nat.  xill.  142  si  fefellerint  insidiae 
('  have  miscarried  ) ;  perhaps  still 
nearer  Plin.  Epist.  11.  i.  3  per... 
lubricuvi  pauimenlum  fallente  ues- 
tigio  cecidit  ('missing,'  'slipping'); 
Porph.  on  Hor.  Epod.  xvii.  60 
fallit  sensiis  hie  ( '  is  wrong '). 

9f.  Joh.  ii.  2,  8.  13  f.,  31.  49  f. 
This  use  of  rogare  seems  to  be  un- 
paralleled. 

1 1 .  sermone]  '  at  the  word ' ;  cp. 
Sedul.  Op.  III.  2  plenam  puero  sos- 
pitatevi  uoce  praestitit,  sermone  con- 
cessit, 

concite,  'in  haste,'  seems  only 
to  be  known  here  and  at  111.  25 
and  one  or  two  other  passages. 


12.  borrowed  from  31.  52. 

13.  'The  water  is  astonished  at 
producing  what  nature  had  not 
given.' 

Probably  the  writer  found  at  8. 
19  the  reading  elementa  mutata  stu- 
pent transire.  To  gignere  supply  se 
as  subject.  Is  it  possible  that  the  ori- 
ginal reading  here  was  stupet  (i.e. 
utula),  making  y?.  ace.  after  gignerel 
The  quae  in  14  seems  harsh  in  the 
sense  of  '  things  which ' — though  no 
doubt  interpreted  by  what  follows. 

14  is  an  echo  of  31.  59. 

15.  Cp.  Sedul.  Carm.  in.  4f. 
amittere  gaudent  |  pallorem  latices. 

16.  ulna]  for  the  plu.  cp.  Vei^. 
Georg.  I.  132  riuis  currentia  uina; 
36.  18  note. 

17  f.    8.  5f.,  31.  41  f.,  90.  15  f. 

sacer  is  less  common  of  persons 
than  is  sanctus,  but  cp.  Fort.  lit. 
XV.  14  te  pastore  sacro.  Probably 
Bapt.  sacro  are  to  be  taken  tc^ether, 
in  apposition  to  lohanne. 

20.  lauando]  '  by  washing,'  or 
'  in  washing.'  Our  Saviour  did  not 
'  wash '  Himself  in  the  spiritual 
sense,  but  He  did  in  the  natural 
sense,  and  by  so  doing  purified  the 


3i6 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


non  ipse  mundari  uolens, 
ex  uentre  natus  uirginis, 
peccata  sad  mortaliura 
suo  ut  fugaret  lauacro. 
dicente  Patre  quod  '  meus* 
dilectus  hie  est  Filius,' 
sumensque  sanctus  Spiritus 
formam  columbae  caelitus, 
hoc  mystico  sub  nomine 
micat  salus  ecclesiae ; 
persona  trina  consonat, 
unus  Deus  per  omnia. 


25 


30 


52  de  Fs  Vs,     matris  Fs  Vs. 
38  aduenit  (pro  columbae)  Fs  Vs. 

element  of  water  for  higher  pur- 
poses, as  Ambrose  says,  in  Luc.  II. 
83  baptizatus  ergo  est  Dominiis  non 
mundari  uolens,  sedmundare  aquas. 
Cp.  also  de  Spir.  S.  I.  114  non  quod 
Christus  peccata  sua  deponeret,  qui 
peccatum  non  fecit,  sed  quod  in  came 
Christi  onine  in  peccatis  suis  genus 
absoluerettir  humanuni. 

22.  The  virgin  birth  is  treated  as 
cutting  off  the  transmission  of  ori- 
ginal sin. 

24.  Fort,  twice  scans  laudcrum, 
V.  V.  96,  Vit.  Mart.  II.  186.  The 
accent  of  the  word  is  there  thrown 
on  to  the  first  a. 

25.  dicente  quod. ..est]  see  87. 
10,  15. 

27.  The  nom.  abs.  certainly  oc- 
curs in  late  writers  :  see  note  on 
69.  7,  and  Leo's  Fortunatus  p.  409, 
Ennod.  Panegyr.  viii.  40  (ed. 
Vogel),  103.  7,  113.  5,  Schmalz 
p.  391.    But  in  view  of  the  abl.'s  in 


24  fiigare  {pro  ut  f.)  Fs/S*  Vs. 
31  commanet  Fs  Vs. 

i7f.  and  25  perhaps  the  original 
was  sumente  sancto  Spiritu. 

suinen8...caelltn8]  Mt.  iii.  16,  a 
pregnant  phrase :  '  descending  from 
heaven  and  taking.' 

29.  sub  nomine]  under  the  name 
thus  revealed  as  threefold,  48.  9 
note. 

30.  micat  s.  e.  means  that  the  faith 
in  the  Trinity  which  is  the  salvation 
of  the  Church  was  signally  set  forth 
in  the  events  which  the  previous 
stanza  rehearses. 

3 1 .  pers.  trina]  =  tres  personae, 
like  1.  27  pane  quino^panibus 
quinque.  consonat  '  are  in  agree- 
ment ' ;  as  Aug.  in  Ps.  XLIX  says 
that  the  two  Testaments  consonant, 
unus  Deus  is  in  apposition  to  per- 
sona tr.,  and  shews  how  the  three 
'agree.' 

32.  A  variation  of  6.  31.  per 
omnia  may  perhaps  qualify  consonat 
rather  than  unus  Deus. 


In  Septuagesima.  Hymn  92 

This  interesting  hymn  is  no  doubt  of  Mozarabic  origin, 
but  its  use  spread,  and  it  is  found  in  English,  French, 
German   and   Italian   MSS.    It  dates  from  a  time  when 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  XCII        317 

such  repetitions  as  the  alleluia  perenne  at  the  close  of 
each  stanza  had  become  customary.  For  a  careful  read- 
ing shews  that  these  words  are  worked  into  the  structure 
of  the  hymn  and  that  they  are  not  a  later  addition,  as  is 
the  saecidorutn  saeculis  of  23.  The  rubric  in  the  Mozarabic 
MS,  BM  add.  30851,  de  carnes  tollendas, — the  general 
rubric  being  in  sepUiagesima^ — shews  that  the  hymn  was 
to  be  sung  especially  on  the  first  Sunday  in  Lent,  after 
which  day  the  alleluia  following  the  Gospel  and  in  other 
parts  of  the  services  was  discontinued.  In  the  printed 
Mozarabic  breviary  of  1 502  at  the  end  of  this  Sunday 
comes  the  direction  hie  clauditur  alleluia.  See  Julian 
p.  47b;  Analecta  XXVII.  p.  76;  Neale  Mediaeval 
Hymns  p.  182;  Hytnni  Ecclesiae  p.  248.  In  the  earliest 
English  MS  that  contains  the  hymn  (British  Museum 
add.  37517,  Canterbury  Psalter)  stanza  VI  is  omitted  and 
IX  comes  as  a  doxology  after  stanza  IV,  and  also  at  the 
end  of  the  whole  hymn. 

Ecdhjlsvr;  Fsu  Gm/3/u  Hbcd  Makx  Vs 
Alleluia  piis  edite  laudibus, 
ciues  aetherei,  psallite  nauiter 
alleluia  perenne. 

1  suauiter  Gm/Sytt  He,  unanimiter  Mx. 

1.  clues  aetherei]  Eph.  ii.  19,  speak  of  the  welcome  that  awaits 
Heb.  xii.  22;  Fort.  iv.  vii.  21  ad  them  hereafter  in  heave*  Stanzas 
paradisiacas  epulas  te  due  rediuto ;  IV  and  V  encourage  them  to  antici- 
ib.  xxvii.  10  ad  patriae  sedes  ciuis  pate  the  future  joy.  Stanzas  VI  and 
opima  redis.  The  same  thought  vil  dwell  upon  the  nature  of  it. 
recurs  in  jo  reditu,  \i  patriae  (cp.  The  last  two  stanzas  praise  the 
69.  15),  ao  reduces,  as  it  has  already  creator  Christ, 
occurred  at  29.  55  genitali  in  sede.  natilter] 'loudly,' 'lustily.'  Neale 
The  'citizens  of  heaven'  are  the  found  unanimiter  in  the  Mozar. 
saints  on  earth,  who  are  about  to  brev.  of  1503  and  'the  metre  de- 
forgo  the  singing  of  Alleluia  for  a  manding '  corrected  it  not  too  suc- 
season,  but  are  urged  to  join  in  it  cessfuUy  into  unanime.  The  word 
heartily  while  yet  they  may :— even  nauiter  (gnauiter)  seems  to  have 
when  they  may  not  sing  it,  it  is  an  been  in  Spanish  use.  Anal,  xxvil. 
unceasing  Alleluia  thai  they  take  cxx.  \  gaucUt  nunc  nauiter  iam  toga 
their  part  in.     Stanzas    11   and  in  Candida;  ib.  cxxiv.  3. 


3i8  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS       ~ 

hinc  uos  perpetui  luminis  accola 
r  adsumet  resonans  hymniferis  choris  5 

alleluia  perenne. 

uos  urbs  eximia  suscipiet  Dei, 
quae  laetis  resonans  cantibus  excitat 
alleluia  perenne. 

felici  reditu  gaudia  sumite,  10 

reddentes  Domino  glorificos  melos 
alleluia  perenne. 

almum  sidereae  iam  patriae  decus 
uictores  capitis,  quo  canor  est  iugis 

alleluia  perenne.  15 

4  hie  Fs  Hbd  Vs.  nos  Ec.  accolas  Ecdlv  Fs  Gtn  Hbd  Vs,  accolae  Mx< 
5  assumens  Gm  Ma  (-entes  Fs  Hd  Vs).  resonat  Fs  Hb  Vs,  resonant  Hd, 
ad  summum  resonate  Mx.  hymniferi  Fs  Hd  Vs.  chori  Fs  Hd^  Vs. 
7  mox  Hb.  perpetua  {pro  exim.)  Fs  Hd  Vs.  8  laeti  Gm  Hb.  resonat 
Ecdv   Fs   Hb   Mak   Vs.     excita    Ecd    Fs    G/x   Hbcd^   Vs,    excitans   Ev. 

10  te  lucis  {pro  fel.)   Fs  Vs.     reddita  Fs  Vs.     edite  {pro  sumite)   Gm. 

11  glorificum  Eclv  Fu.  13  sidereum  Fs  Hbd  Vs.  14  canores  Hb, 
canore  Fs  Hd  Vs.     iugi  Fs  Hd  Vs. 

\{.    lit.    'The   dweller   hard  by  The/^r/£/««OT /«/wf«  is  God  Him- 

the  eternal  light  sounding  forth  in  self:  the  accolae  are  the  angels  and 

reply  an  endless  alleluia  shall  re-  saints  who  dwell  in  His  presence, 

ceive  you  hence  with  hymn-raising  assumere  is  often  used  of  adopting 

choirs.'  or  taking  into  fellowship.    Here  it 

hinc,   emphatically   placed    first,  appears   to    look    forward    to    the 

points  the  contrast  between  earth  moment    of    entering   heaven,    but 

and  heaven.    So  kuc  96.  8.    With  may  perhaps  include   the   thought 

perpetui  luminis  cp.  46.  i  n.  that  our  praises  are  even  now  caught 

accola  flneans  'a  neighlx)ur,' /«-  up  by  those  of  heavenly  beings, 
cola  'an  inhabitant.'  The  sing,  is  7.  eximia  has  its  last  syll.  length- 
collective.  Strictly  speaking  accola  ened  by  the  stress  of  the  verse  as 
would  imply  a  dweller  in  a  place  have  iocunda  xn  17  and  Christe  in. 
that  was  not  his  own,  like  the  25.  ; 
Greek  /j^toiko^.  Thus  Hil.  in  Fs.  suscipiet]  '  shall  welcome,'  as  at 
CXVlii.  19  snys  accola  non  iuris  sui  30.  25. 

terrain    incolit,   sed  aduena    atque  lo.    felici  reditu]  '  at  (by  reason 

peregrinus  fructum   ex   ea   tempo-  of)   your  happy  homecoming,'  cp. 

rariae  operationis  expectat.    In  this.  note  on  2. 

interpretation    he    is    followed   by  ri.   glorificos  melos]    So   Fort.: 

Ambrose,  Jerome  and  others.  Here  III.  ix.  yi  repticusso ...melo\  vil.viii.: 

however  it  seems  to  be  used  in  a  28    honorijicuni .. .melum.     Ronsch 

freer,   less   technical   sense   of  one  p.  268. 
who  dwells   near  a  spot  or  thing.  13.    Verg.  Aen.  x.  3  sideream  in 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XCII         319 

Ulic  regis  honor  uocibus  inclitis 
iocunda  reboat  carmina  perpetim 
alleluia  perenne. 

hoc  fessis  requies,  hoc  cibus  et  potus, 
oblectans  reduces  haustibus  affluis  20 

alleluia  perenne. 

nos  te  suauisonis  conditor  affatim 
rerum  carminibus  laudeque  pangimus 
alleluia  perenne. 

te  Christe  celebrat  gloria  uocibus  25 

nostris  oninipotens,  ac  tibi  dicimus 
alleluia  perenne. 

17  iocundo  He.   psallendo  carmine  (fro  c.  perp.)  He.         19  fessi  Hbd'. 
20  hoc  laetans  Fs  Hbd  Vs.     reducens  Eclv  Fs  Hd  Vs.  22  suauisoni 

Fs  Vs.  23  laudesque  Fs  Vs.     pandimus  Hb.  25  celebret  Ecv  Fsu 

Hbd  Vs.  26  hac  Ev. 


sedetn.  Fort,  often  uses  sidereus  = 
'  heavenly.' 

iam... capitis]  'even  now  ye  re- 
ceive,' by  anticipation. 

14.  quo]  'where,'  referring  to 
patriae  in  13,  cp.  1.  18,  117.  31. 
iugis,  like  potus  below,  has  lost  its 
quantity. 

16.  uocibus  inclitis]  Cp.  40.  33 
inclitam...gloriam.  One  is  tempted 
to  look  upon  itulitis  as  a  transferred 
epithet ;  but  in  that  ease  why  should 
not  the  poet  have  actually  written 
inclitif 

17.  reboat]  63.  11.  honor  is 
used  in  much  the  same  way  as 
gloria  in  25,  for  the  ascription  of 
honour,  and  may  thus  be  said  to 
echo  or  sound  aloud  glad  songs. 

19.  hoc.boc]  in  apposition  \nth 
alleluia  perenne. 

2  2f.  In  these  two  stanzas,  the 
way  in  which  the  vocatives  are  in- 
woven into  the  sentences  creates  a 
good  deal  of  difBculty, — rerum  being 


separated  from  conditor,  as  omni- 
potetts  is  from  Christe.  With  r^jard 
to  the  construction  of  the  sentence 
nos  te  etc.,  it  seems  clear  that  te  is 
the  object  or  accus.  a.(teT  pangimus. 
pangimus  must  accordingly  be  un- 
derstood as  a  synonym  of  canimus, 
or  dicimus.  This  is  not  surprising 
after  33.  i  pange  proelium  ;  cp.  121. 
7  tropaea  pangimus.  This  being  so, 
the  only  construction  for  all.  per- 
emu  is  to  throw  it  into  apposition 
with  the  ablatives  carminibus  lau- 
deque. affatim  goes  with  pangi- 
mus:  "To  our  hearts'  content,  O 
maker  of  the  world,  we  celebrate 
Thee  with  sweet  songs  and  with  the 
praise  '  Alleluia  without  end.' " 

In  the  following  sentence  gloria 
mast  be  taken  in  the  sense  which 
we  have  found  before  in  these 
hymns,— e.g.  40.  34 — 'ascription  of 
glory':—"  Thee,  O  almighty  Christ,' 
our  acclamations  of  praise  extol  (Ht. 
'  praise  by  our  voices  extols')." 


320  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

In  Quadragesima.   Hymn  93 

This  Lenten  hymn  was  in  the  older  MSS  generally 
appointed  for  Vespers,  in  some  few  for  Lauds.  Mone  I. 
p.  94  gives  it  ad  tertiam,  which  must  be  a  later  local  use. 
He  gives  Gregory  as  the  writer,  but  does  not  say  why. 

Eacdghjlsvx5ij/i^  Fdhilprs  Gkm  Habcdegh/3  Ibcdfghmnv  Mm  Vcs 
Audi,  benigne  conditor, 
nostras  preces  cum  fletibus 
in  hoc  sacro  ieiunio 
fusas  quadragenario. 

scrutator  alma  cordium,  5 

infirma  tu  scis  uirium, 
ad  te  reuersis  exhibe 
remissionis  gratiam. 

multum  quidem  peccauimus, 

sed  parce  confitentibus  ;  10 

ad  laudem  tui  nominis 

confer  medellam  languidis. 

sic  corpus  extra  conteri 
dona  per  abstinentiam, 

2  laudibus  E/i  Fhis  Gm  Hd  Ibcdgmn  Mm  Vcsi.  6  cordium  E5. 

7  adhibe  He.  lo  confidentibus  Ig  Mm.     poenasque  comparauimus  Ex 

Fdi  Gk  Hacefgh/3.  ii  nom.  tui  Eacdhjv  Gm  Hbd  lb.     sed  cuncta  qui 

solus  potes  Ex  Fdi  Gk  Hacefgh/3.  13  hie  El,  si  Mm.    conteris  E/x  Mm. 

1.    Cp.  20.  10  note.  6.  27. 

4.  quadr.]  Numerals  of  this  kind  8.  Mone  quotes  Hil.  ?« /!f.  lxvi. 
are  often  used  without  express  men-  1  peccatorum  remissio  non  probitatis 
tion  of  the  thing  numbered — 'of  est  tnerilum,  sed  spontancae  indul- 
forty,'  sc.  days.  gentiae  twluntas. 

5.  scrutator... cordium]  Cp.  i  10,  11.  Blume  notes  that  the 
Chron.  xxviii.  9,  Job  x.  6,  Ps.  vii.  German  MSS,  with  one  French  one, 
10,  Rom.  viii.  27,  Juvenc.  i.  f^'jgtum  read  poenasque  comparauimus  \  sed 
digna  rependet  \  occulti  solus  scru-  cuncta  qui  solus  potes,  which  is  more 
tutor  praemia  cordis  \  Sedul.  <9/.  ll.  in  keeping  with  the  general  cha- 
6  renum  scrutator  et  cordis ;  Ambr.  racter  of  the  metre. 

Hex.  VI.  44  scrutatur  cordis  occulta.  12.   languidis]  84.  7  note. 

6.  Ps.  cii.  (ciii.)  14.  13-   corpus    is    contrasted    with 
Inflrma... uirium] oxymoron.  Cp.       mens'va.\i,. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XCIV        321 

ieiunet  ut  mens  sobria  15 

a  labe  prorsus  criminum. 
praesta,  beata  Trinitas, 
concede,  simplex  Unitas, 
ut  fructuosa  sint  tuis 

ieiuniorum  munera.  20 

16  pressus  H/3.     crimina  Im  Vs.  19  ut  sint  acceptabilia  Edlv. 

15.  mens  sobria]  6.  16.  To 'fast'  fast  may  be  fruitful  to  Thy  servants.' 

from  a  'stain'  is  a  curious  mixture  munera  in  the  sense  of  sacrifices, 

of  figures.  gifts   offered   to    God,    is    common 

19 f.    'that   the   sacrifice   of  the  enough,  cp.  96.  18. 

Hymn  94 

In  the  older  MSS  generally  appointed  for  Nocturns, 
sometimes  for  Vespers,  throughout  Lent.  Its  later  use 
varied.  In  the  Sarum  and  York  and  some  other  uses  it 
was  sung  at  Vespers  from  the  first  to  the  third  Sunday 
in  Lent.  In  the  Roman  breviary  it  is  the  Mattins  hymn 
during  Lent  up  to  Passion  Sunday.  Hymns  94,  95,  96 
occur  in  very  few  early  French  MSS — 95  I  believe  in  not 
one. 

This  hymn  like  93  is  assigned  to  Gregory  by  Mone 
who  says  'es  hat  nicht  nur  seine  Behandlung  der  Zahl- 
enmystik  (vergl.  seine  Homil.  in  Evang.  II.  xxiv.  4  und 
II.  xxxi.  6)  sondern  auch  die  Art  seiner  Lehren  und  Pre- 
digten.'  This  and  the  two  hymns  that  follow  seem  to 
have  been  written  by  the  same  man,  and  he  may  have 
been  Gregory  ;  but  certainty  is  impossible. 

Eadhlvx^  Fhis  Gm  Habcdefgh  Icfghmnv  Mm  Vcs 

Ex  more  docti  mystico 

I  doctis  Ig. 

I.   ex  more] 'by  the  custom.'  For  may  however  be  'as  taught  in  ac- 

the  abl.  of  the  instr.  cp.  Aug.  Conf.  cordance  with.' 

V.  20  ex  came  inquinatiim  ;  Sedul.  mystico  may  refer  to  the  number 

Carm.   il.   173  triplici  Detis  ex  ra-  forty;  cp.  Greg.  Horn,  in  Euang. 

Hone ptobatur  \  Schmalz  p.  408.    It  I.  xvi.  5  cur  in  abstimnlia  quadra- 


322  EA  RLY  LA  TIN  H  YMNS 

seruemus  en  ieiunium 
denum  dierum  circulo 
ducto  quater  notissimo. 

lex  et  prophetae  primitus  5 

hoc  praetulerunt,  postmodum 
Christus  sacrauit,  omnium 
rex  atque  factor  temporum. 

utamur  ergo  parcius 

uerbis,  cibis,  et  potibus,  10 

somno,  iocis ;  et  artius 

perstemus  in  custodia. 

uitemus  autem  pessima, 

quae  subruunt  mantes  uagas, 

nullumque  demus  callido  15 

hosti  locum  tyrannidis. 

2  seruamus  Hab^c.     hoc  {pro  en)  Ex  Fi  Hb^  Ig-hn  Mm  Vc.  3  deno 

Fh  Gm  He  Iv.  6  protul.  Edhl  He.  10  cibisque  Im.     ac  He. 

12  eustodiam  Ehv  Iv.  15,  16  callidi  hostis  1.  tyrannidi  Gm  Iv  Vs^. 

hostis  Ig^hm. 

genarius    tiumerus  ciistoditur,   nisi  28 ;  prophetae  i.e.  Elijah,  i  Kings 

quia  uirtus  decalogi  per  libros  quat-  xix.  8. 

ttwr  sancti  euangelii  impletur?  de-  6.      praetul.      probably     means 

narius  etiim  quater  ductus  in  quad-  '  displayed,   exhibited  ' ;    but  prae- 

ragenarium  surgit.   Or  it  may  refer  ferre  is  used,  though  very  rarely,  in 

to  the  '  mystery '  of  fasting,  cp.  26.  6  the   sense  of   'to  anticipate.'     See 

nil  hoc  profecto  purius  tnysterio.  Dirksen  s.v. 

2.    en]   'Oh!    let  us...'  lays  an  7.   sacrauit]  98.   14,   cp.   96.  4, 

emphasis  on  seruemus.    It  is  often  96.  4. 

used  in  questions  (Pers.   III.   5  en  9.     utamur   etc.]    Cp.    Reg.    S. 

quid  agis?  '  What  ar^  you  doing  ? ')  Bened.    XLix    in    Lent     subtrah&t 

and  with  imperatives  (Verg.  Eel.  vi.  \unusquisque   monachoruni\  corpori 

6<)  en  accipe,  ^do  take  them').    For  sua  de  cibo,  de  potu,  de  somno,  de 

the  use  in  these  hymns  see  4.  igf.,  loquacitate,  de  scurrilitale. 

28.  I,  102.  5.  13.   pessima]  superl.  as  at  69.  12, 

3f.  lit.  '  in  the  well-known  round  73.  16. 

of  ten  days  four  times  reckoned.'  14.   subruunt]  72.  6. 

denum  as  at  90.  13.  mentes  uagas]  see  61.  11. 

circulo]  68.  19,  87.  14.  15.   callido]  103.  11. 

4.  notissimo  of  course  qualifies  16.   locum]  'vantage  ground,'  a 
circulo.   Note  the  superl.  military  term.   Cp.  Eph.  iv.  27. 

5.  lex]  i.e.  Moses,  Exod.  xxxiv. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XCV         323 

dicamus  omnes  cernui, 

clamemus  atque  singuli, 

ploremus  ante  iudicem, 

flectamus  iram  uindicem.  20 

nostris  malis  offendimus 

tuam,  Deus,  clementiam: 

effunde  nobis  desuper 

remissor  indulgentiam. 

memento  quod  sumus  tui  25 

licet  caduci  plasmatis : 

■  ne  des  honorem  nominis 

tui,  precamur,  alteri. 

laxa  malum  quod  fecimus, 

auge  bonum  quod  poscimus,  30 

placere  quo  tandem  tibi 

possimus  hie  et  perpetim. 

17  ergo  {pro  omn.)  Gm.  20  flectemus  Elv.  23  infunde  YA^. 

29  gessimus  Eax  Hce  Ih.  31  quod  Elv  Gm.  32  hinc  Eav  He  Ih. 

in  perpetuum  {pro  hie  et  p.)  Edhl. 

1 7.   cernui]  62.  30.   The  dicamus  '  though     belonging    to    a    fallen 

looks  on  to  the  petition  in  21  foil.  creation.'     tui    is    probably    nom. 

20.   uindicem]  'avenging.'    It  is  plur. ;  but  it  might  be  joined  with 

used   of    that   which   does  justice,  plasmatis. 

whether  against  one,  as  here  and  27.    Cp.  (of  men)  Prov.  v.  q  ne 

Rom.  xiii.  4  uindex  in  iram,  or  for  des  alienis  honorem  tuum  ;  (of  God) 

one,  '  championing,' as  112.  22.  Is.   xlii.   8  and    xlviii.   ii   gloriam 

24.  remissor]    The   word    does  meam  alteri  non  dabo. 
not   seem    to   be  found  elsewhere,  29.   laxa]  as  at  86.  10. 

but  this  is  probably  accidental.    It  30.    auge]  Reg.  S.  Bened.  XLIX 

is  correctly  formed,  after  the  manner  his  diebus  augeamus  nobis  aliquid 

oi promissor.  solito  penso  seruitutis  nostrae. 

25.  Is.  Ixiv.  8  Jictor  noster  tu,  et  31.  tandem  emphasizes  the  verb, 
opera  manutim  tuarum  omnes  nos.  as  at  86.  8. 

26.  plasmatis]    37.    20    note ; 

Hymn  95 

In  liturgical  practice  this  hymn  is  of  course  always 

connected  with  Lent,  but  its  use  therein  is  very  varied. 

One  MS  from  St  Gall  of  the  Xl/XIIth  centuries  assigns 

it  to  the  third   Sunday,  other  old  MSS  to  the  first   or 


3 24  EARLY  LA  TLN  H YMNS 

second  Sunday.    Another  Xlth  century  MS  from  Bobbio 
has  the  rubric  dotninica  de  passione  ad  nocturna. 

This  hymn  Hke  many  others  has  been  positively  given 
to  Gregory,  but  on  mere  guesswork. 

Eacdhjlvx0  Fs  Hefgh  Ih  Vs 

Clarum  decus  ieiunii 

monstratur  orbi  caelitus, 

quod  Christus  alter  omnium 

cibis  dicauit  abstinens. 

hoc  Moyses  carus  Deo  5 

legisque  lator  factus  est, 

hoc  Heliam  per  aera 

curru  leuauit  igneo. 

hinc  Danihel  mysteria 

uictor  leonum  uiderat,  lo 

per  hoc  amicus  intimus 

sponsi  lohannes  claruit. 

2  orbis  Ev'  Ih.  3  auctor  Ex0  Ih,  saluator  Vs.  7,  8  Helias... 

levatur  Vs.  9  mysterium  Evx0  Hf  Ih.  1 2  sponsus  Ih,  Christi 

Vs,  Christo  Ev  (raj.). 

1.    monstratur]    'is    taught'   or  7.    i  Kings  xix.  8.    hoc,  nom.  to 

'prescribed,'  as  at  Verg.  Aen.  iv.  leuauit, 

636  nionstrata  piacula,    '  the   pre-  9.     hinc]    '  by   means    of    this,' 

scribed  offerings  of  atonement.'  Dan.  i.  8. 

3.  altor  forms  an  excellent  an-  mysteria... uiderat]  Dan.  ii.  19 
tithesis  to  abstinens  in  4.  The  tutu  Daniheli  mysterium  per  uisio- 
variant   auctor  would   come   in   as  nem  nocte  reuelattim  est. 

being   so   much    commoner    as   an  10.   uiderat] 'saw.'  The  force  of 

appellation  of  Christ,  as  in  31.   5,  the  pluperf.  is  'saw  in  days  of  old.'' 

36.  33,  37.   I,  38.  18  etc.    But  see  Cp.  the  tense  of  ausus  erat  in  41. 

Greg.  Hom.  in  Euangel.  I.  xvi.  3  15,  and  of  sanxeras  in  96.  4,  and 

Moyses,  ut  legem  acciperet  secundo,  Propert.  11.  ii.  13  diuae  quas  pastor 

diebus  quadraginta  ieiunauit,  Helias  uiderat  olim. 

in   deserto   quadraginta  diebus  ab-  11.    per  hoc]  Mt.  iii.  4,   xi.  i8, 

stinuit,   ipse    auctor    hominum    ad  Prud.    Cath.    vii.    66    illic    dicata 

homines  ueniens  in  quadraginta  die-  parcus  abstinentia  \  potum  cibumque 

bus  nullum  omnino  cibum  sumpsit.  uir  seuerae   industriae  \   in   usqtie 

4.  abstinens  2\mos,i  =  abstinendo,  serum  respuebat  itesperum,  |  rarum 
Matt.  iv.  2.  locustis  et  fauorum  agrestium   \  Ii- 

5.  Exod.    xxxiv.    28.     hoc,    'by       quore pastum  corpori  suetus  dare. 
this.'    Probably  <rar«j  Z)^6>  refers  to  amicus... sponsi]    Job.     iii.     29. 
Exod.  xxxiii.  ri,  Deut.  xxxiv.  10.          Probably  this  is  the  real  predicate. 


LATER  HYMNAL.   HYMN  XCVI        325 

haec  nos  sequi  dona,  Deus, 

exempla  parsimoniae ; 

tu  robur  auge  mentium,  15 

dans  spiritale  gaudium. 

'John    was    distinguished    as    the  14.    pargimoniae]  26.   3,  96.  6, 

friend.'  110.  19. 


:  Hymn  96 

Ecdjvx0  Fs  Hefh  Ih  Vs 

lesu,  quadragenariae 
dicator  abstinentiae, 
qui  ob  salutem  mentium 
hoc  sanxeras  ieiunium, 

quo  paradiso  redderes  5 

seruata  parsimonia, 
quos  inde  gastrimargiae 
hue  inlecebra  depulit. 

adesto  nunc  ecclesiae, 

adesto  paenitentiae,  lo 

quae  pro  suis  excessibus 

orat  profusis  fletibus. 

8  detulit  He"^.  ii  qua  E^  Hef  Ih.  12  profusis  orat  E^  Hflh. 

precibus  Ex0  Hf  Ih. 

2.  dicator]   Cp.  96.  4  dicauil.  7.    gastrimargiae]  'gluttony,'  a 

3.  'who  with  a  view  to  the  word  used  by  Plato  Phaed.  81 K. 
health  of  the  soul  didst  in  days  of  The  Mss  for  the  most  part  mis-spell 
old  hallow  this  fast.'  the  word  grotesquely. 

Ob    rarely   has    this   final    force,  8.   hue]  i.e.  into  this  world  of  sin 

except  in    late  I^tin ;    in  classical  and   suffering ;    cp.    the  analogous 

Latin  it  means  '  on  account  of,'  not  use  of  hinc,  92.  4.    [It  is  possible — 

'  with  a  view  to '  as  here.  the  word  depulit,  not  expulit,  sug- 

mentium]  see  12.  15  note.  gests  it — that  the  writer  regarded 

4.  sanxeras]  see  note  on  96.  10  the  Paradise  as  above  this  world. 
uideras.  Cp.  Dr  Robinson's  note  on  Irenaeus 

■;.    quo]  'in  order  that,'  a  conj.,  Demonstration  p.  81.] 
rather  than  an  abl.  'whereby'  re-  11.    pro]    'on    account    of    her 

ferring  to  ieiunium  :  for  see  line  6,  transgressions.'   The  i/uae  of  course 

which  would   otherwise    be  super-  refers  back  to  ecclesiae. 
fluous.    For  the  sense  cp.  29.  4Qf.  12.    Cp.  20.  10  note. 


326  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

tu  retro  acta  crimina 
tua  remitte  gratia, 
L-  et  a  futuris  adhibe  15 

custodiam,  mitissime, 

ut  expiati  annuls  ' 

ieiuniorum  uictimis 
tendamus  ad  paschalia 
digne  colenda  gaudia.  20 

14  redemit  Vs.  15  hac  [pro  a)  Vs. 

13.    retro] 'in  time  past.'  Ronsch  17,   18,  like  110.    17  f.,  is  based 

p.  343  gives  many  examples  of  this  on  25.  5  f.,  which  see.    The  yearly 

use  of  the  word.  Lenten  fast  is  regarded  as  an  offer- 

15.    '  and  do  Thou  guard  us  from  ing  to  Christ.   Y ox  expiati  c^.  2^.  1. 

sins  in  the  future.'   With  a  futuris  Benedict  Reg.  XLIX  exhorts  negle- 

supply  criniinidus  (rom  13.    Blume  gentias  aliorum  temporum  his  diebus 

reads  affuturis,   but   does   not  say  Sanctis  diluere. 
how  he  takes  it. 

Hymn  97 

As  to  the  date  of  this  fine  old  hymn,  its  merely 
rhythmical  character  (note  the  repeated  lengthening  of 
short  syllables  in  i,  2,  3,  4,  6,  8  etc.)  and  the  incomplete 
rhymes  in  3  f.,  stanza  III  and  19  f.  forbid  us  to  place  it 
after  the  revival  of  learning  under  Charles  the  Great.  If 
we  say  Vlth  century  we  shall  not  be  far  from  the  truth. 
Lipp  says  IX-XIth  centuries,  Daniel  X-XIIIth  cen- 
turies. But  Daniel  postdates  many  hymns.  Its  general 
use  was  at  Mattins  during  Lent.  The  variety  of  readings, 
which  at  times  makes  it  hard  to  say  what  the  original 
text  was,  seems  to  be  due  partly  to  deliberate  editing, 
partly  to  the  difficulty  of  certain  of  its  stanzas. 

Esvxij/i  Fdghimnrs  Gm  Hd  Ibdeghmnv  Vcs 

lam,  Christe,  sol  iustitiae, 

mentis  dehiscant  tenebrae, 

2  recedant  Id  Vs. 

I.    sol  iustitiae]  Mai.  iv.  2.  tenebrae,  |  nunc  mentis  eat  caecitas,  | 

1  f.    The  variant  noctis  recedunt       uirtutum  et  lux  redeat  (coming,  as 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  XCVH        327 


uirtutum  ut  lux  redeat, 
terns  diem  cum  reparas. 

das  tempus  acceptabile, 
et  paenitens  cor  tribue, 
conuertat  ut  benignitas, 
quos  longa  suffert  pietas. 

quiddamque  paenitentiae 
da  ferre,  quamuis  grandium 
maiore  tui  munere 


10 


3  et  (pro  ut)  Fg  Hd  Id  Vs.        4  terras  Hd*.   dies  Hd  Vs.   dum  Ev  Fr. 
reparat  Ih.  2,  3,  4  de  lectione  Fm  Gm  uide  annot.  infra.  5  da  Gm 

Ibghv.  7,  8  uiJe  infra,  ad  2.  10  licet  {pro  quamuis)  Gm. 

1 1  maiorem  Hd-  Idh,  -ra  Fm,  -ri  Fn.     tuo  Ev  Gm  lb,  tuis  Hd^     munera 
Fm,  nomine  Ibg,  -nis  Ex. 


it  does,  in  two  MSS  written  probably 
at  Limoges  and  Moissac  respectively) 
seeins  to  point  to  a  local  use.  This 
is  so  likewise  with  the  variant  in  7  f. 
ne  nos  ttacuum  transeat  hoc  quod 
benigne  praerogas. 

dehiscant]  'part  asunder,'  cp. 
21.  5  scinditur  and  other  passages, 
where  the  darkness  is  regarded  as  a 
material  pall  drawn  over  things. 
The  Thesaurus  quotes  the  gloss 
StaxoLlvw  dehiscit,  aperit,patescitiix\A 
as  synonyms  oidehiscere  gives  scindi, 
disrumpi. 

4.  diem]  'the  natural  day,'  the 
hymn  being  written  for  an  early 
morning  hymn ;  terris  (plural)  means 
the  natural  earth. 

5f.  'Thou  givest  an  acceptable  time 
(i  Cor.  vi.  2),  grant  us  also  a  peni- 
tent heart.'  The  appropriation  of  the 
passage  in  2  Cor.  to  the  beginning 
of  Lent  was  universal  in  the  West 
from  very  ancient  times.  Leo  Serm. 
XXXIX  (/■«  Qttcuirag.)  opportune 
auribus  nostris  lectio  aposlolicae  prae- 
dicationis  insonuit  dicens,  ^  Ecce 
nunc  t.  cuceptum^  etc.    Cp.  Serm. 

XL. 

paenitens  and  paenitendus  are 
the  two  forms  of  pc^nitere  that  are 
used  by  classical  writers  personally, 


but  other  parts  of  the  verb  are  so 
used  in  late  Latin  :  see  Paul.  Nol. 
Carm.  VI.  263,  XX.  236,  Sedul.  Op. 
IV.  7  quae  cadeniibus  manum  dare 
non  paenitet ;  Fort.  Vit.  Mart.  il. 
195  si  nunc  pcuniteas;  Lofstedt 
Aeth.  p.  46.  paenitens  is  always 
used  as  an  adj. 

7f.  benignitas... pietas]  29.  39. 
Cp.  Rom.  ii.  4  f. 

9.  paenitentiae  seems  here  to 
indicate  the  outward  expression  of 
penitence,  i.e.  penance.  'Grant  us 
to  bear  (offer)  something  of  peni 
tential  hardship.'  Cicero  uses  quid- 
dam  malt,  like  quiddam  p.  here. 

10 f.  lit.  'that  there  may  be  a 
doing  away  of  our  sins  however 
great  by  Thy  gift  which  is  greater 
still.'  The  penitence  is  regarded  as 
a  gift  of  God,  as  in  Acts  xi.  18. 
[As  demptio  (a  rare  word)  is  used  in 
the  Old  Latin  for  an  'offering,' per- 
haps here  also  there  is  a  touch  of  sacri- 
ficial meaning  in  it.] 

tni]  =  tuo,  as  often  in  late  Latin  ; 
cp.  Sedul.  Hymn.  i.  93  passio, 
Christe,  tui  conpleuit  munera  Ugis  \ 
Fort.  I.  xiii.  ^pio  mercede  tui ;  vil. 
xviii.  14  dicta... tui.  See  Moxon's 
note  on  Vincent  Ler.  Comm.  2  p.  8. 


328  EARLY  LA  TIN  HYMNS 

quo  demptio  sit  criminum. 

dies  uenit,  dies  tua, 

per  quam  reflorent  omnia ; 

laetemur  in  hac  ut  tuae  15 

per  banc  reducti  gratiae. 

te  rerum  uniuersitas 

Clemens  adoret  Trinitas, 

et  nos  noui  per  ueniam 

nouum  canamus  canticum.  20 

12  quod  Esx  Fhmn  Gm  Hd  legv  Vcs.  emptio  Ex  Fm  Gm  Hd^  leg  Vcs. 
criminis  Ex.  13  ueni  Hd.  in  qua  Esvx  Ibghmv.  15  tui  Fmr  Hd^, 
tua  E^c  Gm  Hd'  Inv,  tuam  lb'.  16  redempti  Hd^.  gratia  Gm  Hd'  Iv, 
gratiam  Esx/*  Fm  Hd*  In.  19  at  Idehmn.     uos  In. 

12.    quo]   'in  order  that,'  as  in  this  day.'    There  is  a  contrast  be- 

96.  5.    Note  how  late  it  comes  in  tween  ?«  hac  send  per  hanc :  Lenten 

the  sentence.  penance  leads  to  Easter  joy. 

1 3  f.  '  The  day  is  coming,  Thy  ut  with  the  participle  gives  the 
day,  by  which  all  things  are  brought  reason,  as  utpote  at  29.  34 ;  Schmalz 
again    into    bloom.'     This    day   is  p.  458. 

Easter.   As  at  10.  i  there  is  a  refer-  1 7.    rerum  uniuersitas]  a  phrase 

ence  to  Ps.  cxvii.  (cxviii.)  24.  used  by  Cic.  de  Nat,  Dear.  i.  xliii. 

14.    For  the  underlying  thought  120,  who  also  has  uniuersitas  gene- 

of  this  line  cp.  36.  9-18,  of  which  ris  humani;    cp.  Tob.  viii.    19  ut 

passage  the  writer  may  be  thinking.  cognoscat  uniuersitas  gentium  quia 

reflorent]    Ps.    xxvii.   (xxviii.)    7  tu  es  Deus  solus  in  uniuersa  terra, 
rejioruit  caro  mea.  rg.     noui]    'made   new   through 

1 5  f.   In  the  Psalm  laetemur  in  ea,  pardon.' 
'let  us  be  glad   therein,  as  being  20.   Cp.  87.  24;  Rev.  xiv.  3  and 

brought  home  to  Thy  favour  through  often  in  Pss. 

Hymn  98 

The  metre  of  98  is  rugged.  Not  only  are  short  syllables 
made  long  throughout,  but  there  are  many  spondees  in 
the  2nd  foot,  and  a  spondee  or  trochee  is  found  as  often  as 
an  iambus  even  in  the  4th  foot  of  the  verse.  The  only  other 
hymn  which  does  this  to  any  extent  is  49.  The  two  may 
have  been  written  at  the  same  time.  The  ruggedness  of 
the  metre  has  caused  some  of  the  lines  to  be  rewritten  in 
later  MSS.  Thus  Lipp  with  the  Cistercian  breviary  writes 
2  f.  spes  una  tnundi perditi^  \  preces  intende  paiiperum  \  ad 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  XCVHI      329 

pedes  tuos  flentium.  \  nostra  nos  conscientia  \  culpis  accu- 
sal grauibus.   See  Mone  I.  p.  97. 

The  hymn  was  used  for  various  hours  in  different 
places. 

Eadghsvij/t  Fdhipr  Gm  HdghX  Ih  Mm 
Summi  largitor  praemii, 
spas  qui  es  unica  mundi, 
pieces  intende  seruorum 
ad  te  deuote  clamantum. 
nostra  te  conscientia  5 

graue  offendisse  se  monstrat, 
quam  emundes  supplicamus 
ab  omnibus  piaculis. 

si  rennuis,  quis  tribuet  ? 

indulge,  quia  potens  es  :  10 

si  corde  rogamus  mundo, 

certe  debes  ex  promisso. 

ergo  acceptare  nostrum 

qui  sacrasti  ieiunium, 

I  summe  Edghsvi/^u  Fdhp  Gm  Hdg.         4  clamantium  Hg.         5  se  Ea 
Fr.     -tiam  Mm.  6  se  off.  Hd.  7  qua  Ed.     emunda  Hg^  Ih. 

1 1  rogaris  Fhr  Hd  Mm.  1 1,  12  te  corde  rogare  mundo  fac  nos, 

precamur,  domine  Eaghs;x  Gm  (rogari  Ev).  13  accepta  rex  Ea, 

acceptato  Eh.         14  quod  Eh. 

I.   summi  is  preferred  io  summe  8.     piaculis]    'defilements,'    67. 

for  much  the  same  reasons  as  sunt-  5. 
mae  in  69.  i,  magnae  in  77.  r.  9.    For  the  spelling  rennuis  cp. 

largitor]  45.  i,  107.  18.  12.   u   note,   and   Stolz  Lot.   Gr. 

1.   spes]  87.  6.  p.  90. 

3.   intende  takes  an  ace.  as  at  10.   indulge]  '  pardon,' 66.  10. 

87.  7.  1 1  f.    The  variant  te  corde  rogare 

6.  The  line  graui  offdndissi  mon-  [rogari)  mundo  \  fac  nos,  precamur^ 
strdt  is  possible,  as  se  is  often  omitted  Domine  looks  like  a  softening  down 
when  it  is  the  subject  of  an  infinitive,  of  what  .seemed  too  bold  a  state- 
cp.  e.g.  36.  36.  But  both  grammar  ment.  The  statement  in  the  text  is 
and  metre  would  be  easier  if  we  read  the  converse  of  Ps.  Ixv.  18. 
offendisse  se.  se  might  well  fall  out  13.  acceptare]  Unless  we  are  to 
after  offendisse.  The  reading  of  lid  treat  this  as  an  unique  occurrence  of 
is  in  favour  of  it.  the  verb  as  a  dejxjnent,  we  must 

7.  '  Which  we  beseech  Thee  to  remove  the  stop  at  promisso,  and 
cleanse' :  cp.  Heb.  ix.  14,  x.  1.  take  ace.  with  debes. 


330 


EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 


quo  mystice  paschalia 
capiamus  sacramenta. 
summa  nobis  hoc  conferat 
in  Deitate  Trinitas, 
in  qua  gloriatur  unus 
per  cuncta  saecula  Deus. 


15 


16  sacramentum  Mm. 

15.  mystice]  evidently  intended 
to  bear  the  sense  of  rite.  sacr.  in- 
cludes all  the  sacred  ceremonies  of 
the  festival. 

19. •In  qua]  sc.  Trinitate. 

gloriatur  would  seem  to  be 
pass,  'is  glorified';  but  until  such 
an  employment  of  the  word  is  found 
elsewhere  it  is  safest  to  take  it  to 


18  et  adoranda  {pro  in  d.)  Ih. 

mean  that  God  rejoices  in  His  three- 
foldness.  In  the  following  passages 
a  passive  meaning  may  be  intended : 
Cypr.  Epist.  Lxvi.  2  qui  iudicio  ac 
testimonio  Dei  non  probantur  tan- 
lum  sed  gloriantur  ;  Ambr.  in  Luc. 
VI.  100  Christus  noluit  gloriari,  sed 
maluit  ignobilis  uideri.  See  Bayard 
p.  36. 


Hymn  99 

In  quadragesima  ad  tertiain  or  ad  tertia  was  the  un- 
broken use  of  this  hymn. 

Eacdhjlosvxj7/i<^  Fagimsz^  Gbm  Hbcdf/3  Icdefghmnopv  Vcs 

Dei  fide  qua  uiuimus, 

spe  perenni  qua  credimus, 

per  caritatis  gratiani 

Christo  canamus  gloriam. 

qui  ductus  hora  tertia  5 

ad  passionis  hostiam 

1  perenne  Fa^.    om.  qua  Eo  Fa^.       4  Christi  nonnulli.      6  hostia  H/3. 


I  f.  For  the  three  theological 
virtues  cp.  16.  ,2 1  f.,  47.  1 7  f. 

Dei  fide]  '  by  our  faith  in  God  ' ; 
for  the  gen.  cp.  116.  \^fida  Christi, 
and  Mark  xi.  22  habete fidem  Dei. 

qua  uiuimus]  Habak.  ii.  4,  quoted 
Rom.  i.  17,  Gal.  iii.  1 1,  Heb.  x.  38. 

2.  spe  perenni]  '  by  the  hope  of 
eternal  life,'  Tit.  i.  2  in  sfiem  uitae 
aelernae.  Or  shall  we  simply  cp. 
87.  6?  For  the  intimate  connexion 
of  faith  and  hope  cp.  Gal.  v.  5.    Cp. 


also  Rom.  iv.  18  qui  contra  spent  in 
spent  credidit. 

5.  Mk.  XV.  25. 

6.  '  to  the  sacrifice  of  His  passion.' 
For  the  gen.  passionis  cp.  42.  34 
criicem  mortis,  line  7  crucis  suspen- 
dia.  hostia,  like  our  word  'sacrifice,' 
denotes  both  '  the  victim  '  (11.  29, 
12.  5  etc.)  and  the  act  of  offering  it 
(63.  7).  Ronsch  p.  327  quotes  the 
similar  phrase  Tert.  Patient.  3  ad- 
ducitur  ut pecus  ad  uictimam. 


LATER  HYMNAL.  HYMN  C  331 

crucis  ferens  suspendia 

ouem  reduxit  perditam. 

precemur  ergo  subditi, 

redemptione  liberi,  lo 

ut  eruat  a  saeculo 

quos  soluit  a  chirographo. 

7  cruci  H/3.  9  precamur  El  Hd^  Vs,  precentur  11^.  n  quod 
Fi  le  Vs. 

7.   crucis... suspendia] 'enduring  is  the  Lamb, 

the  hanging  on  the  cross.'  9.   subditi]  85.  30. 

8  comes  from  32.  28.  An  old  12.  Cp.  60.  15.  The  doxology 
scribe  in  Durh.  B.  III.  32  wrote  to  this  and  the  four  next  hymns  is 
against  ouem .. .perditam  ^sc.  Adam.'  gloria  tibi,  Trinitas,  \  aequalis  una 
The  introduction  of  the  ouis  perdita  Deitas,  \  et  ante  omne  saeculum  \  et 
is  to  some  extent  prepared  for  by  nunc  et  in  perpetuum. 

the  hostia,  which  implies  that  Christ 

Hymn  ioo 

In  quadragesima{-mo)  ad  {sexto)  sextant  is  the  rubric 
of  the  hymn  in  the  MSS.  Sievers  in  his  edition  of  the 
Oxford  MS,  Bodley  Junius  25,  says  that  the  hymn  is 
contained  only  in  that  MS.  But  it  is  in  about  20  other 
MSS  of  the  Xth  and  Xlth  centuries,  while  99  and  lor 
are  contained  in  many  more. 

Ecdhjlov  Fais^  Gbm  Hbcd^  lop  Vs 

Meridie  orandum  est, 

Christusque  deprecandus  est, 

ut  iubeat  nos  edere 

de  sue  sancto  corpora : 
I  rorandum  H/S.  2  om.  que  Eo  Fa^  Gd  Hbc  lop.     qui  H^. 

4  sanguine  Ev. 

1.  meridie]  P.s.  liv.  (Iv.)  18.  fast   days,   when    communion   was 

2.  deprecandus]  See  note  on  deferred.  The  word  iubere  is  often 
19.  13,  and  observe  that  the  gerun-  used  in  late  Latin  in  the  weakened 
dive  is  passive  though  from  a  de-  sense  of  '  granting,'  '  permitting,'  as 
ponent  verb.  The  later  MSS  inserted  in  the  well-known  liturgical  formula 
-que  here  after  Christus  and  in  9  lube  domne  benedicere,  on  which  see 
after  det.  See  Huemer  Untersuch-  Maskell  Ancient  Liturgy  (3rd  ed.) 
tmgen  p.  37  f.  p.  64  f.,  and  Ducange  s.  v. /w/i^r^. 

Note  that  the  hymn  is  one  for  4-    de.corpore]  'of  His  body.' 


332  EARLY  LATIN  HYMNS 

ut  ille  sit  laudabilis  5 

in  uniuerso  populo, 
ipse  caelorum  Do  minus, 
qui  sedet  in  altissimis. 

detque  nobis  auxilium 

per  angelos  mirabiles,  lo 

qui  semper  nos  custodiant, 

in  omni  uita  saeculi. 

5  et  He.  6  uniuersis  -lis  aliquot  posteri ores.  7  qui  est  {pro  ipse) 

H/3,         9  om.  que  Eo  Fai^  Ip  Vs.  11  nos  semp.  He.         12  uitaeGb. 

saecula  Fa  Hd. 

Here   and   in   the   similar   passage  'some   of  the   sacred  wood.'    See 

I  Cox.  x\.  2%  sic  de pane  tllo  edatei  de  Lbfstedt   Aeth.   p.    106  f.,    Ronsch 

calice  bibat,  we  have  the  beginnings  p.  396,  Schmalz  p.  407. 

of  the  partitive  use  of  de,  whieh  is  5.   laudabilis]  '  praised.'    The  ut 

so    conspicuous    in    the